pelvis I Flashcards

Internal iliac artery
Terms Definitions
Sympathetic and parasympathetic
What is shed during menstruation?
Cutting of perineum during childbirthPudendal N. anesthetized
Spermatic Cord
Suspends testis in scrotum
Pubic Symphysis
Secondary cartilaginous joint consists of a fibrocartilaginous interpubic disc and surrounding ligaments uniting the bodies of the pubic bones in the median plane. The interpubic disc is generally wider in women.
The ligaments joining the bones are thickened at the superior and inferior margins of the symphysis, forming superior and inferior pubic ligaments.
The superior pubic ligament connects the superior aspects of the pubic bodies and interpubic disc, extending as far laterally as the pubic tubercles.
The inferior (arcuate) pubic ligament is a thick arch of fibers that connects the inferior aspects of the joint components, rounding off the subpubic angle as it forms the apex of the pubic arch.
The decussating, fibers of the tendinous attachments of the rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles also strengthen the pubic symphysis anteriorly
cheesy/oily substance that can be found in uncircumcised men.-carcinogenic to the cervix
Retraction of prepuce over glans constricts the neck of glands.-Interferes w/ blood supply
Anal triangle is in what plane?
Is a diamond-shaped space that has the same boundaries as the inferior aperture of the pelvis.
Is bounded by the pubic symphysis anteriorly, the ischiopubic rami anterolaterally, the ischial tuberosities laterally, the sacrotuberous ligaments posterolaterally, and the tip of the coccyx posteriorly.
Has a floor that is composed of skin and fascia and a roof formed by the pelvic diaphragm with its fascial covering.
sacrotuberous ligament
sacrospinous ligament
Inferiorly, the posterior sacroiliac ligaments are joined by fibers extending from the posterior margin of the ilium (between the posterior superior and posterior inferior iliac spines) and the base of the coccyx to form the sacrotuberous ligament.This massive ligament thus passes from the posterior ilium and lateral sacrum and coccyx to the ischial tuberosity, transforming the sciatic notch of the hip bone into a large sciatic foramen.

The sacrospinous ligament, passing from lateral sacrum and coccyx to the ischial spine, further subdivides this foramen into greaterlesser sciatic foramina and
Abdominopelvic cavity
Extends superiorly into the thoracic cage and inferiorly into the pelvis, so that its superior and inferior parts are relatively protected
Pelvic cavity
The pelvic cavity contains the terminal parts of the ureters and the urinary bladder, rectum, pelvic genital organs, blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. In addition to these distinctly pelvic viscera, it also contains what might be considered an overflow of abdominal viscera: loops of small intestine (mainly ileum) and, frequently, large intestine (appendix and transverse and/or sigmoid colon).
The pelvic cavity is limited inferiorly by the musculofascial pelvic diaphragm, which is suspended above (but descends centrally to the level of) the pelvic outlet, forming a bowl-like pelvic floor. The pelvic cavity is bounded posteriorly by the coccyx and inferiormost sacrum, with the superior part of the sacrum forming a roof over the posterior half of the cavity. The bodies of the pubic bones and the pubic symphysis uniting them form an anteroinferior wall that is much shallower (shorter) than the posterosuperior wall and ceiling formed by sacrum and coccyx. Consequently, the axis of the pelvis (a line in the median plane defined by the center point of the pelvic cavity at every level) is curved, pivoting around the pubic symphysis. The curving form of the axis and the disparity in depth between the anterior and the posterior walls of the cavity are important factors in the mechanism of fetal passage through the pelvic canal.
Suspensory ligament
Ovaries attached to lateral abdominal wall
Bartholin’s gland
In females, synonymous to the cowper’s gland
what bones do you sit on?
ischial tuberosities
Pelvic inlet?
sacral promontory, sacral alae, linea terminalis made of pubic crest, pecten pubis, arcuate line
Is the organ of gestation in which the fertilized oocyte normally becomes embedded and the developing organism grows until its birth.
Is normally anteverted (i.e., angle of 90 degrees at the junction of the vagina and cervical canal) and anteflexed (i.e., angle of 160 to 170 degrees at the junction of the cervix and body).
Is supported by the pelvic diaphragm; the urogenital diaphragm; the round, broad, lateral, or transverse cervical (cardinal) ligaments; and the pubocervical, sacrocervical, and rectouterine ligaments.
Is supplied primarily by the uterine artery and secondarily by the ovarian artery.
Has an anterior surface that rests on the posterosuperior surface of the bladder.
Pelvic fascia
Is connective tissue that occupies the space between the membranous peritoneum and the muscular pelvic walls and floor not occupied by the pelvic viscera. This layer is a continuation of the comparatively thin (except around kidneys) endoabdominal fascia that lies between the muscular abdominal walls and the peritoneum superiorly. Traditionally, the pelvic fascia has been described as having parietal and visceral components
Anteroinferior Pelvic Wall
The anteroinferior pelvic wall (more of a weight-bearing floor than an anterior wall in the anatomical position) is formed primarily by the bodies and rami of the pubic bones and the pubic symphysis. It participates in bearing the weight of the urinary bladder.
Pelvic Veins

