Osseous Tissue Flashcards

Bone marrow
Terms Definitions
osteoclasts
bone dissolving cells
osteoblasts
bone forming cells
PERIOSTEUM
outer fibrous layer (continous w/tendons),inner osteogenic layer (bone growth, healing of fractures),functions-isolates bone, route for blood vessels and nerves,participates in bone growth & repair
IRREGULAR BONES
no definite shape (vertebrae)
BONE ELONGATION
interstitial growth,growth of cartilage,growth from w/i,growth in lengtH
epiphysis
large ends of the bone
CALCIUM PHOSPHATE HOMEOSTASIS
1. hypocalcemia=blood calcium deficiency2. hypercalcemia=blood calcium excess
MATRIX (OF BONE)
organic matter=1/3 weight (collagen fibers can withstand bending, tension, twisting CANNOT WITHSTAND COMPRESSION).inorganic matter=2/3 weight, hydroxyapatite (crystallized calcium phosphate can withstand compression CANNOT WITHSTAND BENDING TWISTING)
MINERAL DEPOSITION
crystallization process in which ions are taken from the ion blood and deposited into bone tissue
DIAPHYSIS
long bone feature, shaft of bone, mostly compact bone
YELLOW BONE MARROW
found medullar cavity, mostly of adipose, no longer produces blood, under sever anemia it transform back to red bone marrow (thus increasing blood production)
APPOSITIONAL GROWTH
depostion of new tissue at surface, growth in width and thickness
FLAT BONES
Enclose or protect soft organs. have broad surfaces for muscle attachment (cranial,os coxae,ribs, sternum)
osteoprogenitor cells
bone stem cells, make osteoblasts to make new bone
medullary
cavity, the open space in the bone that contains the bone marrow, RBC, WBC, platelets
CIRCUMFERENTIAL LAMELLAE(structure of compact bone)
runs parallel to outersurface of bone
INTERSTITIAL LAMELLAE(structure of compact bone)
between osteons, remains of old osteons
osteocytes
mature bone cells
NUTRIENT FORAMINA
holes for blood vessels
ENDOSTEUM
lines internal surface of bone,contains osteogenic cells (give rise to other bone cells)
HEMOPOIETIC TISSUE
tissue that makes blood
trabeculae
the struts of spongy bone,
SHARPEY'S/PERFORATING FIBERS
continuation of outer fibrous layer,anchors periosteum,penetrates into bone matrix
CALCITROL
-form of vitamin D-promotes calcium ion resorption by kidneys (less calcium in urine)-necessary for bone depostion (w/o calcium & phosphate too low in blood)-raises blood concentration by increasing calcium, phosphate & magnesium by small intestines-increasing calcium &phosphate resporption from skeleton (calcitrol binds to osteoblasts, osteoblasts release chemical messenger to stem cells who then turn into osteoclasts, who then remove calcium & phosphate from bone)
CALCITONIN
-secreted by calcitonin cells of thyroid gland when calcium too high w/1 of 2 ways:1. osteoclast inhibition-liberates less calcium from skeleton=less calcium in blood2. osteblast simulation-increases osteoblast activity, move calcium in skeleton*important role in children (high o/c)*little role in adults (low o/c)
EPIPHYSEAL PLATE
made of hyaline cartilage,located between epiphysis & diaphysis, eventually become epiphyseal line (when bone)
MINERAL RESORPTION
dissolving bone & releasing minerals into blood
PARATHYROID HORMONE
secreted by parathyroid glands on posterior surface of thyroid glands, release PTH when blood calcium is low by 1 of 4 ways:1.PTH increase o/c activity=increase bone resorption2. PTH decreases o/b activity=decrease bone resorption3.PTH increases phosphate excretion by kidneys=decrease calcium phosphate formation4.PTH decrease calcium excretion by kidneys=increase calcium levels
ARTICULAR CARTILAGE
long bone feature,joint surface of ephiphysis, reduces friction
SUTURAL/WORMIAN BONES
bone between flat bones of skull
RED BONE MARROW
found in long bones (proximal epiphysis), skull, vertebrae, ribs, sternum,os coxae
2 FORMS OF BONE GROWTH
bone elongation, appostional growth
2 TYPES OF BONE DEVELOPMENT
intramembranous ossification (skull bones & clavicle)Endochondrol ossification (most bones)
ECTOPIC OSSIFICATION
out of plase osseous tissue, calculus, eyes, lungs, tendons
SHORT BONES
width is equal to length (wrist, ankle)
metaphysis
where the bone gets skinnier, deep to the center of the bone but touching the epiphysis
9 TYPES OF STRESS FRACTURES
Open=bone breaks & penetrates skinGreenstick=bone breaks 1/2way verticallyComminuted-shattered (several pieces)Linear-parallell to epiphysisTransverse-perpendicular to epiphysisOblique-at an angleSpiral-by twistingColles-at wristPott-at ankle
TRABECULAEstructure of spongy/cancellous bone
"little beams", similiar to walls of swiss cheese, can withstand stress from several directions
2 TYPES OF BONE BARROW
RED BONE MARROW, YELLOW BONE MARROW
CENTRAL CANAL, HAVERSIAN CANAL OR OSTEONIC CANAL (structure of compact bone)
canal in center of osteon, contains blood vessels & nerves
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