Pathology skin Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Blister containg pus
Capillary hemangioma(small,bld.-filled capillaries lined w/ a single layer of endothelium)w/c manifest as a purple-red area on the face & neck
Port-wine stain
Large fluid-containing blister;0.5cm or more in diameter
Which bacteria cause erythrasma
Bacterial inflammation of sebaceous glands causing an over production of cells within hair follicle mostly at puberty beacuase of male hormones, most common on face and neck, no long term scarring. Antibiotics and diet can help relieve symptoms
uncontrolled growth of epithelial cells by viral infection, most non-cancerous. Most are benign- spread by scratching, or contaminated instruments. removed my scalpel and liquid nitrogen
Benign neoplasm closely resembling squamous cell carcinoma;regresses spontaneously w/o therapy
Antimelanocyte anitbodies assoc. w/ cell loss in discrete areas of skin
Which rheumatologic disease is associated with a diffuse red rash of trunk, periungual telangiectasis, proximal weakness, myositis on muscle biopsy, and elevated CPK and aldolase
Athlete's foot
fungal infection of stratum corneum-infects mostly feet
inability of melanocytes to synthesize melanin - skin-pink, hair-white, iris in eye pinkish, double recessive from both parents
Spongiosis with intraepithelial vesicle formation occurs in what disease?
Allergic contact dermatitis
In acute inflammatory dermatoses what cell population is not present, surprisingly?
Premalignant epidermal lesion caused by chronic excessive exposure to sunlight; charact. by rough,scaling,poorly demarcated plaques on the face,neck, upper trunk,or extremities
Actinic Keratosis
Separation of epidermal cells one from the other;cells appear to float w/in extracellular fluid
Yellowish papules or nodules composed of focal dermal collections of lipid-laden histiocytes occurring in the eyelids(most common),over tendons or joints;assoc. w/ hypercholesterolemia
Clinical variant of malignant melanoma w/ poorest prognosis;begins w/ vertical growth phase
Nodular melanoma
Large congenital nevi and dysplastic nevi may be precursor lesions for what type of cancer
Hypopigmented macules or ash-leaf spots on the trunk or lower extremities are associated with what disease
Tuberous sclerosis
Autoantibodies to the intercellular junction of epidermal cells are found in which disease
Pemphigus vulgaris
Dermatitis herpetiformis is associated with what condition
Gluten-sensitive enteropathy
Pemphigus vulgaris is associated with which antibody
Yellow-brown to black - pigmented skin, with nice, usually with very defined borders, concentrated melaocytes, mostly congenial, average:20 per individual, not usually malignant
Clinically, what is a spitz nevus often confused with?
In pemphigus folliaceous, what is rarely affected?
mucous membranes
Melanin synthetic defect involving the eyes,skin,& hair;predisposes to actinic keratosis,basal & squamous cell carcinoma,& malignant melanoma due to sensitivity to sunlight;autosomal recessive
Oculocutaneous Albinism-subclassified as:Tyrosinase-neg. albinism(failure of conversion of tyrosine to dihydroxyphenylalanine,DOPA)& Tyrosinase-positive albinism(unknown cause)
Benign neoplasm presenting as a firm nodule(sometimes w/ pigmented acanthosis);charact. by interwinning bundles of collagen & fibroblast;termed fibrous histiocytoma when histiocytes are prominent
Autoimmune disorder charact. by IgG autoantibodies directed against epidermal basement memb.;resembles pemphigus vulgaris but less severe; subepidermal bullae,w/ charact. inflammatory infiltrate of eosinophils in the surrounding dermis
Bullous Pemphigoid
Tumor arising from actinic keratosis
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
What chromosome is dysplastic nevus syndrome located on
Chromosome 1
What structures allow adjacent cells to communicate rapidly
Gap junctions
What term describes full-thickness epithelia atypia with an intact basement membrane in a cancer biopsy
Carcinoma in situ
What is the term for dilated, superficial blood vessels
How is albinism generally inherited
Autosomal recessive inheritance
Which connective tissue disorder is associated with hyperextensible fragile skin, loose joints, and a tendency toward easy bruising and bleeding
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
Skin infections are typically caused by what bacterium
S. aureus
What is the most common neurocutaneous disorder
What is the treatment for tinea capitis
What is the most common bacterial infection of the skin in children
Which drug causes red man syndrome usually during rapid IV infusion
Actinic keratosis lesions may transform into what type of skin cancer if left untreated
Squamous cell carcinoma
second degree burn
involves entire epidermis - some dermis damaged resulting in edema and pain, heal in 7-10 days only mild scarring, no damage to hair follicle, sweat glands, with infections-scarring will result, hair follicles and sweat glands can initiate new growth of skin

Basal cell carcinoma
arise in epidermis-stratum - mostly non-malignant - 75% of skin caners, shiny nodules - with Peary edges, most common in sunny regions of the world. Not usually malignant
Rubeola (common measles)
very contagious childhood illness that consist of red pustules that can itch, there is a vaccination, it can develop into viral pneumonia that can invade the brain, usually left untreated and the virus "dies"
For gauging the prognosis of a melanoma, at what depth above and below do we measure?
