Diseases Flashcards

Terms Definitions
mal
abnormal
mono
single
macr
large
hepato
liver
uni
unicellular
a
without
electro
electric
tri
three
cerebro
brain
cardi/cardio/cardia
heart
circum
around
carcin
cancer
bio
life
arthro
joint
gram
record
bi
two
erytho
red
end/endo
inside
glyco
suger
ectomy
excission
di
twice
adip
fat
derm
skin
phlebo
A VEIN
cyt
a hollow cell
plasty
flat or reform
Loss of smell.
anosmia
Polyuria
means excessive urination
asis/asia ; osis/sis
state, condition
appendi
a part of the intesines
Inflammation of the tympanic membrane.
myringitis
Cystalgia
pain in the urinary bladder
presbycusis
The sensorineural hearing loss that occurs as a part of normal aging.
The sensorineural hearing loss which occurs as a part of normal aging.
presbycusis
The most common ear infection.
otitis media
rhinitis
The most frequent upper respiratory tract infection; it is characterized by edema and dilation of the nasal mucous membrane, nasal discharge, and nasal obstruction.
mastoiditis
Inflammation of the mastoid air cells.
schwannoma
An acoustic neurinoma; an enlarging, benign tumor usually within the internal auditory canal which arises from cells of the 8th cranial nerve.
Enuresis
is the involuntary discharge of urine
tonsil
a mass of tissue in the throat
Meniere disease
A disorder characterized by recurrent vertigo when lying down, sensory hearing loss, and tinnitus. It is associated with a dilation of the membranous labyrinth.
Inflammation or infection of the external canal or the auricle.
otitis externa
Hypospadias
in the male is a congenital abnormality in which the urethral opening is on the undersurface of the penis
Hydroureter
is the distention (stretching out) of the ureter with urine that can not flow because the ureter is blocked
Epispadias
in the male is a congenital abnoramlity in which the urethral opening is located on the dorsal
otosclerosis
A condition of a bony labyrinth in which there is spongy bone formation in front of and behind the stapes, resulting in conductive hearing loss.
otitis media
Inflammation of the middle ear marked by pain, fever, abnormal hearing or hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. This is the most common ear infection.
Vesicovaginal fissure
is an abnormal opening between the bladder and vagina
perforation - A hole made through a part or substance. A perforated tympanic membrane is a common
ear problem.
Cystocele
is a hernia of the bladder through the vaginal wall
hepatitis
virus
gangrene
bacteria
Athlete's Foot
FUNGUS
el enfisema
emphysema
Tyrosinemia
fumarylacetoacetase deficiency, accumulation of tyrosine succinylacetone
Pertussis Third stage
convalescent
alpha-mannosidosis
alpha-mannosidase deficiency, glycogen storage disease
yeast infection fungal ulcer
candida
What causes ALS?
Nobody knows.
osteoporosis
excessive bone resorption
aged and post-menopause 
Tyrosinemia Type II
tyrosine transaminase deficiency
Crigler-Najjar Syndrome
40. Congenital hyperbilirubinemia (unconjugated) 41. Glucuronyl transferase deficiency. Can progress to Kernicterus 42. Less severe form will respond to Phenobarbital therapy
Wilson's dz
copperliver, kidney, braindescemet's membrane of periph. cornea leading to kayser-fleischer ring
What insect causes mange?
Mange Mites
Gamma hemolytic
no lysis or reaction
Progeria
related to laminopathies, progeria is a disease involving rapid aging
cardiac arrhythmia
abnormal patterns of cardiac contractions
Waldenstrom’s macroglobinemia
165. Proliferation of IgM-producing lymphoid cells in men 50-70 yoa; PAS(+) Dutcher bodies
neisseria gonorrhea
lusterless cornea34 hour progression to ulceration, perforation, or panophthalmitis
S. aureus
Gastrointestinal Diseases makes enterotoxins A or D. It inflames the intestines and stimulates the vomiting center of the brain. It is a heat stable toxin that can enter the blood and travel back to the intestine.
PPD
Purified Protein Derivative - Inject bacterial particle for the Mantoux Tine Test
FTA-ABS
An indirect flourescent - antibody test used to detect used syphilis
sporadic
(of similar things or occurrences) appearing or happening at irregular intervals in time; occasional:
 
