PATH Virology Quiz Flashcards

rabies vaccine
Terms Definitions
\n\nThe Future
collection of serum proteins
\n\nManagement of Animals that Bite Humans\n\n\n\n\n\n\n· \nDog/Cat/Ferret\nInflicting a Human Wound\n\n\n\n\n\n\no \nDomestic animal, no history of vaccination, and is clinically ill (signs suggestive of rabies)\n\n
\n\nIf Exposed / Bitten by a Rabid Animal\n\n· \nDomestic vaccinated dog/cat/ferret or livestock/horse\n\n
\n\no FeLV\nELISA test: positive\n\n\n\n\n\n\n§ What\nstage is this cat in
\n\no \nStrict isolation for 6\nmonths\n\n
\n\n· \nUnvaccinated livestock to be slaughtered for food consumption\n\no \nl Slaughter\nimmediately
\n\nú \nWild\nmammalian carnivores or bats that are not available or suitable for testing\nshould be regarded as …
rabid animals
\n\n· \nUnvaccinated dogs, cats,\nand ferrets exposed to a rabid animal should be …
euthanized immediately
\n\no \nPasteurization\ntemperatures will inactivate rabies virus; therefore, inadvertently drinking\npasteurized milk or eating thoroughly cooked animal products …
does not constitute a rabies exposure
Cells contain low concentrations ofinactive PKR· IFN induces dramatic increase of inactive PKR in cells· Viral infection – inactive to active PKR = inhibition of cellular protein synthesisOver-expression of PKR =Apoptosis
\n\no \nLocal sentinel cells
\n\no If\nthe owner has a 10-wk old kitten at home that tests positive for FeLV, what\nwould you advise the owner
\n\n§ \nWhat is the pathogenesis\nand time line for FeLV infection\n\n o \n3. Viral replication: \n\n
bone marrow, neutrophils, thrombocytes, intestinal crypt epithelium (7-21 d pi)
\n\n§ \nMost\ncommonly, immunofluorescence employs two sets of antibodies: a primary antibody\nis used against the … ; a subsequent, secondary\n(\"indirect\"), dye-coupled antibody is introduced that recognizes …
antigen of interest the primary antibody
\n\n· \nTissues and products from\na rabid animal should not be used for …
human or animal consumption
dendritic cells and macrophages – professional antigen presenting cells
\n\n§ \nDendritic Cells –
\n\n· \nRabies exposure:
introduction of rabies virus into bite wounds or open cuts in skin or onto mucous membranes
F cleavage required to activate for fusion in intra or extra-cellular milieu§ Not all cells secrete activating proteasesLimits replication to selected cell types
\n\no Temperature\nsensitivity of virion
localization of virus or disease to specific cells and/or tissues, which has an important influence on its disease signature
\n\n· Determinants\nof viral tissue tropism\n\nTropism \n\n\n
§ What is the pathogenesis and time line for FeLV infection o 4. Secondary viremia: \n\n\n§ \nDetectable by …\n\n\n\n\n
\n\n· \nAny stray or unwanted\ndog, cat, or ferret that bites a person may be …
euthanized immediately and the head submitted for rabies examination
\n\n· \nAll bats or wild\nmammalian carnivores … are considered rabid
NOT available or suitable for testing
\n\n· \nFeLV ELISA test\n\n\n\n\n\n\no \nResult interpretation\n\n§ \nA positive result indicates …
the presence of a specific antigen (presumed to be from the pathogen)ú Specificity: true negative (vs. false positive)
production of metabolic inhibitors –arrest of host translation· modification of cytoskeleton – disruption of actin filamentsdisruption of signal transduction pathways – death domain, kinase and phosphate-binding proteins
§ Viral Infection Often Induces Cell Death\n\n\nú \nIn the nucleus
\n\n· \nIf signs suggestive of\nrabies develop, the animal should be …
euthanized and the head shipped for testing
\n\nú \nRabies is transmitted\nonly when the virus is introduced into …
bite wounds, open cuts in skin, or onto mucous membranes from saliva or other potentially infectious material such as neural tissue
\n\n· \nRisk factors depend in\npart on the …
site(s) of exposure, amount of virus present, severity of wounds, and whether sufficient contaminated tissue has been excised
Core body temperature 37˚ C but URT ~ 33˚C§ Rhinoviruses grow best at 33˚C but poorly at 37˚CVirus tissue distribution restricted by inability to grow at 37˚C
\n\n§ Enteric\nviruses –
\n\n§ Variety\nof glycoproteins, glycolipids and glycoaminoglycans can serve as receptors\n\n§ Different\nviruses use different receptors\n\n§ Virus\nmay employ several alternative cellular molecules as receptors\n\n§ Virus\nen
\n\no Activation\nof viral attachment and fusion proteins by host proteases
\n\n· \nA\nhealthy dog, cat, or ferret that bites a person should be confined and observed\ndaily for … ; administration of rabies vaccine to the animal is … to avoid confusing signs of rabies with\npossible side effects of vaccine administratio
10 days not recommended during the observation period
\n\n· \nIFA (Hardy’s) test
\n\no \nn Specific for a\nvirus\n\no \nn Detection of\nanti-virus antibodies in a sample\n\n\n\n\n\n\no \nn Fluorescent-labeled\nanti-species antibody
\n\n· \nAny animal should be\nconsidered exposed to rabies virus by a bat or wild mammalian carnivore unless …
the bat or wild animal is tested as negative for rabies virus
Segmented genomeo Encodes own viral RNA pol (packaged in virion)o Separate mRNA for each genome segmento mRNAs capped but lack poly (A)Lysosomal proteases required for virion uncoating
Assembly\n\n\n· Ss\n(+) RNA with DNA intermediate
\n\n§ \nPreexposure Vaccination\nand Management
ú Within 28 days after initial vaccination, a peak rabies virus antibody titer is reached, and the animal can be considered immunized
\n\n§ Most\nviruses do not infect all cell types – restricted to specific cell types of\ncertain organs\n\nú Enterotropic\n– replicates in the gut\n\nú Neurotrophic\n– replicates in cells of the nervous system\n\nú Pantro
· Determinants of viral tissue tropismCellular receptors
\n\n· \nFeLV ELISA test
o Antigen-capture\n\no \nDoes not require\ninfectious virus
First principle – there is no goal but survival
o Virus evolution \n\n\n§ Sources\nof diversity are
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