1.7 mm
Pigmented nevi occuring often in children;benign;charact. by spindle-shaped cells;can be confused w/ malignant melanoma
Spitz Nevus(juvenile melanoma)
What disorder has scaly, thickened plaques that develop in response to persistent rubbing of pruritic sites
Lichen simplex chronicus
Vitiligo is most commonly associated with what conditions
Thyroid disease
Pernicious anemia
Addison’s disease
Diabetes mellitus type 1
A 75 year old female heart patient visits her dermatologist because her skin has begun to turn a light blue color. She is embarrassed to go in public because children say she looks like a “smurf.” What medication did her cardiologist most likely give
What is the causative agent of anthrax
Bacillus anthracis
A 36 year old migrant worker from Mexico visits the physician because of small disfiguring nodules forming on his ears and hands. The patient also states that he is losing sensation in the affected areas. Diagnosis?
A 67 year old Caucasian woman visits her dermatologist because of small reddish papules/pustules predominantly on her cheeks, nose, chin, and forehead. She states that her face becomes worse if she uses hot water or is in warm weather. Diagnosis?
What is a vesicle
A raised, fluid-filled blister measuring <0.5cm in diameter
What type of carcinoma microscopically resembles metastatic small cell carcinoma from the lung or certain lymphomas
Merkel cell carcinoma
What are tan/brown plaques or papules that have a stuck on appearance and may be found anywhere on the body of adults, except the palms and soles
Seborrheic keratosis
What is the tuberous sclerosis triad
Mental retardation
Multiple angiofibromas
On which chromosome is the defect for Marfan syndrome
What skin cancer is microscopically characterized by nests of palisading cells
Basal cell carcinoma
What is lacking in the epidermis of albino patients
prediculosis (lice)
feed on dead surface skin - increase itching and irritation - mostly spread by sexual activity - frequently shampooing will eventually get rid of these special "lice"
What organism may have a possible role in seborrheic dermatitis?
Malassezia furfur
Acanthosis Nigricans in adults can be a sign of what?
underlying GI cancers
What is exocytosis?
Influx of inflammatory cells into the epidermis (spongiosis- intercellular edema of the epidermis)
Common skin tumor charact. by invasion of dermis by sheets & islands of neoplastic epidermal cells,often w/ keratin "pearls"
Squamous Cell Carcinoma-<5% metastasis
What do the autoantibodies in pemphigus vulgaris target
Desmocollins and desmogleins (transmembrane desmosomal glycoproteins)
Exposure to UV light causes what type of dimmers in the skin
Thymine-thymine dimmers
What is the easiest and quickest way to determine if a skin condition is fungal
KOH preparation
On what chromosome is NF type 1 found
Chromosome 17
What condition is associated with multiple neuromas on the eyelid, lips, distal tongue, and/or oral mucosa
MEN, Type 2b (III)
Which enzymes do malignant cells use to metastasize
Collagenases and hydrolases
An inner-city child is brought to the physician because of patches of hair loss. His mother states that he has had this problem for at least a month. The lesions are painless and have some scaling. Diagnosis?
