Parasitology 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Hypobiosis
Arrested developmentWinterEnvironmental factors
Trichomonas vaginalis
-Venereal
-vagina, urethra, prostate
-urethritis, inflammation, discharge
-Trophs in discharge
-Oral drugs, both partners
 
Treatment for Ancylostoma
Antihelmintics
Trypanosoma lewisi
-Host: Rat
-Vector: rat flea, Nosophyllus fasciatus
-Rats produce ablastin, an antibody that inhibits reproduction of trypomastigotes
 
Dermacentor variabilis
American Dog Tick
Keywords: Capillaria aerophilia(lung worm)
TracheaAsymptomaticTreatment?
Monocystis lumbrici
-Earthworm parasite
-Acephaline or cephaline
-Protomerite
-'head' end
-Deuteromerite
-'body' end
Monocystis lombrici
Naegleria fowleri
-Primary amebic meningioencephalitis
-Normally a soil ameba
-Flagellate in contaminated water
-Forced up nose into nasal passages, moves up cribriform plate to brain
Plasmodium ovale
-Mild tertian malaria
-Mainly in tropics
-<5% of human malaria
-More than one EE stage
 
name for malaria zygote?
ookinete
Common term for Cheyletiella
Walking dandruff
Treatment for Notoedres
2% lime sulfur
What are ticks attracted to?
CO2
Sarcocystis
Zoitocysts with bradyzoites ingested by carnivore when eating a herbivore. 
Parasitize many herbivores that serve as intermediate host. Carnivores are definitive host.
Humans can be definitive or intermediate
Not as pathogenic is T. gondii
Morphologically indistinguishable from Typanosoma brucei
Causes dourine in horses and donkeys 
No insect vector
Passed during coitus so that it is a venereal disease
Symptoms: Genital endema and depigmentation
Death due to body-wide paralysis
Trypanosoma equiperdum
Trypanosoma cruzi causes what?
Chagas disease
What causestexas cattle fever?
Babesia bigemina
where is entamoeba gingivalis located
mouth
Keywords: Toxocara canis(roundworm, dogs)
AscaridIn-utero transmissionVisceral larval migransResistant Egg
Treatment of Hypoderma in horses
careful removal
Keywords: Monezia spp.(tape worm, ruminants)
Grass gnatNon-pathogenic
Dientomoeba fragilis
Usually commensal of cecum
Considered commensal of human that feeds on bacteria
No flagellum, moved by pseudopodia 
Two nuclei-arrested telophase
NO CYSTS stage
Attached nuclei by spindle
Transmission: trophs destroyed by gastric jusices
Maybe passed in eggs of nematode pinworm, Enterobius vermicularis
what does malaria convert heme to?
hemozoin
sexual reproduction where zygote is completed, and will determine the definitive host
Gamatogony
What is myositis?
Paralysis of respiratory muscles.
What does Sarcoptes scabiei cause?
Sarcoptic mange.
Which organisms cause Visceral leishmaniasis
Leishmania donovani
Paratenic or transport host
Spreads parasites without development
Treatment for Haematobia in horses
clip/clean areafly repellant
Only flagellate of the human vagina
Trichomonas vaginalis
what is the resorvoir host of balantidium coli?
pigs
As Tachyzoites invade cells in response to immune system acting up Then divide slowly, this is called what?
cystic phase
What is the lone star tick?
• Boophilas enulatus
Where does sczygonogy of malaria occur?
in humans
What is the natural host of Dictyocaulus arnfeldi?
Donkey
What transmits leishmania?
Sand flies or Phelbotomus sp.
What is transmitted by fleas from animal to animal and to humans?
Plague
What is the only human ciliate?
Balantidium coli
Of the Trichomonas, which are pathogens?
T. vaginalis
Diseases carried by house fly
Typhoid, Cholera, Leprosy, Dysentery
Fly worry
Annoyance from wounds of biting flies or presence of non-biting flies
Biology of Leishmania
Sandfly vectorFound in animals from tropical climates
Genus Plasmodium
Four species affect humans- more human death and economic loss than any other parasite
Heteroxenous
Invertebrate/ definitive host is Anopheles spp. mosquito 
Hard to control
1 genus that causes malaria- plasmodium
In birds/ reptiles, invertebrate host
 
First division is meiotic, the mitotic for thousands of haploid  sporozoites
they burst and sporozoites migrate to salivary glands
Injected to verterbrate host while feeding 
 
