Pathophysiology - Final Exam Flashcards

Health Care
Terms Definitions
haploid cell
gamete
nutritional imbalance
malnourishment
erythropoietin
triggers erythropoiesis
Signs
manifestations observed objectively
thrombus
stationary blood clot
cellular dissolution
breakdown of cells
Hypoxic injury
in sufficient oxygen
metaplasia
change in cell type
polydipsia
too much drinking, thirst
Signs of Hypercalcemia
AnorexiaFatigueConstipationMuscle weaknessHeadacheCardiac Dysrhthmia
TIBC
Total Iron Binding Capacity
agenesis
failure of lungs to develop
Hyperplasia
increase in # of cells
recombination
allele pair formation in crossover
tumor-suppressor gene
substance responsible for retinoblastoma
Erysipelas
Superficial streptococcal infection of the skin (face, ears, and lower legs)
stratified epithelial (examples)
protects a surface
Hyperprolactinemia
-most common anterior pituitary disorder:from tumor or meds (antispychotics & tricyclic antidepressants)tx. drugs that stimulate dopamine receptors in brain (bromocriptine)
Apoptosis
Programmed cellular death (ex. menstual cycle, immune function, radiation, chemotherapy). Clinical manifestations determined by tissue/organ changes
Neonatal
first 2 months of life
Potassium
Regulates muscle functions and maintains osmotic pressure.Found in Bananas and Orange JuiceNormal values are 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Dysplasia
When cells grow disorderly/abnormally. Different to Metaplasia because a dysplastic cell is never a normal cell but metaplastic cells start as a normal cell. Dysplasia is usually a precancerous condition.
immune function
primary function of leukocytes
hematocrit
percentage of Erythrocytes to plasma
humans have this many genes
20,000-25,000
short arm of a chromosome
P
emphysema
char by abnormal permanent enlargement of the airspaces (bc of destruction of the alveolar walls) distal to the terminal bronchioles (compensatory hyperinflation) destruction of alveolar walls with or without fibrosis air may become trapped
 
reduces SA and thus gas exchage surface
Choledocholithiasis
stones of the common bile duct
penetrance
percentage of those exhibiting and expressed phenotype.
hypoxic cell injury alter _______
cell membrane
smooth muscle tissue (example)
iris or bladder
Prenatal
period of time in utero life
Nosocomial Infection
Hospital Acquired Infection. Most common is staph or strep. responsible for 20,000 deaths a year. 10% of American hospital patients acquire a clinically significant nosocomial infection. Caused by high prevalence of pathogens, compromised hosts and efficient mechanisms of transmission from pt. to pt. (never go to work sick)
Phagocytosis
Breaking down and consuming pathogens/ foreign invaders
Signs of Hyperkalemia
Muscle Dysfunction (weakness)Flaccid Paralysis (muscle is unable to be moved by Pt.)Intestinal cramping (build up of K blocks pump)Decreases the duration of cariac potentialIrregular pulse (can cause severe cardiac arrest)
Hyponatremia
Lack of Sodium (under 136mEq/L)Caused by Water gain or sodium lossExcess GI loss (diarrhea and vomiting)Renal DiseaseWater Intoxification (drinking too much water)Diuretics
Hyperphosphatemia
Levels higher than 4.5mg/dLHigh intake of phosphatesCaused by excess use of phosphate replacementPhosphate enemas
reticulocyte count
measuring function of bone marrow(erythropoiesis)
clinical manifestations of aplastic anemia
weaknessfatigue, lethargypallordyspneatachycardia,palpations,murmurscomplications: neutropenia, thrombocytopenia
which myocytes are smaller, atrial or ventricular?
atrial
what lung problem presents with hypersecretion of mucous due to an enlarged gland
chronic bronchitis
Dysplasia
cell changes and no longer functions as a cell, changes composition.
Physiologic Atrophy
normal shrinking; thymus shrinks to nothing during childhood.
telomere
protective ends, or caps on each chromosome that limit the number of times a cell can divide
Furuncles
Infection of the hair follicle that extends to the surrounding tissue
metastatic
increase serum calcium level in normal tissue
Unbound-peptide or proetein(water soluble hormone)transport w/SURFACE RECEPTOR
require PLASMA(CELL) MEMBRANE RECEPTORS-pituitarty, hypothalamic, parathyroid hormones act through 2nd messengers (cAMP)-insulin (is"first messenger") acts by direct activation of receptor protein tyrosine kinase
Acquired Passive Immunity
Immunity transferred by plasma containing antibodies ex maternal/fetal transfer (IgG and IgA from breast milk) and from direct injection "serotherapy" (administered immunoglobulin IgG, IgA, IgM)
Calcium
Found in bones, teeth and muscles bound to protein, citrates and the rest is ionizedNormal value is 4.5-5.6 mg/dLIts a major component of boneRequired for bone formation Required for cell transport Required for nerve cell functioning Essential in muscle functioning Important for normal blood clotting Calcium is found in dairy products
Fat Necrosis
Necrosis that occurs in fatty deposits. The pancreus enlarges and releases activated digestive enzymes. It leaves a white chalky appearance in necrotic fatty tissues.