Tinea capitis
What is the treatment for Rosacea
Avoid precipitating factors
Topical metronidazole
Sulfur lotions
Oral tetracyclines
What is the etiologic agent for mononucleosis
What are some risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma
Sun exposure
Ionizing radiation
Actinic keratosis
Industrial carcinogens
TB skin test, transplant rejection, and contact dermatitis are what type of hypersensitivity reaction
Delayed type hypersensitivity reaction, type IV
What are structures that join adjacent cells together and provide anchoring points for intermediate filaments
Desmosomes (macula adherens)
The scar that follows a deep second and third degree burn is composed of what
Hyalinized collagen
Atopic dermatitis is associated with what conditions
Asthma and allergic rhinitis
What types of cells compose the epidermal layer of the skin
Stratified squamous epithelium
Which kind of burn affects only the epidermis
First-degree burn
What's the pathogenesis of Mastocytosis and how do we use that information to treat the disease?
there are acquired activating point mutations in the c-KIT receptor tyrosine kinase leading to constitutive activation so we try to block that
In bullous pemphigoid, what is present along the DEJ?
there is basal vacuolization
Dome shaped nodule that is filled w/ soft gray white material;lined by stratified squamous epithelium & is filled w/ keratinous material;no assoc. w/ sebaceous glands
Epidermal Inclusion Cyst
What is the treatment for tinea pedis
Topical or oral antifungals
What is the treatment for herpes simplex type I
Oral and topical acyclovir
What are the most common causes of nonscarring alopecia
Telogen effluvium
Androgenic alopecia
Alopecia areata
Tinea capitis
Traumatic alopecia
What do you call the change of a cell to a less differentiated form
What is the function of Langerhans cells
Antigen-presenting cells; Main inducers of antibody response
What are the typical secondary syphilis skin manifestations
Cutaneous lesions that are maculopapular or erythematosquamous, lesions on palms and soles, warts (condylomata lata) on anogenital region, and alopecia
A 45 year old patient presents with intense hyperpigmentation, areas of epithelial desquamation, diarrhea, and confusion. What is the most likely deficient vitamin
Niacin (nicotinic acid)
What are the peak ages for melanoma
40-70 years of age
Which neoplasm is often described as a red papule, nodule, or plaque that may be hyperkeratotic or ulcerated on sun-exposed skin
Squamous cell carcinoma
What is the most common type of bacterial infection in burn victims
Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections
Fibroepithelial polyp has a rare association with Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome, which features what?
follicular lesions, kidney tumors, and pulmonary cysts
In which type of panniculitis is there vasculitis?
erythema induratum--> granulomatous inflammation and zones of caseous necrosis involving the fat lobbule/ necrotizing vasculitis
In the dermoepidermal junction, what do we see in Lichen planus?
we see band-like infiltrates of lymphocytes at the DEJ, pointed rete ridges due to chronic basal cell layer injury by lymphocytes, and colloid/civatte bodies (anucleate, necrotic basal cells) incorporated into the inflamed papillary dermis
Most common skin tumor involving sun exposed areas(head,neck,upper part of the face);presents as a pearly papule w/ overlying telangiectatic vessels;can be locally aggressive,ulcerate,& bleed; almost never metastasizes;cured by surgical resection
Basal Cell Carcinoma-charact. by clusters of darkly staining basaloid cells w/ a typical palisade arrangement of the nuclei of the cells @ the periphery of the tumor clusters
A 7 year old present with multiple hard, rough-surfaced papules on his fingers and elbows. Diagnosis?
