(Neurotic anxiety)Pleasure principlePrimary Process
interested in others
• preoccupation with perfectionism• concern with maintaining order• mental and interpersonal control• careful attention to lists, details, schedules,rules, etc.• lack of flexibility, openness, and efficiency• workaholic; taking little leisure time
The Jungian personality dimension involving turning one's attention outward, toward others.
responding to only particular cues
|Individuals encounter conflicts between the demands of society and their own sexual urges Freud theroy,oral anal,phallic,latency and gential.||
biological eperiences (pleasure, pain, hot)
the psychoanalytic defense mechanism that occurs when the individual remains locked in an earlier developmental stage because needs are under- or over-gratified
interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment
|While talking to another coworker, Doug makes many hateful comments about Brian behind his back. Later that morning when he sees Brian, Doug acts very friendly to Brian and offers to buy him lunch. Which ego defense mechanism best explains Doug's behavior||
unique constellation of consistent behavioral trait
|unacceptable or unpleasant ID impluses are pushed back into the unconscious, such as a college student who has feelings of hatred toward a his mother personaly and socially unacceptable feelings.||
an abstract statement that summarizes a set of principles pertaining to a class of events.
consistency patterns across diff situations/time manifest in diff ways
|Four ways to collect Data||
emotionally laden ideas and images that have rich and symbolic meaning for all people through which the collective unconscious is expressed
Mental life that is directly available, plays a minor role
He created Analytical Psychology Freudian influenced personal unconscious collective unconscious
Freud's system of treatment for mental disorders, term also used for psychoanalytic theory.
the capacity to accommodate external demands by postponing gratification
a technique of measuring brain electrical activity by placing electrode sensors on the outside of the skull
|According to Eysenck's a person that is lively and sensation-seeking is high on what trait?||
living a life centered around denial and distortion makes the individual vulnerable to maladjustment
*not taking responsibilities for who you are
the variable manipulated in an experiment, tested as the "cause" in a cause-effect relation.
give yourself credit for good outcomes but not bad ones (eviro., situation). deny responsibility for failures. more like "we won" and "they lost" even if same team. JOHNSON - related to effective performance in situations where perseverance is crucial
a structured sequence of events that we have about an activity. No script--anxiety
Qualities of a self-actualized person
§Democratic character structure
§Discriminates means from ends
§Gentle sense of humor
§Resistance to enculturation
§Freshness of Appreciation
Long-Term goals that can organize broad areas of a person's life.
Various forms of mental illness for which no organic cause could be found
A developmental experience in which a child's conflicting feelings toward the opposite-sex parent is (usually) resolved by identifying with the same-sex parent.
|4 training periods of Childhood||
o Feeding (oral)o Cleanliness training (anal)o Early sex training (phallic)o Anger-anxiety conflicts (frustrated nature of childhood)
|Self Actualizing CharacteristicEthics and Values||
strong ethical standards (their standards aren’t always the conventional right or wrong) but they believe and stick to their own uniqueness
|external locus of control||
believe in other people/fate/luckno control over things that happen in their livesrarely act upon bad things that happen in their lives(why try when its out of my hands)
says constructs are formed on the basis of recurring themes in ones experience. ex- the tree will be in the same place tomorrow, its always colder in the winter...
a dimension along which two or more variations exist.
Activation of some concept from memory that is provoking emotional state that you are experiencing
|the big 5 of goals||
enjoyment, self-assertion, esteem, interpersonal success, avoidance of negative affects
|why do we have different theories?||
measurements have error
issues of reliability, validity, and generalizability
cohort/history effects for measurement as well as theory creation
|locus of control||
the concept that individuals' beliefs about whether the outcomes of their actions depend on what they do or on events outside of their personal control
The tendency to direct thoughts and behavior toward finding and maintaining close and warm emotional relationships.
a test for revealing the underlying personality structure of an individual by the use of a standard series of 10 inkblot designs to which the subject responds by telling what image or emotion each design evokes.