Gangrene
Cellular death involving a large area of tissue. It generally follows necrosis
What are the 4 types of necrosis
coagulativeliquefactivefatcaseous
Prothrombin Time
normal 11.0 to 12.5 secondsevaluates extrinsic clotting cascade(more reliable to use INR factor)
hemoglobin
large globular protein, makes up 33 percent of RBC's
what branches of the main coronary arteries perfuse the myocardium?
intramural arteries
frank starling mechanism
increased venous return increases the ventricular filling (end-diastolic volume)
what does ANP cause?
vasodilation, diuresis ad Na excretion
chronic bronchitis defined clinically
persistent cough with sputum production for at least 3 months in at least 2 consecutive years (w/o other cause) may progess to COPD, lead to cor pulmonale and heart failure may cause atypical metaplasia and dysplasia (precancerous changes)
what causes pulmonary hypoplasia?
space-occupying lesions of the uterusoligohydramniosimpaired fetal respiratory movements assc with a diaphragmatic hernia, premature prolonged rupture of fetal membrane
Hyperplasia Hormonal
increase # of cells in hormonal dependent organs ( ex. Estrogen during pregnancy)
tumor-supressor gene
substance that control cell growth and differentiation
Cellular burn response
impairment of Na-K pumps Results: cellular swelling w/ decreased potassium and disruption of transmembrane potential
cell injury by chemical injury (examples)
lead paint, alcohol
Acquired Active Immunity
Developed antibodies in response to the presence of an antigen through vaccination or exposure to an infectious disease.
Signs of Hypernatremia
Excessive thirstDry, cracked mouth and tongueRestlessnessConfusionLethargyAt risk for FVDCauses fluids to leave brain and causes confusion because NA helps transmit brain waves
Infancy
from 2 months to 2 years of life
Liquefactive Necrosis
Necrosis in the brain and spinal fluid. Always think meningitis when dealing with liquefactive necrosis.
Inherited diseases
Diseases caused by altered or mutated genes
Immunologic Diseases
Diseases in which the immune system may attack one's own body (autoimmune response), overreact (hypersensitivity reaction/allergic reaction), or underreact (AIDS)
Signs of hyperphosphatemia
Depends on calcium levelsWith normal calcium levels, excessive deposits are made in joints
normal hematocrit for males:females:
males: 42-52 percentfemales: 37-47 percent
besides myocytes, what are the other heart cells?
endothelial and fibroblasts
ARDS: clinical features
high mortality, person is very sick, takes a long time to resolve, fluid accumulation in both lungs
Asphyxial injuries
failure of the cells to receive or utilize oxygen
Free Radicals Cause damage by
Lipid peroxidation(Failure of Na-K pumps)-destruction of polysaturated lipids; changes permeability.• Attacking critical proteins- no nutritional source; delayed wound healing. Fragmenting DNA- cannot create proteins(essential to life). Damaging mitochondria- damages the powerhouse(no ATP prod)
Keratoacanthoma Origination Characteristics
O: arises from hair follicles C: dome-shaped, crusty lesions filled with keratin.
Herpes Simplex Virus: HSV2
genital lesions; usually spread by sexual contact
striated muscle tissue (example)
cardiac and skeletal (responsible for movement)
What risk factors predispose someone to an infection?
nutritional deficiency, illness, weakened immune system, age extreemes, open cuts/wounds. those who are immunosuppressed from illnesses often catch opportunistic infections
The two major fluid inbalances
Fluid volume excessFluid volume deficit(Both are extracellular fluid volumes)
Characteristics of Dry Gangrene
Black, dry, wrinkled, cold that generally occurs on extremities. Tissue just dries out and sloughs off. There is no invasion of bacteria and it is associated with decreased circulation.
Caseous Necrosis
Necrosis in the lungs. TB is an example. It looks like cottage cheese. The curds are dead lung tissue.
Neutrophils
Most abundant WBC that go to site of inflammation and are the main component of pus. During infection, you will also have a large number of immature WBC esp if you have a "shift to the left"
Atrial cells secrete and store what?
ANP - atrial natriuretic peptide
Mechanisms of Cellular Injury: ChemicalLead
alters nervous system and affect Ca(affects clotting factors- bleeding).
Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Clinical
confined to epidermis C: red, scaling, keratotic, slightly elevated lesion; irregular border; chronic crusty ulcerations; raised erythematous borders
intracellular communication and example
build up inside of cellex: lipids build up and cause serosis
hyperplasia
increase in # of cells in an organ or tissue
3 factors in fluid regulation
ADH (secreted in posterior pituitary), Kidneys (in the nephrons) and the vascular system (through vasoconstriction)
What determines the type of necrosis that is present?
The signs and appearance
3 kinds of wound healing
Primary - straight cuts where everything meets together nicely (sutures)Secondary - Doesnt line up and meet perfectly (has irregular edges)Tertiary - Combination of primary and secondary. Wound healing is delayed.
what are the 3 major epicardial coronary arteries?
left descending arteryleft circumflex arteryright coronary artery
where are foregut cysts normally located?
in the hilar or mid-mediastinal regions
2nd degree burn: Partial-thickness & Deep-thickness
Partial- destruction of epidermis and some dermis. Blister formation and pain. Deep- destruc. of epidermis and dermis. appear waxy. takes weeks to heal.
lymphoid system
Primary cells = B and T cells (made in bone marrow and thymus gland)Secondary = spleen, lymphnodes, tonsils, peyers patches etc.All lymphoid cells are made in bone marrow
How does a foregut cyst present?
with symptoms of mass effect or secondary infection
Signs of FVE or fluid volume excess
sudden weight gain, edema, bounding pulse, dyspnea (Shortness of breath), Orthopnea (when you can't lie flat and breathe because of fluid on lungs and heart) and frothy sputum
cell injury caused by a biological agent
can't stop it from happening, cells keep replicating
What is the purpose of the Immune system
To protect the body from infections and toxins and to maintain normal flora.
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