Verruca vulagris (common wart)
What are the three layers of the skin
Epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous tissue
What is the most common cause of death in a Marfan patient
Ascending aortic dissection
In sezary syndrome, there are the features of Mycosis Fungoides plus what else?
blood involvement leading to diffuse erythema and scaling
What is the basis for epidermolysis bullosa?
there are inherited defects in structural proteins that stabilize desmosomes or hemidesmosomes
In a halo nevus, why is there lightening of the skin around the nevus?
Because the infiltrating lymphocytes respond not only against nevus cells but also against surrounding normal melanocytes
What are the cytologic features of Spitz nevus?
large, plump cells with pink-blue cytoplasm, spindle-shaped cells, pagetoid nefts and clefts around the nests
A mother brings her 5 year old son to the physician because she noted her son scratching a pinkish lesion on his neck. Upon examination, the physician notes a ring-shaped scaling plaque with central clearing and elevated borders. Diagnosis?
Tinea corporis (ringworms)
What is the typical primary syphilis skin manifestation
Painless indurated genital or lip ulcer (chancre)
What is the cause of death for a patient with Ehlers-Danlos disease
Arterial or intestinal rupture
Mycosis fungoides may be confused with psoriasis for what reason?
it presents as raised, scaling plaques just like psoriasis
What is the most common presentation of contact dermatitis
Hand eczema, most likely due to occupational exposure
A 22 year old man presents with a rash that first appeared on his palms and soles, and then spread to his face and trunk. Diagnosis?
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
In bullous pemphigoids, what is the condition of the bullae?
they are tense and do not rupture easily
What is the appearance of the vesicles in Pemphigus?
They are flaccid and accompanied by bullae and crust
A 59 year old male visits his family physician because of loss of appetite, weight loss, and fatigue. During the physical examination, the physician notes dark, rough-looking skin in the axilla region. What should the physician suspect
Internal cancer or an endocrine disorder
What is icthyosis due to and what does it mean when it is acquired in adulthood?
It is due to defective desquamation and can signify lymphocytic or visceral malignancies when acquired in adults
highly infectious staphylococcus infection with raised pink, puss filled lesions around mouth and nose in children - develop yellow crust then ruptures. Transmitted by direct contact and entering through breaks in skin
Small,palpable,elevated skin lesion less than 1cm in diameter
Sharply demarcated, silvery-white plaques on a patient’s elbows and knees are most likely what disorder
skin damaged by heat,chemical, electrical, radioactive. - destroys protective functions of skin, losses of h2o, plasma,proteins, no heat regulation, microbial invasion.
sebaceous material;. dead cells clogging sebaceous gland pore - commonly called "black heads" can become infected with bacteria develop into boil-like lesion.
Pigmented macule caused by melanocytic hyperplasia in the epidermis
Flat,nonpalpable lesion of a different color than the surrounding skin;less than 1 cm in diameter
Which drugs induce acne
Oral contraceptive pills
What causes fifth disease
Parvovirus B19
loss of hair. baldness from environmental, radiation, male pattern hereditary with testosterone
chronic condition of increased cell division in stratum basale resulting in raised red epidermal lesions covered by dry and silvery scales - caused by physchological trauma, infection, hormones,stress in susceptible individuals. Various drugs and treatment keeps it under control, but its never really cured.
Dyskeratosis, the abnormal premature keratinization below the stratum granulum, typically occurs as a result of what?
drug reactions
Contagious viral infxn. transmitted by direct contact affecting mostly children & adolescents;due to a DNA poxvirus;demonstrates umbilicated,dome-shaped papules
Molluscum Contagiosum
Acquired loss of melanocytes in discrete areas of skin that appear as depigmented white patches;no relationship to albinism;may be autoimmune in origin or assoc. other autoimmune dse.;may be caused by destruction of melanocytes by toxic intermediates of
Dried exudate from a vesicle,bulla,or pustule
Chronic infl. process charact. by erythematous papules & plaques w/ characteristic silver scaling;sharply demarcated lesions;often involves the extensor surface of elbows,knees,scalp, & sacral area;nonpruritic;epidermal proliferation w/ acanthosi
What condition has whitish-red nodules especially on digits and over joints, and is associated with uric acid accumulation
Which drugs cause erythema multiforme or “target” lesions
Oral contraceptives
What group is paravaccinia in
Double-stranded parapoxvirus
What structure connects cells to underlying extracellular matrix
What are some clinical manifestations of type I hypersensitivity reactions
Hives, small red pustules with liquid, caused by food, drinks, insect bites, resulting in an allergic reactions, very itchy, Usually treated with baths of oat grains and/or steroidal creams
lays eggs inside skin - intense itching and irritation, especially in public region, from sexual activity or infected bedding. washing with a special soap usually resolves this infections
Where are pilar/trichilemmal cysts typically find?