Pelvic venous plexuses are formed by the interjoining veins surrounding the pelvic viscera .
Uterine Artery
The uterine artery usually arises separately and directly from the internal iliac artery, but it may arise from the umbilical artery. It is the homolog to the artery to the ductus deferens in the male.
It descends on the lateral wall of the pelvis, anterior to the internal iliac artery, and enters the root of the broad ligament.
Here it passes medially to reach the lateral margin of the uterus immediately superior to the lateral part of the fornix of the vagina.
As it passes medially in the broad ligament, the uterine artery passes directly superior to the ureter near the lateral part of the fornix of the vagina.
The relationship of ureter to artery is often remembered by the phrase Waterpasses under the bridge (uterine artery).
On reaching the side of the cervix, the uterine artery divides into a smaller descending vaginal branch, which supplies the cervix and vagina, and a larger ascending branch, which runs along the lateral margin of the uterus, supplying the body and fundus of the uterus.

The ascending branch bifurcates into ovarian and tubal branches, which continue within the broad ligament to supply the medial ends of the ovary and uterine tube and anastomose with the ovarian and tubal branches of the ovarian artery.
pelvis is separated from the perineum by
pelvic diaphragm
where is the hip does the femur articulate?
Coccygeus muscles
arise from the lateral aspects of the inferior sacrum and coccyx, their fleshy fibers underlying the deep surface of the sacrospinous ligament
Has a body and ramus (L. branch). The body of the ischium helps form the acetabulum and the ramus of the ischium forms part of the obturator foramen.
The large posteroinferior protuberance of the ischium is the ischial tuberosity; the small pointed posteromedial projection near the junction of the ramus and body is the ischial spine.
The concavity between the ischial spine and the ischial tuberosity is the lesser sciatic notch. The larger concavity, the greater sciatic notch, is superior to the ischial spine and is formed in part by the ilium.
Obturator Artery
The origin of the obturator artery is variable; usually it arises close to the origin of the umbilical artery, where it is crossed by the ureter
The obturator artery courses anteriorly along the pelvic wall and leaves the pelvic cavity via the obturator canal. Together with the obturator nerve, above, and obturator vein, below, it enters and supplies the adductor region of the thigh.
curvature of rectum
rectal ampulla
The rectum has three lateral curvatures; the upper and lower curvatures to the right and the middle curvature to the left.
The lower part of the rectum is expanded to form the rectal ampulla.
Finally, unlike the colon, the rectum lacks distinct taeniae coli muscles, omental appendices and sacculations (haustra of the colon).
Proliferation phase of menstrual cycle
Ovulation period (controlled by estrogen)
Pampiniform plexus
helps to keep the temperature of the testes constant
male vs female pelvis
male heartshaped inlet and smaller (50-60 degrees) pubic arch, female rounded inlet and larger (80-85 degrees) pubic arch
List the Branches of the anterior Division of the Internal Iliac Artery
umbilical artery
superior vesical artery
inferior vesical artery
middle rectal artery
obturator artery
internal pudendal artery
inferior gluteal artery
uterine artery
Ejaculatory ducts
Are formed by the union of the ductus deferens with the ducts of the seminal vesicles. Peristaltic contractions of the muscular layer of the ductus deferens and the ejaculatory ducts propel spermatozoa with seminal fluid into the urethra.
what forms lesser sciatic notch?
between ischial spin and ischial tuberosity
Iliolumbar vein
Gluteal vein
Testicular vein
The iliolumbar veins from the iliac fossae of the greater pelvis usually drain into the common iliac veins.
The superior gluteal veins, the accompanying veins (L. venae comitantes) of the superior gluteal arteries of the gluteal region, are the largest tributaries of the internal iliac veins except during pregnancy, when the uterine veins become larger.
Testicular veins traverse the greater pelvis as they pass from the deep inguinal ring toward their posterior abdominal terminations, but do not usually drain pelvic structures
describe its shape?
The apex of the bladder is directed toward the top of the pubic symphysis; a structure known as the median umbilical ligament (a remnant of the embryologic urachus that contributes to the formation of the bladder) continues from it superiorly up the anterior abdominal wall to the umbilicus.
The base of the bladder is shaped like an inverted triangle and faces posteroinferiorly. The two ureters enter the bladder at each of the upper corners of the base, and the urethra drains inferiorly from the lower corner of the base. Inside, the mucosal lining on the base of the bladder is smooth and firmly attached to the underlying smooth muscle coat of the wall-unlike elsewhere in the bladder where the mucosa is folded and loosely attached to the wall. The smooth triangular area between the openings of the ureters and urethra on the inside of the bladder is known as the trigone .
The inferolateral surfaces of the bladder are cradled between the levator ani muscles of the pelvic diaphragm and the adjacent obturator internus muscles above the attachment of the pelvic diaphragm. The superior surface is slightly domed when the bladder is empty; it balloons upward as the bladder fills
What secretions do the seminal vesicles add?
Alkaline solution and fructose (energy of sperm)
Posterolateral Wall and Roof
What are its bony and musculoligamentous constituents and deswcribe them?
Where does the piriformis muscles arise from?
Posterior pelvic wall consists of a bony wall and roof in the midline (formed by the sacrum and coccyx) and musculoligamentous posterolateral walls, formed by the ligaments associated with the sacroiliac joints and piriformis muscles. The ligaments include the anterior sacroiliac, sacrospinous, and sacrotuberous ligaments.
The piriformis muscles arise from the superior sacrum, lateral to its pelvic foramina. The muscles pass laterally, leaving the lesser pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen to attach to the superior border of the greater trochanter of the femur. These muscles occupy much of the greater sciatic foramen, forming the posterolateral walls of the pelvic cavity.Immediately deep (anteromedial) to these muscles (often embedded in the fleshy fibers) are the nerves of the sacral plexus. A gap at the inferior border of the piriformis allows passage of neurovascular structures between the pelvis and the lower limb (gluteal region).
Lower pelvic aperture (pelvic outlet)
Is the expanded portion of the bony pelvis above the pelvic brim
The greater pelvis (false pelvis, pelvis major) is the part of the pelvis:
Superior to the pelvic inlet.
Bounded by the iliac alae posterolaterally and the anterosuperior aspect of the S1 vertebra posteriorly.
Occupied by abdominal viscera (e.g., the ileum and sigmoid colon).
Apertures in the pelvic wall
How many 
List them?

