Pathology-midterm Flashcards

Terms Definitions
mech injuryies
fractures of bone
bronchial washings
epulis fissuratum
Immune System Hypersensitivity
name of disease
Features:*Cell shrinkage*Chromatin condensation (pyknosis)*Membrane blebbing*DNA fragmentation (karyorrhexis)*Nuclear fragmentation (karyolysis)
Mesenchyme cancer
-oma, or -sarcoma
Patent ductus arteriosus
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•Disordered hyperplasia without maturation •Preneoplastic •Examples: –Uterine cervix –Bowel in IBD –Esophagus with Barrett's
Is Bronchiectasis reversible?
No, irreversible.
Enzymatic digestion causing*Protein denaturation*Release of intracellular contents
Fibrinous pericarditis characterized by shaggy fibrin exudate, in this case caused by end-stage renal disease (uremia)
Abnormal condition associated with preganancy, marked by high blood pressure, proteinuria (loss of protein in urine) and edema.
P. 234
thermally dimorphic species
blastomyces and histoplasma
Clear, protein poor, relatively acellular liquid - seen in renal and heart failure (low protein; spec. gravity < 1.02)
Excessive collagen deposition forms?
a Keloid
disorderly, but non-neoplastic growth of cells
PROSTATIC ADENOCARCINOMA: what are useful tumor markers for prostate CA
Malignancies associated w/cirrhosis (Alcoholic, Hep B or C)
Hepatocellular carcinoma
Eosinophilic Inflammation
-Characterized by eosinophils
-Found in inflammatory sites around parasitic infections or as part of immune reaction mediated by IgE in allergies
Chronic atrophic gastritis, pernicious anemia, postsurgical gastric remnants
Gastric adenocarcinoma
def. avulsion
form of laceration
force impacting body is at an oblique or tangential angle to the skin, ripping the skin and soft tissue off the underlyin fascia or bone
Requirments for repair
1. Immobilization /alignment
2. Sterility
3. Good nuturition
4. Adequate blood supply
5. Contact inhibition
6. Growth stimulation chemical
7. Favorable location
163. TB in the lymph nodes
composed of a modified host protein(PrPSc);lack RNA and DNA
List the sequence of microscopic events that occur in acute and chronic inflammation.
Contact dermatits, sarcoidosis and TB are Type __ reactions.
esophagitis presentation
- Dysphagia, pain, dyspepsia- Bleeding, stricture, Barrett’s esophagus
A connective tissue disease commonly characterized by cartilage destruction and new bone formation at the edges of joints (spurs)
a gene that contributes to uncontrolled cell growth is
benign epithelial neoplasms on an epithelial surface
emotional lability, slurred speech, ataxia, coma, blackouts, elevated GGT
alcohol intoxication
X-linked or AR:: Duchenne's muscular dystrophy
Abnormal proliferation of cells w/loss of size, shape and orientation
most common epithelial metaplasia
columnar to squamous
Hemolytic anemia
erythroid hyperplasia in marrow, reticulocytosis, polychromatophilia,
Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome
Hemorrhagic destruction of adrenal cortex, acute hypocorticism with circ. collapse, and DIC). May complicate meningococcemia.
Interstitial Nephritis
Inflammation of the renal interstitium (connective tissue that lies between the renal tubules.)
Effects/complication of gunshout wounds
hemorrhage (hematoma, tamponade, exsanguination), infection, shock
these lead to nephrosis
High velocity missles can induce shock waves that cause viscera to rupture
Bullous pemphigoid: pathogenesis
autoAb's against components of basement membrane BP180 (30-50%), BP230 (97%)
major components of hemidesmosomes
leads to in situ deposition of IgG, C3 on BM
allows for linear immunofluorescent pattern
Turner's syndrome is the most common cause of primary ------------
Duodenum, just below Common Bile Duct -> Splenic flexure of the Colon supplied by Superior Mesenteric artery
what structures bind bacteria to host cells
What are the clinical features of lyphangitis and lymphadenopathy?