on the scalp
Accumulation of lymphocytes along the DEJ, intimate association with degenerating and necrotic keratinocytes is associated with with what disease?
erythema multiforme
Marker of visceral malignancy
Acanthosis Nigricans-thickened & hyperpigmented areas commonly found in flexural areas
Malignancy most common in fair-skinned persons w/c arises from melanocytes or nevus cells;often assoc. w/ excessive exposure to sunlight
Malignant Melanoma-clinical variants(Lentigo maligna melanoma,Superficial spreading melanoma,Nodular melanoma,Acral-lentiginous melanoma)
Similar to papule;larger than 1cm in diameter
Hemochromatosis has what manifestation in the skin
Hyperpigmented bronze skin
What do you call a symmetrical, hyperpigmented lesion of the forehead and cheeks that occurs in women who are on oral contraceptives or pregnant
Which autosomal recessive disease is characterized by defective DNA repair and photosensitivity
Xeroderma pigmentosa
Which term describes an increased number of cells
Hyperplasia (reversible)
What are common causes of erythema multiforme
Touch normal-appearing skin with a sliding motion and having the epidermis layer separated from the basal layer is what skin test
Nikolsky’s sign
What condition is described as having thin-walled vesicles or pustules that rupture to form golden-yellow crusts (honey crusts)
skin cancer
result of excessive sun exposure over time. common in southern California and Austria. Treatment of all skin cancers-cryosurgery, surgery, chemicals-aldera and FU creams, prevention with sunscreens that blocks both UVA and UVB radiation, stay out of sun particularly around noon.
first degree burn
destruction surface epithelium - mild pain, redness - edema - heals in about a week
*Malignant Melanoma
Arise from melanocytes - very faster metastasizing, 3% of all skin cancers. Diagnosis of moles with the following: A-Symmetry, B-border, c-color. d- dimensions. if metastasizing can be mostly fatal.
What sort of inflammatory cells do we predominantly see in pemphigus vulgaris?
Extremely pruritic vesicular lesions assoc. w/ celiac dse.
Dermatitis Herpetiformis-may respond to a gluten-free diet
A nonfamilial precursor of lentigo maligna melanoma;an irregular macular pigmented lesion on sun-exposed skin; charact. by atypical melanocytes at the epidermal-dermal junction
Lentigo Maligna(Hutchinson freckle)
Which antibodies are associated with scleroderma
Scl-70 (diffuse)
Anticentromere antibodies (localized)
What is the most sensitive stain that could be used to test for melanoma and is almost always positive
What organism is responsible for tinea versicolor
Malassezia furfur
What bacteria cause impetigo
Staph aureus or Strep pyogenes
What structures prevent diffusion across intracellular spaces
Zona occludens (tight junctions)
What is the causative agent of verruca vulgaris
What is the confirmatory test for tinea versicolor
KOH preparation
What is the most likely etiologic organism of tinea capitis
Trichophyton tonsurans
In histiocytosis X, proliferations of which cells is usually found in the epidermis
Langerhans cells (macrophages)
What skin condition is described as dark, rough-looking or velvety skin in the axilla or on the back of the neck
Acanthosis nigricans
chicken pox (herpes varicelia)
causing red, fluid filled molecules that become dry and crusty, somewhat contagious, not known how it spreads, can be found everywhere on the body, most common on face and chest of younger children, but can affect adolescents and adults
decubitus ulcer
bed sore - physical breakdown of skin with blood supply over bony prominences, heal buttocks common spots with compression of tissues with intense pressure, usually from bed mattresses, treatment with moving the patient
In Pemphigus IF, what is the pattern of the Ig deposition?