Each lateral pelvic wall has three major apertures through which structures pass between the pelvic cavity and other regions: the obturator canal;
the greater sciatic foramen; and
the lesser sciatic foramen
Pelvic Wall
What does the wall of the tru pelvis consist of?
What are the two ligaments found in the wall?
Walls of the true pelvis consist predominantly of bone, muscle, and ligaments, with the sacrum, coccyx, and inferior half of the pelvic bones forming much of them.
Two ligaments-the sacrospinous and the sacrotuberous ligaments-are important architectural elements of the walls because they link each pelvic bone to the sacrum and coccyx. These ligaments also convert two notches on the pelvic bones-the greater and lesser sciatic notches-into foramina on the lateral pelvic walls
Completing the walls are the obturator internuspiriformis muscles, which arise in the pelvis and exit through the sciatic foramina to act on the hip joint and
These lie in the same horizontal plane?
tip of coccyx and upper margin of pubic symphysis
What are the branches of the posterior trunk of the internal iliac artery?
Branches of the posterior trunk of the internal iliac artery are the iliolumbar artery, the lateral sacral artery, and the superior gluteal artery:
1.The iliolumbar artery ascends laterally back out of the pelvic inlet and divides into a lumbar branch and an iliac branch. The lumbar branch contributes to the supply of the posterior abdominal wall, psoas, quadratus lumborum muscles, and cauda equina via a small spinal branch that passes through the intervertebral foramen between LV and SI. The iliac branch passes laterally into the iliac fossa to supply muscle and bone.
2.The lateral sacral arteries, usually two, originate from the posterior division of the internal iliac artery and course medially and inferiorly along the posterior pelvic wall. They give rise to branches that pass into the anterior sacral foramina to supply related bone and soft tissues, structures in the vertebral (sacral) canal, and skin and muscle posterior to the sacrum.
3.The superior gluteal artery is the largest branch of the internal iliac artery and is the terminal continuation of the posterior trunk. It courses posteriorly, usually passing between the lumbosacral trunk and anterior ramus of S1, to leave the pelvic cavity through the greater sciatic foramen above the piriformis muscle and enter the gluteal region of the lower limb. This vessel makes a substantial contribution to the blood supply of muscles and skin in the gluteal region and also supplies branches to adjacent muscles and bones of the pelvic walls.
/ 42

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})


{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online