Rheumatic fever can result in ______ (Inflammation of the entire heart) and may be present w/ endocarditis, myocarditis, & pericarditis
Essential thrombocytopeniaepidemiology
2/100K 50swomen can presnt mid 30sindolent
What causes chronic inflammation
Persistent infections, prolonged exposure to potentially toxic agents (either exogenous or endogenous), or through autoimmunity.
the single most important cause in delay in healing is
the invasion and feeding on living tissues of humans or animals by dipterous (fly) larvae.
what: reactive systemic, fibrils consist of amyloid protein = AApresent: parenchymatous organs: kidney (nephrotic syndrome common), liver, adrenals, pancreas, lymph nodes, spleenusually a complication of: chonic inflamm dx (RA, TB, oseomyelitis, syp
senile amyloidosis
Coarctation of aorta: What is the Male-to-Female ratio in coarctation?
Secondary (AA)*AA = Acute phase reactant*From serum amyloid-associated protein (SAA)*Seen w/chronic inflammatory disease
Calcitonin amyloidosis
Transfusion reactions, hemolytic reactions to drugs, neonatal isoerythrolysis and some autoimmune diseases like AIHA, IMTP and Pemphigus
ANtibody-mediated type II hypersensitivity reactions
types of point mutations
silent substitution: no consequence
within coding sequences: single base substitution, when alter the gene product they are caled missense mutation
within non coding sequences: reduction or lack of transcription where the gene product is not synthesized
overgrowth of attached gingiva in response to certain long-term systemic medications
hyperplastic gingivitis
Transmitted to cannibals in New Guinea (in the past). Morphological features of loss of neurons, gliosis, striking spongiosis in the cerebrum, cerebellum, and spinal cord.
Thrombi type most likely to cause infarct
arterial thrombi
reproductive problems in those exposed in utero
includes clear cell carcinoma of vagina
What enzyme indicates liver disease?
(AST) Aspartate aminotransferase(ALT) Alanine aminotransferase
Open tract between the esophagus and the trachea, usually found in newborns and radiation therapy patients.
Tracheosophageal Fistula
Retinopathy of Prematurity
283. Retrolental Fibroplasia = cause of bindness in premies due to high O2 concentrations
papanicolaou smear
neoplastic cells shed into fluids and secretions; fluids are smeared and evaluated
when a person has lupus, they are sensitive to ____
4 Mediators causing increased vascular permeability. (prostaglandins, histamine, bradykinin, platlet activating factor, interleukins, leukotrines)
histamine, bradykinin, platlet activating factor, leukotrines
GI congenital duplications
small/large bowel, present with mass, pain (obstruction, intussusception, perforation).
pleural effusion
Any abnormal or excessive amounts of fluid in the pleura cavity
substituting the amino acid valine for glutamate at the 6th position of the ______ in the hemoglobin molecule is what causes ______
sickle-cell anemia
This term refers to the growth of fibrous or connective tissue. description for gross morphologic appearance of neoplasm. Means BAND OR LIGAMENT
foreign body giant cell
scattered nuclei (vs horseshoe shaped)
Neural Tube Defects (NTD): What is the NTD that involves herniation of meninges AND spinal cord through spinal canal defect?
antibodies to RBC antigens generated by host immune system
autoimmune hemolytic anemia
what is female pseudohermaphroditism
internal ovaries and external genitalia is ambiguous or virilized
An SCC that is a soft ulcer
non-indurated ulcer
Neoplasm derived from all 3 germ cell layers. (usually arises in the ovaries or testes)
What is Hutchinson-Guilford syndrome?
Severe form of progeria characterized by a mutation in the LMNA gene that codes for a protein called lamin A. The abnormal protein, termed progerin, accumulates within cell nuclei and disrupts nuclear structure and function.
signs and histopathology of heat stroke
necrosis of cardiac, skel muscle

dry skin
peripheral vasodilation
tumor suppressor genes: TGF beta receptor- subcellular location, function, tumors associated with somatic mutation, tumors associated with inherited mutations
location- cell surface
function- growth inhibition
tumor associated with somatic mutation- carcinomas of stomach
tumor associated with inherited mutation- NONE
Genetic Factors in Disease
1. Mutant Gene Disorder
2. Whole Chromosome Disorders
3. Multifacotorial Disorders
What is lithotripsy?
using energy waves to break down stones
top 3 cancers for women
breast(31%), lung and colon(12% each)
The 2nd most common inherited cause of mental retardation (after Down's syndrome), Expansion of CGC trinucleotide repeat.