Net-like pattern
Describe the appearance of the seborrheic keratosis?
well-demarcated coinlike pigmented lesion containing dark keratin-filled surface plugs
Growth phase of Malignant Melanoma
1)Radial(inital phase)-growth in all directions(mostly lat. w/in the epidermis & papillary zone of the dermis);prominent lymphocytic response; no metastasis;common clinical cure 2)Vertical(later phase)-growth into the reticular dermis or beyond;prognosis varies w/ depth of lesion;lymphatic or hematogenous spread may occur
Abnormal proliferation of connective tissue of skin scars that results in large raised tumor-like lesions
Keloid-more common in African Americans
Pigmented nevi classified as a benign tumor or hamartoma derived from melanocytes w/c occur in clusters or nests;3 types-junctional(confined to epidermal-dermal junct.),compound(epidermal-dermal junct. & dermis), intradermal(w/ in the dermis, nonpigm
Nevocellular nevus(common mole)
A benign papilloma caused by certain strains of HPV(distinct from those assoc. w/ gynecologic neoplasms); charact. by vacuolated cells(koilcytes) in the granular cell layer of the epidermis
Verruca Vulgaris(common wart)
Pearly papules w/ superficial telangiectases
Basal Cell Carcinoma-almost never metastasizes
What are the multiple, light-brown, freckle-like lesions found in neurofibromatosis
Café au lait spots
What bacterium causes scarlet fever
S. pyogenes (group A β-hemolytic)
What is the most common type of melanoma in dark-skinned individuals
Acral-lentiginous melanoma
A 26 year old female from Texas complains of small hypopigmented spots on her upper back that usually disappear in the winter months. Diagnosis?
Tinea versicolor
What are risk factors for melanoma
Chronic sun exposure
Fair skin
Dysplastic nevi
A 16 year old presents with multiple dome-shaped, umbilicated, waxy papules on the face and chest. What is the most likely diagnosis
Molluscum contagiosum
Which disease is associated with a rash on the face, particularly the malar areas
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Contact dermatitis is what type of hypersensitivity reaction
Type IV-delayed hypersensitivity
What is the apperance of the lesion in erythema multiforme?
targetoid (target-like)
In acute eczematous dermatitis, what do the lesions look like?
red, papulovesicular, oozing, crusted lesions
What's the genetic basis of oculocutaneous albinism, and what are associating presentations?
AR, skin malignancies risk increased
What is used to test for typhus and Rocky mountain spotted fever
Weil-Felix reaction
An 8-month old presents with large, easily ruptured flaccid bullae, with large areas of desquamation of skin and a positive Nikolsky’s sign. What is the most likely diagnosis
Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome
What is a macule
Flat, discolored area of skin &lt;1cm in diameter
A 35 year old patient with AIDS presents with multiple brownish/purplish macules on the trunk and lower extremities. What is the most likely diagnosis
Kaposi’s sarcoma (HHV8)
What are some skin manifestations of kwashiorkor
Dry skin
Patches of hypopigmentation
Skin peeling
Peripheral edema
Thin hair shafts
A 3 year old male presents to the physician with a photosensitive rash, cerebellar ataxia, mental disturbances, and aminoaciduria. Niacin levels are within normal range. What is the most likely diagnosis
Hartnup disease
What does disseminated disease of coccidioidomycosis manifest as on the skin
Verrucous plaques (usually on face)
Subcutaneous abscesses
Pustular lesions
Single or multiple bright red papules measuring a few millimeters in diameter that occur predominantly on the trunks and limbs of patients over 40 years are what type of lesions
Senile angiomas (cherry angiomas)
shingles - (herpes zoster)
lesion on trunk or face - increase main - live on spinal sensory nerves of thorax, usually in later years above 50. maybe a re-infection of chicken pox virus. there is a vaccination for this.
