Organizational Behavior_CH13 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
type of negotiation: distributive
outcome:win-lose
motivation:individual gain
interests: opposed
What satisfies employees?
Pay PromotionSupervisorCoworkersWork itself
What are SMART goals?
SpecificMeasurableAttainableRelevantTime-based
Michigan studies
Employee-oriented vs. production-oriented
Process Theories
Adam's Equity Theory
Vroom's Expectancy Theory
Goal Setting Theory
Personalized power
Directed at helping oneself
Proxemics
Interpersonal and psychological space management - creation of space when uncomfortable (e.g., delivering bad news).
Employee leaves the company
Voluntary Turnover
Secondary Needs
Social and psychological neds
group structure
formal leadership, roles, norms, status, size, cohesion
satisficing
Selecting a solution that is satisfactory, or “good enough” rather than optimal or “the best.”
Script
a mental picture of an event
Punishment
Unwanted outcome follows an unwanted behavior
 
Ex. Employee views porn at work and is terminated
Feedback
Communicates how one feels about something another person had done or said
Job Performance
Employee behaviors that contribute either positively or negatively to the accomplishment of organizational goals.
positive life events
stressful nonwork events:marriage, pregnancy, ending school, etc
performance-prove orientation
focus on demonstrating their competence so that others think favorably of them
Stage in creative thinking which proceeds with logical analysis to confirm that good problem-solving decisions have been made
Certification
Occurs when parties disagree over substantive issues or when emotional antagonisms create friction between them
Conflict
artistic personality
enjoys entertaining and fascinating others using imaginations. tends to be original, independent, impulsive and creative
Equity Sensitivity
Recognition that employees have different preferences for over-reward, equity, or under-reward
nominal group technique
A structured team decision-making process whereby team members independently write down ideas, describe and clarify them to the group, and then independently rank or vote on them.
You graduated from college two years ago and began working at Hampstead Electronics. You have received good performance evaluations and a raise. You just found out that a recent college graduate with no experience has been hired at a higher salary than yo
a. equity
mental imagery
Mentally practicing a task and visualizing its successful completion.
Equity Sensitivity
an individual's tolerance for negative and positive equity
Superordinate goals
Common objectives held by conflicting parties that are more important than their conflicting departmental or individual goals
introvert
energy is drown from the environment and consolidated
-essential stimulation is from within
-focus is ont he inner world of thoughts & reflections
-have close relationships
-have deeper interests
-think best when alone
-may seem hard to get to know
Transactional Leadership
Focuses on clarifying employees' roles and providing rewards contingent on performance.
Induction
Make observations of behavior and then try to derive general explanations for behavior
Moonlighting
A form of psychological withdrawal in which employees use work time and resources to do nonwork-related activities.
Fragmented Cultures
An organizational culture type in which employees are distant and disconnected from one another.
cognitive dissonance
any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes
equity thoery
theory explaining how people develop perceptions of fairness in the distribution and exchange of resources
relationship between trust and job performance
moderate positive
is type A personality linked with coronary heart disease and other strains
yes
Projection Bias
people project their own thoughts, attitudes, and motives onto other people
Process of making joint decisions when the parties involved have different preferences
Negotiation
Exl of openness to experience
creative, curious, cultured
social personality
enjoys helping, serving or assisting others. tends to be helpful, inspiring,, informative and empathetic
Fundamental attribution bias
Tendency to attribute others' achievements to good luck or easy tasks and their failures to not trying hard enough or not having the necessary personal characteristics
self-directed work teams (SDWTs)
Cross-functional work groups organized around work processes, that complete an entire piece of work requiring several interdependent tasks, and that have substantial autonomy over the execution of those tasks.
Gerardo believes that every time he picks up a penny he is blessed with good fortune, since the last time he picked up a penny he had a lottery win, and the time before that he got a big bonus at work. Gerardo’s perception is likely a product of a(n) __
e. illusory correlation
halo effect
A perceptual error whereby our general impression of a person, usually based on one prominent characteristic, colors the perception of other characteristics of that person.
need Hierarchy Theory
Five basic needs - Physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self- actualization - influence behavior
alternative dispute resolution (ADR)
a third-party dispute resolution process that includes mediation, typically followed by arbitration
Leader-Member Relations
Extent that leader has the support, loyalty, and trust of the work group.