Responsible for 50% of all human malaria
P. falciparum
What organisms have amastigotes?
Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania  
symptoms of texas cattle fever?
severe anemia,deathasymptomatic in youngins
What infects birds that is extremely pathogenic and causes mucosa of crop to slough off?
Capillaria contorta
What is the hart tick of cattle?
Boophilius annulatus
What is the nose bot of sheep?
Oestrus ovis.
What is the vector for T. cruzi?
kissing bug
What is the vector for Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense?
Glossina morsitans
Do the Trichomonas have a cyst phase?
NO CYST
Plague (Yersinia pestis) is spread by...
Rat fleas, Xenopsylla cherops
Preferred sites of ticks
head, neck, ears, caudal abdomen, toes
Lesions associated with Pelodera
Usually ventral- where skin contacts filthy bedding. Usually small animals but can infect cattle & humans
Carrier animals for lice
CattleAnimal always seems to have licePoor doers
Malaria- Cycle in Human Host
Mosquito releases sporozoites into blood as it feeds
Quickly invade internal organs, usually liver
Normally occur an hour after initial inoculation
in liver, become intracellular trophs-extraeythrocytic stage, no longer considered sporozoite, Troph feeding stage
divide asexually by schizogony, cell bursts releasing thousands of merozoites
Sometimes reenter liver cells 
Eventually, merozoites enter RBCs, so now erythocytic stage
Become feeding trophs in RBCs
large vacuoles cause ring stage
eventually divides becoming schizont
Cell bursts and merozoites released
Chills, fevers, fatigue
What is the family of Amoebae that we have studied?
Endamoebidae
What type of disease did you need duffy factor to get? (slaves were resistant to this disease)
Tertian Malaria
Malariaoccurs in the liver before the disease enters red blood cellsasymptomatic
pre erythritic schyzogony
What species does the lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus affect?
cattle and wild ruminants.
What is the bot flies of rodents, kittens and puppies?
Cuterbra sp.
What is the deer tick?
Ixodes dammini (also I. scapularis)
What can the toxin released by ticks cause?
Progressive paralysis
What are chigger mites?
Trombicula sp. Free-living in grass and soil.
What can Demodex cause that is a severe, life-threatening disease?
Red Mange.
What is the vector of Leishmania?
the sandflyLutzomyia (L. mexicana)Phlebotomus (L. tropica)
How can you tell the difference between the cysts of E. coli and E. histolytica?
E. histolytica-bluntE. coli-splintered
Fleas are intermediate hosts for what?
Tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum & Dipetalonema reconditum)
Live cycle of Culicoides
lay eggs in still wateractive in eveningwill enter barns
Life cycle of T. cruzi
Trypomastigotes picked up from host blood by feeding vector
Become epimastigotes in midgut and reproduces
10 days later they are infective trypomastigotes
Enter vertebrate host as bug feeds 
Usually they are phagocytized by monocytes
If they survive, within monocytes they become amastigotes and multiplying until monocysts burst
Trypomastigotes travel to other areas in the body repeating this scenario to form pseudocysts of amastigotes that will burst
Epimastigote in bug, with in 10 days they will become trypomastigote
What are some characteristics of Amoebae?
pseudopods
it's a diverse family because pseudopods may have evolved independently
3 forms of mesquito control?
• Insecticide (DDT) – harmless to humans but not produced?• Bed Nets – best when insecticide treated• Organic Phospates absorbed through skin
What does Elaeophoroa schneideri caused when the microfilaria is in the skin?
Causes intense itching, especially on top of the head and is called "Sorehead."
What is called the "red mite"?
Dermanyssus gallinae. Red from blood.
What is host specificity?
inclination towards a certain host or a group of hosts
what are the general forms of a protozoan?
trophozoite and cyst
Significance of mosquito infestation
Can cause anemia & death in young animalsBiting flyVector for heartworm & viral encephalitis
Predilection sites of ruminant lice
Vary by species, but in heavy infestation are all over the body
List two species from the genus Leishmania that use the genus Lutzomia as a vector 
L. braziliense and L. mexicana
what does an ookinete do?
develops into an oocyst and nucleus divides to form sporoblasto sporoblast bursts and releases sporozoites which move to the salivary gland where they are injected back into a human host
What causes milk spot liver?
Larval migration of Ascaris suum that causes inflammation and scarring.
What is Setaria cervi?
In cattle and sheep known as the "abdominal worm"
What are the fleas that attack dogs and cats?
Ctenocephalides canis and felis.
describe the trophozoite of Trichomonas vaginalis
larger than the other 3, undulating membrane down 1/3 of body...PROMINENT AXOSTYLE
Where is Chilomastix mesnili found?
gut flagellate found worldwide in 6% of the population
Problem w/ venomous insects & how to treat
Hypersensitivity to vemon from spiders, bees, scorpions etc.Use antihistamines and steroids
What is the vector for Plasmodium spp.?
the female Anopheles mosquito only when pregnant because needed for oviposition
Where are Bunostomum spp. found in?
Small intestine of sheep, goats and cattle.
What are the characteristics of arachnids?
1. No antennae2. No wings3. Adults have eight legs4. Feed on tissue fluid
how is dientamoeba fragilis infective?
in the eggs of the pinworm (Enterobius vermicularis) may cause diarrhea
Why is face fly control easy?
Only lays eggs in bovine feces- use pyrethrum ear tags or larvacide in feces
What stage of larvae of nematodes are infective?
Third stage larvae (aka third molt)
How do nonburrowing mites affect the host?
mites puncture skin to suck lymph; causes local inflammatory reaction. Produce anticoagulant- serum oozes out and forms crust on skin. Crusts cause hair or wool to fall out.
What is the typical life cycle of the amoeba and ciliates?
trophozoite (cecum and colon)-cyst (feces/ingested)-trophozoite(cecum and colon)
Life cycle of Brown Dog Tick
3 host tick, but can utilize dogs for all stages of the life cycle
What kind of life cycle do whipworms have?
Direct life cycle; eggs viable for several years; larvae develop within the egg shell.
Where does the horn fly remain?
On its host all the time. Only leaves to pass to another host or to lay eggs.
who does T. vaginalis affect more...men or women?
women 10-25%; way less in men but just may be harder to detect
How can you tell the trophozoite of E. nana?
large endosome looks like an eyeball's pupil
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