|Minnesota Multi-phasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)||
Most widely used test; yes/no questions; OBJECTIVE
|Self Actualizing CharacteristicSEnse of Humor||
don’t laugh at other people’s expense (overall they are more serious people)
|personal unconscious (jung||
material which one has repressed or forgotten from personal experiences
|Allport's trait theory||
rather than looking at science, focus on the individual
developed by Donn Byrne to measure the extent to which people are relatively defensive or sensitive in the perception of potentially threatening information
|Describe the Trait Perspective||
We all vary on various traits.Personality Inventory.
present CS w/o UCS, and CR will go away
being as "you" as you can be.only level not associated with a deficit.MAY NOT FOCUS ON SELF ACTUALIZATION IF THE LOWER LEVELS FALL OUT OF BALANCE.
|Cattel's Theory of Personality||
Studied traits using factor analysis Developed the 6 Personality Factors Questionnaire Examples: reserved-outgoing trusting-suspiciuos
|Hierarchy of needsBelongingness and love||
receive and give love and affection
|Why are are adoption studies with identical twins important?||
(1)same genes, different environments(2) any difference in outcome is due to the effects of environment
The Looking Glass Self - take the role of an observer from that vantage pt. attempt to see self (generalized other person). not about content, just whether you know what they think or not
Four Categories of "Ultimate Concerns"
•Freedom= We are the authors of our own lives, a terrifying responsibility that we dread and attempt to escape
•Isolation= Interpersonal, intrapersonal, or existential isolation
•Meaning= Our ongoing search for substantial purpose-providing life structures often throws us into a crisis
•Death= Awareness of death is painful, but enriches life
-freedom is a terrible burden
-all of us are essentially isolated, born and die alone
-alone v loneliness=never a part of someone else, you can be around people but can’t bridge that connection to be “in” another person
|According to Albert Bandura, what is the best way to strengthen your sense of self-efficacy in a particular realm of behavior?A)through unconditional positive regard and a congruent self-conceptB)through observational learning and mastery experiencesC)by||
B)through observational learning and mastery experiences
|hostility according to kelly?||
when one refuses to accept the fact that their construct system has failed and demand validation from the environment
|Evolutionary Perspective on sex differences||
Men and women have faced different adaptive challenges. Reproductive constraints, strategy, and quality.Differences in aggression.
|Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development||
Baby weaned too early (from oral stage) will tend to hold onto things as an adult in order to avoid repeating the traumatic weaning experience; they will collect things, greedy; acquiring things, fame, money – substitute for something you’re really missing, love.
If your parent is very strict when your being toilet trained, you might retaliate by intentional soiling yourself. As you grow older, you do other things that substitute soiling yourself; being messyàway of retaliating (anal expulsive)
If parents were happy and encouraging as you're training - over organized; budget your time (Anal retentive)
If parents praise child as they are training, child thinks that it is of value; become very generous and giving
If over praise, child thinks they lost something of great value; become cheap and thrifty
Oedipal crisis-dealing with oedipalà young boy wants to kill father and marry mother-old Greek story about a guy who inadvertently killed his father and married his mother; à girls want to kill mother to be with father.
Freud believed as result of oedipal experience, boys experience castration anxiety, they feel like their father knows boy wants to get rid of father, so the dad wants to castrate them.
Girls have “penis envy”à all girls feel inferior to boys b/c they don’t have a penis and blame their mom for not having it and love their dad because he has one.
To cope with this, kids come to terms they can’t remove the father/mother and try to be as much like the parent as possible.
i.e. boy knows he cant get rid of dad, so he tries to be as much like dad as possible to attract a woman like his mom.
Latency-no erotic pleasure, start going to school, expanding social contact
Genital-erotic focus, again, is genitals
|What is the OEDIPUS COMPLEX?||
When children wish to have sex with their opposite sex parent but realize that it is forbidden
|What is the goal in Rogers' therapy sessions?||
To eliminate incongruity and to become a fully finctional person.
|what are the necessary conditions for an effective therapy accordign to Rogers?||
1. therapist must be in a state of congruency2. therapist must give client unconditional positive regard3. therapist must seek empathic listening4.client must feel the uncondition positive regard the therapist is giving