In the dystrophica type of EB, where are the genetic defects?
 In type VII collagen
In autosomal dominant dysplastic nevus syndrome, what are the two common mutations found?
mutated genes in CDKN2A and CDK4
In dermatitis herpetiformis, what do the IgA autoantibodies bind to?
fibrils that anchor hemidesmosomes to dermis
What is an epithelial cyst typically filled with?
keratin and lipid-containing debris from sebaceous secretions
A localized form of mastocytosis is known as what? how does it present?
urticaria pigmentosa/ lesions are round to oval, red-brown, nonscaling papules and small plaques
In mycosis fungoides, what clusters are located in the epidermis?
T-helper cell aggregate bands called Pautrier microabscesses
In sebaceous adenoma, what two cell populations are increased? What syndrome is sebaceous adenoma commonly linked to?
both sebocytesa and increased peripheral basaloid cells are prominent/ commonly linked to Muir-Torre sydrome, which also features HNPCC
What are some histologic features of dermatofibroma?
overlying epidermal hyperplasia and entrapped collagen bundles
What is unique about the melanocytes' cytostructure?
They have perfectly round nuclei
A 12 year old male visits his physician because of a slap-like red mark on his cheek and a rash on his arms that appeared 1 day after the cheek rash. Upon physical examination, the physician notes malar erythema and a maculopapular rash on his extremities
Fifth diseas (erythema infectiosum)
What is the term for a lesion that is a precursor or marker to melanoma
Dysplastic nevus
A mother brings her 7 year old son to the physician because of two small masses on his right chest. The mother states that the child is adopted and does not know the child’s family history. A 4 and 3 cm mass is palpated on his right pectoral, small tan
Neurofibromatosis 1
What is the most common type of skin cancer
Basal cell carcinoma
What are two variants of Erythema multiforme that can be damaging?
Stevens Johnson Syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis
What is known about the histologic features of seborrheic dermatitis?
they share features with both spongiotic dermatitis and psoriasis
In porphyria, what are the primary alterations detected by light microscopy?
there is subepidermal blistering and marked thickening of the walls of superficial blood vessels
In urticaria, what's happening to the dermis?
there is edema formation with scattered eosinophils/neutrophils and dilated vascular spaces
In nevoid BCC syndrome, what happens as a result of the PTCH gene defect
causes uninhibited  activation of SMO leading to BCC
What is the most common cause of burns in adults
Accidents with flammable liquids
What do the autoantibodies in bullous pemphigoid target
BP1 and BP2 in basement membrane
What is the general apperance of the lesion in a superficial fungal infection?
annular lesion with central clearing and fine peripheral scale
What causes DEJ separation in bullous pemphigoids?
When there is antibody binding to BPAG2 in the lamina lucida of the basement membrane, that activates complements and there is recruitment of eosinophil peroxidase and neutrophilic proteases.
Which test is designed to ascertain whether a skin lesion will blanch as a result of pressure
Diascopy. Used to determine whether a red lesion is blood-filled or hemorrhagic
In dysplastic nevi, what is characteristic of the nevus cell nests?
They may be enlarged and oftne fuse or coalesce with adjacent nests/ begin to replace the normal basal cell layer along the dermoepidermal junction
What does IF of lupus reveal?
granular band of IgG and C3 at the DEJ
In Sturge Weber syndrome, whom do we typically target for suspicion?
child with a large facial port-wine stain, seizures, and mental deficiency (stain a form of vascular ectasia)
What happens to the stratum corneum in Ichthyosis?
it loses its basket weaving pattner- just parallel strips
What are the signs and symptoms of hand-foot-and-mouth disease
Fever and malaise with small oval vesicles along creases of palms, soles, and lips
How do you measure the Breslow Depth of Invasion?
from the granular cell layer to the base of the tumor
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