periodic table and periodic law Flashcards

Terms Definitions
family/group
vertical columns
Halogen
Highly reactive group 17 elements.
Mendeleev
arranged elements by increasing atomic mass and similar properties; published 1st periodic table; left spaces for yet-to-be-discovered elements
beryllium
What element has the electron configuarion [He] 2s2?
metaliods
elements with physical and chemical properties of both metals and nonmetals
transition elements
d block elements (3-12) good conductors and high luster; less reactive
ns2
What is the electron configuration for group 2?
6
How many valence electrons does group 16 have?
ns2p4
What is the electron configuration for group 16?
ns2p3
What is the electron configuration for group 15?
ns2(n-1)d5
What is the electron configuration for group 7?
2
How many valence electrons does group 2 have?
Mendeleev- was given credit for the first periodic table.
nonmetals
elements that are generally gases or brittle, dull-looking solids; poor conductors of heat and electricity
alkali metal
group 1A elements, except for hydrogen, on the left side of the periodic table
anion
negative ion; addition of one or more electrons that leads to increase in atomic radius. total positive charge remains the same. electron cloud spreads out because it is repulsed
ionization energy
energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom
Group (Family)
The vertical columns of elements in the periodic table.
Valence Electrons
The electrons in an atom's outermost orbital, determines the chemical properties.
representative elements
the main group of elements that possess a wide range of chemical and physical properties (1A through 8A)
transition element
groups of elements in the modern periodic table that are designated with a B (1B through 8B) and are further divided into transition metals and inner transition metals
Organization of the Periodic Table: Alkaline Earth Metals
group 2A, chemically reactive
closer to the octet rule
Why does the electronegativity increase as you move across a period?
group 18
Where are the noble gases located on the Periodic Table of Elements?
Halogens- group 17; contains nonmetals; 7 electrons in its outermost energy level; very reactive; poor conductors of electric current; never in its uncombined form in nature; combine with most metals to form salts
Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine, and Astatine
s-block elements
elements in groups 1A and 2A, plus hydrogen and helium; the valence electrons of these elements occupy only "s" orbitals
Atomic Radius- distance from the center of an atom to its outmost edge. Increases from left to right on the periodic table
Increasing Atomic Radius- Oxygen, Carbon, Aluminum, Potassium.
transition metal
a type of group B element that is contained in the d-block on the periodic table, characterized by a filled outermost s orbital and/or partially filled d orbitals
what is meant by atomic radius?
Metals: half the distance between adjacent nuclei in a crystal of the element
Non-metals: half the distance between nuclei of identical atoms that are chemically bonded together.
more protons pulling on the electrons
Why does the ionization energy increase as you move from left to right on the Periodic Table?
transition metals and the inner transition metals
What are the transition elements divided into?
What is an ion?
an atom or a bonded group of atoms that have a positive or negative charge. (positive ions=smaller atoms, negative ions= larger atoms)
left of the zig-zag line
Where are the metals located on the Periodic Table of elements?
trend of electronegativity on the PT
increases as you move across and decreases as you move down
right side of the zig-zag line
Where are the nonmetals located on the Periodic Table of Elements?
How did Henry Moseley fix the problem in Mendeleev's periodic table?
He arranged the elements by atomic number which resulted in a clear pattern of properties
P - 7; G- 7; block d
What is the period, group and block for the electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 6d5 7s2?
easier to lose when farther from octet rule and gain when closer to the octet rule
Why does the left side create positive ions and the right side create negative ions?
period
horizontal rows
Francium
Atomic number 87. Least reactive.
Moseley- The scientist who arranged elements by atomic number.
group 1
Where are the alkali metals located?
5
How many valence electrons does group 15 have?
periods
horizontal rows on the periodic table - (there are seven); the period number indicates the energy level
nonmetal
elements that are generally gases, or dull brittle solids that are poor conductors of heat and electricity
metal
make up 80% of elements (left of stairs); most are... good conductors, solid (except Hg), and shiny, ductile, malleable, and high melting point; form positive ions
third ionization energy
energy required to remove ANOTHER electron after two electrons have already been removed
Dmitri Mendeleev
His table becomes widely accepted in 1869.
alkali metals
the group 1A elements (except for hydrogen)
Organization of the Periodic Table: Groups
columns (increasing atomic number)
malleable
ability of a subtance to be pounded / hemmered into thin sheets
Electronegativity- a measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons
Increasing electonegativity- Lithium, Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen
ion
an atom or a bonded group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge
atomic number
number of protons in the atom of an element
Alkali Earth Metals- an elemnet in group 2, harder, higher melting point, and denser than alkali metals. Reactive, but less than corresponding alkali metal
Beryllium, Magnesium, Calcium, Strontium, Barium, and Radium.
inner transition metal
type of group B element that is contained in the f-block on the periodic table
How does ionization energy change with each successive ionizaton?
Periods:The energy needed generally increases from left to right
Groups: The energy needed generally decreases from top to bottom
P-4; G-2; block s
What is the period, group and block for the electron configuration [Ar] 4s2?
Why did Henry Moseley not agree with the Mendeleev's periodic table?
Mendeleev's periodic table was arranged by atomic mass
farther the electrons from the nucleus the less pull protons have and easier to release the electrons
Why does the ionization energy decrease as you move down a group?
Ionization Energy- the energy required to remove an electron from an atom
Oxygen has a higher ionization energy than sulfur because oxygens nucleus holds on tighter to its valence electrons but sulfur is a bigger atom and does not hold on as tightly to its valence electrons.
What was the first step to organizing the elements?
They were organized by relationships between atomic mass and elemental properties
P- 5; G- 10; block d
What is the period, group and block for the electron configuration [Kr] 4d10 5s2?
law of octaves - every 8th element shared similar properties
What did Newlands propose with the elements?
How did the periodic table get its name?
The elements in the table repeat in a periodic way
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