Fragile X syndrome
AML: acute promyelocytic leukemia histological appearance/lab diagnosis
dysplastic promyleocytes w/ coarse granules, some have bilobed nuclei, some have Auer rodsHigh RAR&PML [RA]
List the cytokines involved in acute, chronic, and granulomatous inflammation.
Acute-TNF, IL-1, IL-6.
Chronic-IFN-gamma, TNF, IL-1.
Granulomatous-IL-2, IFN-gamma.
a hematoma is
an accumulation of blood within a tissue
What is choriocarcinoma ?
A malignant and aggressive cancer, usually of the placenta. It is characterized by early hematogenous spread to the lungs. It belongs to the far end of the spectrum of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), a subset of germ cell tumor
Blood Dyscrasias-Sickle Cell Anemia: What are the common complications of HbS homozygotes?
"aplastic crises from parvovirus infection
important cytolytic viruses
BVDV, CPV-2, Hog Cholera and Feline panleukopenia virus (parvo virus)
what is alkaptonuria
it is an autosomal recessive disease where you lack homogentisic oxidase therefore blocks metabolism of phe, tyr at the level of homogentisic acid which binds to collage in connective tissue
what is a manifestation of disease by the patient
subjective symptoms
describe the neoplasm
lipoma - benign neoplasm arising from adipocytes
Most common cancer in childhood
Leukemia. Then brain tumors.
Polycystic aromatic HC (ex and source)
source- byproduct of fuel combustion
example- benzopyrene
What loose enzyme in the serum marks pancreatitis?
amylase and lipase
Which NTD is usually seen at lower vertebral levels?
Spina bifida occulta
pellagra results in :
reddening and scaling of exposed skin, vomiting, diarrhea,and nervous and mental disorders ranging from chronic depression to violent irrational behavior
T cell mycosis fungoides and sezary syndrome clinical presentation
indolenterythematous, pruritic skin lesions in sun protected areas (patch -> plaque -> tumor)erythroderma; circulating tumor cells, generalized lymphadenopathy
What is repair
a process that restores tissue to its original state; it contains the damage, eliminates the damaging stimulus, removes injured tissue, and initiates the deposition of ECM components in the area of injury. It begins as early as 24 hours after injury (if resolution has not occurred)-fibroblasts and endothelial cells begin proliferating forming granulation tissue
Where is a berry aneurysm found?
in the circle of willis
extrinsic apoptotic pathway:
FAS ligand binds FAS-R on surface --> initiating caspases tirggered (8 & 9) --> terminal caspases (3 & 6) do the deed
Hodgkin's: Which HL type has the best prognosis?
"Nodular sclerosing (65-75%)
C X C Chemokines(AKA and Action)
-Secreted by macrophages, endothelial cells
-Causes activation of PMN's
-Induced by TNF and IL-1
what is a wound called caused by a flying object such as a stone, arrow, and bullet
missle wound
6 paraneoplastic syndromes of endocrinopathy
Cushing (ACTH) secreted from (oat cell) small cell carcinoma of the lung, inappropriate ADH secretion (many types, but mostly small cell carc. of the lung), hypercalcemia, hypoglycemia (from insulin-like substances of hepatocellular carcinomas, mesothelio
role of gene activation: apoptosis vs. necrosis
apoptosis- gene activation (BCL-2, c-myc, p53)
necrosis- no gene activation
What is the most common risk factor of bacterial keratitis?
contact lense wear
1-Define Hyperplasia2- What happens to the organ in hyperplasia3- Hyperplasia can only occur in what tissues-Is Hyperplasia Physiologic or Pathologic?
