Personality 6 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
phố; đường
having fever.
tốt nghiệp
to graduate
si chiama
he calls himself
l'oumo (pl. uomini)
man (men)
i capelli di neri
black hair
defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions
psychyanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixed
Abraham Maslow
Hierarchy of needs, self-actualization
Cardinal traits
that dominate an individual’s life-> ACCUMULATE WEALTH ->SERVE GOD ->THIS IS RARE
Oedipal complex
male's psycho-sexual development involves a sexual attachment to his mother
"We" have received grace and apostleship
defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
The division of personality that contains the conscience and develops by incorporating the perceived moral standards of society.
Freud's theory of personality and therapeutic technique that attributes out thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts
a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act
Motivation to fulfill one's potential; ultimate psychological need
The Freudian structure of personality that consists of unconscious drives and is the individual's reservoir of psychic energy
Dividual self
concept in which the sense of self is affected by the outside environment. People see themselves as part of a whole. Everything effects you.
behavior is fully determined by environmental stimuli
lack of similarity or equality; inequality; difference:
an image of what one really is
Self-Serving Bias
A readiness to perceive oneself favorably
personality inventory
a questionnaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits
Psychosexual Stages
The childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones.
social-cognitive perspective
behavior as influenced by the interaction between people's traits and their social context
Defense Mechanisms
Reduce anxiety by distorting thoughts or reality
Electra Complex
Girls develop attachments to their fathers and wish that their mothers would depart the family so they can have their fathers all to themselves.
Projective Techniques
series of ambiguous stimuli designed to elict unique responces, reveal inner aspects of personality (ink blot)
Personal control
our sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless
fond of the company of others; sociable.
to occur again, as an event, experience, etc.
Carl Rogers
1902-1987 was a humanist psychologist who believed that all people have an actualizing tendency-a drive to fulfill individual potential that motivates behavior.
to draw or extract profit or advantage from
minnesota multiphasic personality inventory mmpi
used for personilty tests
developed to identify emotional disorders.
Rorschach inkblot test
the most widely used projective test
-seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
Vasco de Gama
Portuguese sailor. Completed an all water trip to India for trade.
collective unconscious
common reservoir of images derived our species' universal experiences
inferiority complex
in Adler's theory, the fixation on feelings of personal inferiority that results in emotional and social paralysis
what is affective instability?
erratic emotional responses to situations and intense sensitivity to criticism or percieved slights
one of a series of short parallel lines drawn on a map to indicate topographic relief.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
a personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types. taken by 2.5 million Americans a year and measures individual preferences of various types.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality (MMPI)
the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 616)
What are Freuds 5 psychosexual stages of development?
1)Oral:First year2)Anal:Second year3)Phallic:Ages 3-54)Latency:Ages 5-puberty5)Genital:Puberty on
reality principle
according to Freud, the way in which the ego seeks to satisfy instinctual demands safely and effectively in the real world
The point in the orbit of a heavenly body, esp. the moon, or of a man-made satellite at which it is farthest from the earth.

The highest or the most distant point.
internal locus of control
the perception that one controls one's own fate
Empirically Derived Test
a test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups.
What are the 4 principle uses of personality tests?
1) psychological Research: Measuring personaltiy traits in empirical studies.2)Counceling:advising people on career plans and decisions3)Personnel Selection:Choosing employees for business and government4)Clinical Diagnosis:assessing the type of psychological disorder a person may have.
What is the Self-Report Inventories (SRI)
Such as MMPI and the 16 PF tests that measure multiple traits.
Genital Period
-most controversial trait
-value of culteral matters
-creativity and perceptivness
reinforcement of successive approximations of a response to increase the frequency of a response that originally has a zero base rate
moral anxieyt
ex. self punishment
Neurotic AnxietyMoral anxietyRealistic anxiety
Horney- personality develops from social struggles, "penis envy" is sexistAdler- personality develops from competitionJung- collective unconscious: a common reservoir of experiences and motives based on universal human experiences (anima: unconscious femininity of men, animus: unconscious masculinity of females)
a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, designed to make negative emotions disappear less severe while leaving positive emotions unaffected
intrinsic religion
healthyencourages identification with all of humanity
A defense mechanism that involves channeling unacceptable sexual or aggressive drives into socially acceptable and culturally enhancing activities.
Alternative to Eclecticism
Theoretical Methodological Pluralism: accepting several theories as a whole without disregarding the potential efficacy of others
individual psychology (ADLER)
stresses superiority, inferiority complex, compensation, overcompensation
object relations theorists
Freud over-emphasized drive satisfaction, underemphasized the “object” of drivesobject = mental representation of a person toward whom a drive is directedPeople are “object seekers” Object relationships are importantDevelopmental course: from taking (self directed) to giving (other directed)
better performing at jobs, thinking ahead, following through
experiences are dominated by anger, disgust and sarcasm.
Truine Brain
Reptilian Brain=responsible for basic life processes
Paleomammalian Brain= Limbic system; pleasure and emotion centers
Neomammalian Brain= neo-cortex; higher order learning, planning, and organizing
lower centers may allow for quick response to danger w/o conscious processing
brain developed in stages through evolution
The sequence of activities that progress toward a goal.
An attribute of a psychological test that actually measures what it is being used to measure.
A defense mechanism that helps deal with the feelings of threat and anxiety by enabling us unconsciously to take on the characteristics of another person who seems more powerful or better able to cope.