Effective Communication
When the intended meaning equals the perceived meaning
Interpersonal Citizenship Behavior
Going beyond normal job expectations to assists, support, and develop coworkers and colleagues.
Method of Authority
Knowing something because a respected official, agency, or source has said it is so.
Cohesion
A team state that occurs when members of the team develop strong emotional bonds to other members of the team and to the team itself.
job involvement
the degree to which a person identifies with a job, actively participates in it, and considers performance important to self-worth
affect
a broad range of feelings that people experience
bounded rationality
the notion that decision makers simply do not have the ability or resources to process all available information and alternatives to make an optimal decision
Self-determination
a sense of choice in the initiation and continuation of work tasks
Messages are expressed mainly by the spoken and written word
Low-context cultures
considerations for self efficacy
1) past accomplishments2) vicarious experiences3) verbal persuasion4) emotional cues
exchange tactic
used when the requestor offers a reward or resource to the target in return for performing a request
quantitative ability
refers to two types of number capabilities1) number facility (simple math operations)2) mathematical reasoning (ability to choose and apply formulas)
Role Conflict
Feeling that arises when others have different perceptions or expectations of a person's role
(4) Why do informal communication networks exist in organizations?
Book - pp. 306-308
key internal influences on ethical behavior
personal values, personality (excessive drive to concieve, high machiavellianism)
contingent work
Any job in which the individual does not have an explicit or implicit contract for long-term employment, or one in which the minimum hours of work can vary in a nonsystematic way.
Behavioral component
how one intends to act or behave toward someone or something
Adhocracy Culture
a culture that has an external focus and values flexibility.
thrust create
means adaptability, creativity, agility
ends innovation, growth, cutting-edge output.
Adaptive Task Performance
Thoughtful responses by an employee to unique or unusual task demands.
Progression Model
A model that predicts that the various withdrawal behaviors are positively correlated - that engaging in one type of withdrawal makes one more likely to engage in other types.
transactional theory of stress
explains how stressors are perceived and appraised, as well has how people respond to those perceptions and appraisals
problem focused behavioral coping strategies
1) working harder2) seeking assistance3) acquiring additional resources
Physiological Empowerment
an energy rooted in the belief that work tasks contribute to some larger purpose.
Designed to gather and analyze data on the functioning of a group and implement changes to increase its operating effectiveness
Team building
alternative dispute resolution
process by which two parties resolve conflicts through the use of a specially trained, neutral third party
What are the major arguments of the trait-based approach to leadership?
Basic arguments:
Why are flexible benefit plans consistent with expectancy theory’s thesis? a. they allow organizations to minimize costs associated with benefits b. they provides a suite of tangible rewards that can be offered as motivation c. organizational reward
c. organizational rewards should be linked to each individual employee’s goals
Forces for Change
Direct costs, saving face, fear of the unknown, breaking routines, incongruent systems, incongruent team dynamics
What is fixed interval reinforcement?
Every # of days/weeks/months rewarded (paycheck)
Models that view the manager as acting in a world of complete certainty
Classical decision theory
relational contracts
that are based on a broader set of open ended and subjective obligations
group processes - positive and negative synergy
positive = information sharing, task coordination, flexible & innovative behaviorslosses: groupthink, groupshift, social loafing
Assumption (Fielder's contingency Theory)
Leadership style does not change. if a mismatch occures between style and the situaton, change the situation.
How will Embeddeness in relational networks influence negotiation processes?
--Negotiators embedded in a dense network are less aggressive to each other
--Why?
Research studies conducted on the participation-performance relationship show that the use of participation _____. a. enhances job satisfaction b. increases motivation c. has only a modest influence on employee productivity d. greatly influences e
c. has only a modest influence on employee productivity
(5) What are three types of conflicts at workplace?
--Task conflict: conflict over task content and goals
--Process conflict: conflicts over procedures of getting work done
--Relational conflict: conflicts over personal relationships
a. How and why does dependence create power difference between individuals or organizations?
Peter Blau: power as dependency
(1) General propositions
--If A has control over something B wants, then we say that B
depends on A and thus A has power over B.
--B’s dependence on A depends on (a) how much B wants the
“something” and (b) whether there exists other alternative ways
for B to obtain the “something”.
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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