-Increase the # of cells-Increases in Volume -Tissues that are capable of cell division-Both
Mixed cellularity Hodgkins epidemiology
2nd most common HL; young men; 75% EBV infections
How does hydroxyproline work in holding together of alpha chains?
Proline hydroxylation needs vitamin C, procollagen is then released outside the fibroblast
why is retinoblastoma more prevalent for those that are heterozygous for the mutated gene versus those that are homozygous for the non-mutated gene, even though the non-mutated gene is autosomal dominant?
retinoblastoma requires both Rb genes to be mutated. In heterozygotes, only one Rb gene must be damaged to activate the oncogene, whereas in homozygotes with the non-mutated gene would require two mutations. The latter has a much lower probablility
NHL: Which one has a distribution of 80% adults and 20% children?
"Diffuse large cell lymphoma
Morphological patterns of acute inflammation
1. Serous: thin plasma derived fluid (effusion)
2. Fibrinous: fluid and larger molecules accumulate and fibrin is formed
3.Suppurative or purulent/abscess: formation of pus (neutrophils and liquefactive necrosis) as well as edema fluid.
4.Ulcers: Loss of the epithelial surface with inflammation and necrosis of surrounding and underlying tissues
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Used for MS diagonsis. Includes nystagmus, intention tremor, and scanning speech.
Describe anti tumor host defenses
in presence of antigen, CD8 T cells activated (MAJOR)

other mechanisms:
NK cells
Ab's (complement, ADCC)
What is the most common form of male pseudohermaphroditism?
Testicular feminization (androgen insensitivity), which results from a mutation in the androgen receptor gene (x-linked); blind-end vagina
What is lymphatic obstruction, and how does it cause edema
Usually localized, can result from inflammatory or neoplastic obstruction. Filariasis often causes massive lymphatic and lymph node fibrosis in the inguinal region resulting in extreme edema in the genitalia and lower limbs-elephantiasis. Breast cancer treated by removal or irradiation can lead to resection of the lymphatic channels (and scarring) can result in severe edema of the arm. Superficial lymph node obstruction in breast cancer can cause edema of the overlying skin (peau d’ orange appearance).
example of an oncogene
HPV, Hep C, epstein barr, human t cell leukemia virus
Gangrenous necrosis mechanism
most often result from loss of bd to a lower extremity or bowel
what are the skeletal abnormalities in marfan syndrome
unusually tall, long extremities, long fingers and toes, prominent frontal eminence, appear double jointed, pectus excavatum, pigeon breast, spinal deformity
Describe the actions of an indirectly cytopathic virus
Viral proteins are exposed on the surface of infected cells and are recognized by T lymphocytes as viral antigens, releasing a perforin protein that interacts with the host plasma membrane causing a disruption in its integrity and eventual cytolysis. In addition, T lymphocytes may release a protein (granzyme) that activates apoptosis.
human t cell leukemia virus type 1
RNA retrovirus; targets CD4 t cells; stim. production of t cells by the TAX gene that encodes IL2; there is also inc. prod. of GM-CSF
Role of cell adhesion molecules in inflammation
important in acute inflammation. E and P-selectin help with leukocyte rolling and adhesion to the endothelium. There are also integrins (LFA-1 and VCAM-1) which are important for adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelium.
in general, how does growth correlate with degree of differentiation?
less differentiated cells tend to grow faster
what is a puncture wound
caused by a long narrow object such as a needle or nail
Name a risk factor for Down Syndrome
Advanced maternal age (1:500 < 20 yo; 1:25 > 45 yo)
where are coagulation factors made and stored?
made in the liver, stored in the plasma
Ex: explain why the liver and lung are not as susceptible to infarction as the kidney
the kidney has a single blood supply
the lung has the pulm. A and bronchial A.
liver has hepatic A. and portal V.
what are the five major steps in normal cell proliferation?
1. GF binds to a specific receptor on the cell membrane
2. signal transduction is activated
3. second messengers affect induction/activation of transcription
4. DNA synthesis machinery is activated
5. cell division
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