 
Tay-Sachs disease
Tay-Sachs occurs when gangliosides are permitted to accumulate in the brain due to a decrease in the amount or effectiveness of lysosomes in nervous tissue to break down β-hexosaminidase
Hemolytic anemia
G6PD deficiency, induced by certain oxidative drugs, fava beans, or infections,
Kawasaki Disease
91. Mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome in kids (acute necrotizing vasculitis of lips, oral mucosa)
chemical burns
copius irrigationmay result in: ant uveitis, ischemic necrosis of conj, corneal scrring and pannus, etc etc
Erysipelas
caused by hemolytic streptococci. It can readily spread through tissue since it makes the enzyme hyaluronidase. It can spread through the lymphatics and cause septicemia if left untreated.
Potential therapies for ALS?
Protecting/regenerating motor neurons using nerve growth factors, other more potent drugs, and stem cells may some day provide additional hope for patients.
TB diagnostic test
NAAT nucleic acid amplification test
hydrocephalus
an accumulation of serous fluid within the cranium, esp. in infancy, due to obstruction of the movement of cerebrospinal fluid, often causing great enlargement of the head; water on the brain.
 
 
 
Hemoglobin Kansas 
A point mutation in the hemoglobin molecule leads to anemia.  It is very rare (<10 cases known) and prevents cooperativity in the binding of heme molecules (causing the oxygen-binding curve to become more linear/decrease slope)
Hartnups disease
mutations in SLC6A19 gene, not in US
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
59. Deficiency of dystrophin protein . MD X-linked recessive
Nerve injury classification: Axonotmesis
injury results nerve degeneration distal to injuryEMG: acute (14-21 days) fibrillations and positive sharp waves, chronic less fibs and psharps+ tinel's sign100% recovery, 1mm/day or 3 cm (1 inch)/month
Treponema pallidum
Causes syphilis. Spiral shaped. STD so person to person contact
UREA breath test is for?
Positive for Helicopter Pylori
arrhythmias
any disturbance in the rhythm of the heartbeat.
aneurysm
bulge in the weakened wall of a blood vessel, usually an artery
Nerve injury classification: Neurapraxia
conduction block, no fiber injuryEMG: decreased motor units firing100% recovery, 6 weeks- tinel's sign
What can potentially cause/contribute to ALS?
Glutamate toxicity, oxidative stress, environmental factors, autoimmune response in which the body's defences turn against body tissue.
HIV diagnostic direct test
Western blot - 10 day window
Chronic Reiter's syndrome relapses = symptoms?
Lumbar/SIJ deformity, chronic plantar fasciitis, achilles tendonitis
lactose fermentation test purpose
to determine if coliforms are in water
What factors probably play a role in the development of the disorder
Environmental factors, and genetics.
What happens if PD is left untreated?
They may develop agoraphobia and become virtually housebound.
characteristics of HIV infection
AIDS t cell count > greater than 200/ cm3, person infected
encephalitis
virus
salmonella
bacteria
Ring Worm
FUNGUS
la faringitis
pharyngitis
Hypertension
high blood pressure
Treponema pallidum causes
syphilis
Morquio's
defieciency in galactose-6-sulfatase or B-galactosidase, accumulation of keratan sulfate
fungal ulcers
satellite lesionsimmune ring
Pertussis also called
whooping cough
spherocytosis
an auto-hemolytic anemia-  molecular defect in one or more of the proteins (spectrin, ankyrin) of the red blood cell cytoskeleton. This causes leaky sodium transport, and a decreased membrane to cell volume ratio- causing the sphere shape. They get trapped in the spleen which lysis them causing anemia.
la pulmonía/la neumonía (ambulatoria)
pneumonia (walking)
Brown-Sequard
24. Hemisection of cord (contralateral loss of pain & temp / ipsilateral loss of fine touch, UMN / ipsi loss of consc. Proprio)
alkaptonuria
missign enzyme: homogentisic acid oxidaseochronosis: pigmentation of cartilage and other connective tissuesocular ochronosis: patches or particles of pigment in sclera conj andlimbic corneasclerosis of cardiac valvesdegen. arthritis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Rod shaped.Disease:Turberculosis. Flu like symptoms that can progress to lung problems. Single leading cause of death by infection. Multi drug resistant.
seminal
having possibilities of future development.
Elliptocytosis
red blood cells are elliptical. Mutation in spectrin. Diminished levels of band 4.1 protein leads to anemia.
Autoimmune disorder
immune response mistakenly targets normal body cells and tissue
Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome
177. Thiamine deficiency in alcoholics; bilateral mamillary bodies (mediodorsal nucleua) (confusion, ataxia, ophthalmoplegia)
Lou Gehrig’s
102. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis degeneration of upper & lower motor neurons
filamentous fungal infection fungal ulcer
fusarium, aspergillus
Bacillus cereus
Gastrointestinal Diseasesmakes an enterotoxin which induces vomiting
Test for Meningitis
Spinal tap for CSF
Reye's Syndrome
this syndrome is associated with increased ICP and encepholopathy, also related to a history of viral infections, use of aspirin
 
