Personality and Intelligence Flashcards

Terms Definitions
somatogenic
physiologically caused
superego
sense of morals
Unconsciously motivated by miserliness, Mr. Rioja refused to send his son money to buy the books he needs for his college courses. In defending his actions, Mr. Rioja explained that "parental financial aid prevents teenagers from developing into mature,
rationalization
MMPI
minnesota multiphasic personality inventory that assesses mental disorders
id
sexual and aggression source
fixed mindset
intelligence in innate
erogenous zone
sexual stimulating zone
Which neo-Freudian theorist emphasized that personality development is strongly influenced by feelings of inferiority?
Adler
The humanistic perspective emphasized the importance of
self-determination
According to terror-management theory, anxiety about our own mortality motivates our pursuit of
self-esteem
Traits
predispositions that affect our behavior across many different situations
intelligence test
measure overall thinking ability
The defense mechanism in which self-justifying explanations replace the real, unconscious reasons for actions is
rationalization
Accordig to psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality that strives for immediate gratification of basic drives is the
id
Shortly after receiving a traffic ticket for speeding, Fred made numerous hostile comments to his wife about the incompetence of women drivers. Fred's comments illustrate most clearly the defense mechanism
displacement
According to Freud, the defense mechanism that underlies all others is
repression
Neo-Freudian personality theorists were most likely to disagree with Freud about the importance of
childhood sexual instincts
Abdul mistakenly believes that his classmates are unually hostile. In fact, Abdul is the most quarrelsome and aggressive child in the school. According to psychoanalytic theory, Abdul's belief that his classmates are hostile is a
projection
Lamont has frequently been rebellios, inconsiderate, and self-centered, yet the pastor of his local church has always accepted and respected him. The pastor's attitude toward Lamont is most explicityly recommended by
Rogers
Although Garth wants ot interact sexually with his girlfriend, he also wants to avoid premarital sex. Freud would have suggested that both desire might be partially satisfied by Garth's
ego
openness to experience
intellectually curious and unconventional
abstract thinking
capacity to understand hypothetical concepts
defense mechanisms
unconscious things that minimize anxiety
big five
traits that are personality measures
When 16-year-old Hafez received a large inheritance from his grandfather, he was tempted to purchase an expensive new car. He decided, instead, to deposit all the money into a savings account for his college education. Hafez shows signs of a
strong ego
Survivors' memories of Nazi death camp experiences most clearly challenge Freud's concept of
repression
Who emphasized that slips of the tongue often reveal the personality dynamics that contribute to psychological disorders?
Freud
Karen Horney, a prominent neo-Freudian, disputed Freud's assumption that women
have weak superegos
Mrs. Smith, who is White and unconsciously in favor if racial segregation, tells her friends that most Blacks prefer to live in residential neighborhoods inhabited predominantly by Blacks. According to psychoanalytic theory, Mrs. Smith best illustrates
projection
According to Freud, understanding how the id, ego, and superego, interact is essential to grasping the nature of
motivational conflict
Mr. Dutoit was asked by his psychotherapist to look at some ambiguous pictures and make up a story about each. Mr. Dutoit was most likely taking the
TAT
According to psychoanalytic theory, boys; fear of castration is most closely associated with
the Oedipus complex
According to Freud, the part of personality that represents our sense of right and wrong and our ideal standards is the
superego
As her parents became increasingly more abusive toward her, Amity began, with apparent sincerity, to emphatically express her great admiration for her parents. Amity's behavior illustrates most clearly the defense mechanism of
reaction formation
Four-year-old Timmy had not wet his bed for over a year. However, he started bed-wetting again soon after his sister was born. Timmy's behavior best illustrates
regression
Forgotten memories that we can easily recall were said by Freud to be
preconscious
Free association is central to the process of
psychoanalysis
During the early psychosexual stages, the id's psychic energy is focused on
erogenous zones
According to Freud's theory, the behavior of a newborn is controlled by
the id
The concept of personality most clearly embodies the notion of
behavioral consistency
Refusing to believe or even to perceive painful realities constitutes the defense mechanism known as
denial
The Thematic Apperception test is a(n)
projective test
multiple intelligence
people are smart in different ways
psychic determinism
the assumption that all psychological events have a cause
observational learning
learning by observation of other people
phallic stage
psychosexual stage focused on the genitals
peak experiences
influential experiences that are very important to your life
eugenics
good genes procreating while bad genes don't
behavioral theories
many theories on where different personalities are stemmed from
Celine recetly had a vivid dream that was strikingly similar to an ancient but unfamiliar religious myth. This coincidence would have been of particular interest to
Jung
Freud referred to a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage as
fixation
People who cheat on their taxes are especially likely to think many others do as well. This false consensus effect is most similar to Freud's concept of
projection
Which of the following techniques was Freud most likely to use in an attempt to discover the hidden conflicts underlying his patients' symptoms?
free association
Mark typically responds to stress in a calm and thoughful manner. Chandler usually becomes agitated. The reactions of Mark and chandler indicate that each has a distinctive
personality
A religious leader who attempts to overcome his hidden doubts with intenst expressions of spiritual certainty illustrates most clearly the defense mechanism of
reaction formation
specific abilities
abilities linked to each item in intelligence test
validity
whether the test measures what it is supposed to measure
social learning theories
thinking is a cause of personality
humanism
worth of people based on the morals appealing to human qualities
penis envy
little girls want to have a penis
idiographic approach
the life history of experiences that effect the personality of someone
Frud suggested that the process of identification is most directly responsible for the development of
the Oedipus complex
When she was 8 years old, Inge was sexually abused by her uncle. At 14, Inge felt uncomfortable whenever she saw this uncle but was unable to understand why she felt this was. A psychoanalyst would be most likely to suggest that Inge is using the defens
repression
One night after he heard his parents arguing, a 4-year-old Wei had a vivid dream in which he saved his mother from being bitten by a large snake. A psychoanalyst would most likely suspect that Wei's dream reflects a(n)
reaction formation
Bruce wants to be a loving husband but at the same time wants to express his disgust for some of his wife's habits. According to Freud, Bruce's _______ might enable him to partially satisfy both desires
ego
Humanistic psychologists would most likely be criticized for underestimating the value of
an internal locus of control
Carl Rogers emphasized that a positive self-concept is promoted by
unconditional positive regard
Psychoanalytic theory
Freud's theory of how dreams and the unconscious effect someone
convergent thinking
capacity to find the best solution to a problem
oedipus complex
boys love their mother in a romantic way and want the father out of the picture
electra complex
girls are in love with their father romantically and want their mother out of the picture
In assessing a client's personal growth, Carl Rogers measure the correspondence between
ideal self and actual self
Maslow most clearly interjected his own personal values into his study of self-actualized individuals by
selectively studying people with qualities he admired
Hasina was an abused child; as an adult, she is homeless and squanders any money she can find on alcohol. Alfred Adler would have suggested that Hasina suffers from
feelings of inferiority
implicit theories of intelligence
theories of how intelligence like math is attained
thematic apperception test
subject must tell a story about an ambiguous image
structured personality test
paper and pencil tests in which there are only certain answers
Reaction formation refers to the process by which people
consciously express feelings that are the opposite of unacceptable unconscious impulses
empirical method of test construction
creating tests with 2 groups and deciding which items best fit
Ego is to id as __________ is to __________.
reality principle; pleasure principle
rational/theoretical method of test construction
test is built around a trait with questions that assess that trait
Freud suggested that in the process of development, people pass through
a latency stage before they enter a genital stage
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