Constructive Alternativism
the assumption that people can interpret the world in variety of wayso “We assume that all our present interpretations of the universe are subject to revision or replacement.”o Fundamental postulate: the main assumption stressing the importance of psychological constructs (our processes are psychologically channelized by the ways in which he anticipates events)• Validation: occurs when events occur as anticipated
responding to stimuli that were not present during learning as though they were the discriminative stimuli present during learning (like teaching your dog to bark when you say speak, it’ll probably bark when you say spit, it reacts to stimuli that is close to the original stimuli)
focus on early childhood, oral, anal, phallic, latency, gential, id, ego, superego
Freud's Romantic Period
individual vs. societyimportance of inner selfirrational (sensual, emotional, “natural”) aspect of human nature
true or false: anxiety is experience when ones prediction sare incorrect?
nomothetic goals
the relatively small number of essential motivations that almost everyone pursues
current concerns
the ongoing motivation that persists in mind until goal is attained
the structure of the mind determines our experience of reality
Evolutionary psychologists upon individual differences.
Environmental effects on species-typical patternsAdaptive self-assessmentFrequency-dependent strategies
Idiographic Approach
Characteristics & history of a specific individual. Like case studies; looking at factors that contribute to one person's personality
Fundamental Attribution Error
The assumption that another person's behavior, especially clumsy, inappropriate, or otherwise undesirable behavior, is the result of a flaw in the personality, rather than in the situation.
Alyssa is a quiet, rather shy young woman who lives at home while attending college. She would rather meet an old friend for coffee than meet new people or go to parties. In terms of Hans Eysenck's model of personality, Alyssa appears to rate high on the
Deficiency Motivation
motivation at the lower levels of development
corpus callosum
the thick bundle of nerve fibers connecting the right and left halves of the brain
Repressors and memory
Recall fewer positive and negative self memoriesRecall more?) memories involving emotional experiences of others than of themselves (both davis)Are more physiologically aroused when recalling emotional memories of the selfHave simple memoriesUtilize “overly-general” recall (defensive exclusion)
Realistic Anxiety
ex. you get in a car accident
affiliation motivation
the tendency to direct thoughts and behavior toward finding and maintaining close and warm emotional relationships
absolute judgement
less likely to have a false positive
counter conditioning
Take CS and make new association. little albert example- pair rat with cookie.
Existential Psychology
Denial Systems: Belief in and Ultimate Rescuer
•Belief that someone is watching over one in an indifferent world
•People may imagine their rescuer to be human or divine
•May result in a character structure displaying passivity, dependency, and obsequiousness
•Individuals may dedicate their lives to locating and appeasing an ultimate rescuer
Psychologists who adopted some parts of Freud's theory and modified other parts
Nomothetic Approach
Looks at behaviors or ALL people, general rules that govern MOST people
Personality Psychology
Study of the psychological forces that make people uniquely themselves
Positive Psychology
health is more than the absences of disease, it is the inclusion of happiness
Effects of Low serotonin
More pessimistic, cant control anger, hypersensitive.
human potential centers
Ashrams (places for healthy people to become healthier)
social desirability
the response set or style of tending to portray oneself favorably.
Attributional Style
if it is internal, stable, and global for failure and the opposite for success, more likely to be depressed
procedural knowledge
what a person knows but cannot really talk about. knowing how
humanistic perspective
belief that people have the power to reach their full potential, stressing the conscious aspects of personality, esp. in self-perception, emphasizing the internal dimensions of personality
oedipus complex
the unresolved desire of a child for sexual gratification through the parent of the opposite sex, esp. the desire of a son for his mother. This involves, first, identification with and, later, hatred for the parent of the same sex, who is considered by th
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
A projective test in which respondents reveal underlying motives, concerns, and the way they see the social world though the stories they make up about ambiguous pictures of people.
anterior cingulate (AC)
the front part of a brain structure that runs from the front to the back of the brain in the middle, just above the corpus callosum; believed to be important for the experience of normal emotion and self-control, appears important for computing mismatches between expected and actual states of the world
fictional finalism
we live as if somehting is going to happen
A test administered according to specified rules where the score are interpreted using specific instructions
functional magnetic resonance imagery (fMRI)
a technique for imaging brain activity by using a powerful magnet to help detect blood flow in the brain
Describe the Structure of Personality
1 - I.D: fights for UNCONSCIOUS desires - driven by "pleasure principle" - INSTINCTIVE/UNSOCIALIZED.2 - Superego: follows internalized rules society "enforces" - UNCONSCIOUS - the "Jiminy Cricket!"3 - The Ego: the CONSCIOUS self - driven by "reality principle" - finds acceptable ways to meet demands of the I.D.
Empirical Method of Test Construction
Begin with two or more criterion groups; Examine which items best distinguish them
Name the Psychosexual Stages
1 - Oral Stage: 0 to 18 months. Mouth-related pleasure (breast feeding).2 - Anal Stage: 18 to 36 months. Bowel/Bladder pleasures (potty training). Sense of MASTERY.3 - Phallic Stage: 3 to 6 years. Genital pleasure (touching themselves). Sexual desires vs. Societies approval.4 - Latency Stage: 6 to puberty. BORING!5 - Genital Stage: Puberty to up. Healthy-Adult stage. CONSCIOUS manifestations, but SUBCONSCIOUS thoughts.
true or false: Kelly and Vaihinger believed that subjective reality was a more important determinant of behavior than objective reality. Adler didnt believe this.
false: all three of them believed this!
Big 5 factors of personality
1)openness 2) conscientousness 3)extraversion 4)agreeableness 5)neuroticism OCEAN
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