 
Gaucher's Disease
a lack of glucocerebrocidase.  Fatty material can collect in the spleen, liver, kidneys, lungs, brain and bone marrow.
Von Gierke's
type I glycogen storage disease, glucose-6-phosphate
Jacksonian Seizures
87. Epileptic events originating in the primary motor cortex (area 4)
mgmt of marg corneal ulceration/melting
bandage SCL-bestocular lubricationcaution with steroidsr/o underlying dz
Escherichia coli aka traveler's diarrhea
Gastrointestinal DiseasesEnteroinvasive strains make K antigen from plasmids which allow it to attach and invade mucosal cells. Enterotoxigenic strains make enterotoxins carried on plasmids. The disease can cause severe dehydration. After recovery a person could become lactose intolerant and be left with irritable bowel syndrome. If it is present, it would suggest the water is contaminated with fecal material.
Listeria monocytogenes
Gram-positive bacilli that causes a potentially serious influenza-like illness
Shiga toxin
An exotoxin produced by Shigella dysenteriae & enterohemorhagic E. coli
down syndrome
a genetic disorder, associated with the presence of an extra chromosome 21, characterized by mild to severe mental retardation, weak muscle tone, a low nasal bridge, and epicanthic folds at the eyelids.
 
 
 
Ciliary defects
the following result from defects in cilia:  situs inversus (reversed organ placement), polycystic kidney disease, smoker's cough, immotile sperm, no cilliary movement in fallopean tubes
Cystic fibrosis
Genetic defect in the function of chloride channels present in the pancreatic secretory ducts, causes inspissations of pancreatic exocrine secretions. Treated with supplementation of pancreatic enzymes wiht meals
Erb-Duchenne Palsy
64. Trauma to superior trunk of brachial plexus Waiter’s Tip
Reiter's Syndrome: \"classic triad\"
arthritis (WB jts LE&gt;UE), conjunctivitis, urethritis
What's PTSD?
A form of stress resulting from extreme stressors, e.g. trauma, victim of assult, crime witness/experience. It can last a lifetime.
Shiga toxin causes
bloody diarrhea and poss. hemolytic uremic syndrome
hyperglycemia
an abnormally high level of glucose in the blood.
Von Gierke’s Disease
157. Type I Glycogenosis . Glycogen storage disease (G6Ptase deficiency) . Glycogen accumulaiton
Whooping Cough (Pertussis)
Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract DiseaseBordetella pertussis causes It only infects humans and makes an exotoxin and endotoxin. There are 3 stages of the disease : 1. catarrhal (dry cough) 2. paroxysmal with a complication of cyanosis if airway becomes blocked. Straining to draw in air gives \"whooping\" sound. 3. convalescent (mild cough). It is part of the DTP vaccine as a whole cell extract but recently the vaccine has been reformulated to include only certain proteins from the organism.
How does panic disorder usually start?
Out of the blue.
truncated
to shorten by cutting off a part; cut short:
Campylobacter jejuni and C. fetus
Gastrointestinal Diseasesseen often in undercooked chicken. Results in copious diarrhea
The Bile Solubility Test
Bile will selectively lyse colonies of Streptococcus pneumoniae while other strep are immune to bile's activity. When a bile salt such as desoxycholate is added directly to Streptococcus pneumoniae growing on an agar plate or in a broth culture the bacteria will lyse and the area become clear. Other alpha-hemolytic streptococci are resistant to (not lysed by) bile and will stay visible or turbid (cloudy).
What do high levels of norepinephrine do?
Strenghten the primitive emotional reactions of the amygdala, the fear center of the brain, while weakening the rational functions of the prefrontal cortex, which quietens the amygdala
What can an anti-glutamate drug do for ALS?
Moderately slow the disease. Additional drugs are now under study.
PTSD is associated with problems in which body system?
It is associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.
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