Personality Psychology 5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
super ego
the conscious
Dimensions of personality--1)introverted/extroverted 2)stable/unstable 3)psychoticism
Null Hypothesis Significance Testing
psychology through mental processes
retreating to a younger age
letting off steam (medicate) completely ineffective
self efficacy
power believing you can
Minimax Hypothesis
controllability provides individual with more than just extra predictability. provides guaranteed upper limit on how bad situation can become. stable attributions most important. predictability enhances stress reactions under conditions where controllability decreases those reactions
•    Public self, the “personality” you put on, like a mask before you interact with others
basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts
death instinct reflected in aggressive and self destructive actions
willful control of thinking, purposely putting thoughts out of consciousness
triadic reciprocality
behavior is determined through interaction of behavioral, cognitive, and environmental variables
feelings from patient transfers to clinitian
Under: Less brain activity -> Extra.Re: More brain activity -> Intro.
classical conditioning
association between 2 previously unrelated stimuli
Abraham Maslow
Hierarchy of Needs
biological needs
safety needs
love needs
esteem needs
Experiential System Functions
Holistic; Fast, sometimes instantaneous; Effortless. Operates outside of consciousness and is something we cannot talk about directly. Produces intuition, insight, and wisdom.
are capable of creative thinking willing to give things a try People who are NOT open don't like to change things and like the routine, comfortable
Reciprocal Determinism
The process in which cognitions, behavior and the environment mutually influence each other.
The tendency to seek evidence to confirm the self-concept.
Fragmentation Corollary
people are inconsistent because a person might employ a variety of construction subsystems which are inferentially incompatible with each other
Carl Rogers
  Rogersà Founder of humanist movement, 1950
1879à first year psychology became science people studied
Person Centered Theoryà matters what the person thinks, no talk of unconscious, no talk of environmental factors
Views personality as ‘Self concept’à collection of beliefs of how you view yourself
Unconditional positive regardà An attitude of total acceptance toward another person no matter what
nomothetic or normative = how you stand in comparison with others
humanistic theory
stresses the human capacity for improvementkelly
current concern
the ongoing motivation that persists in the mind until the goal is either attained or abandoned proposed by Eric Klinger; e.g. losing weight
you either have it or you dont
Two types of unconscious impulses
life supporting
death supporting
Relates personality to the conflicting forces within the individual. Began with Freud
personality inventory
a questionnaire designed to measure personality types or characteristics.
Theres some people that generally are more likely to be less stable in how they deal with situations could be more anxious, negative about the world
Self-Serving Bias
People's tendency to take credit for their successes but downplay responsibility for their failures.
A focus on similarities among people is to the _____ perspective as a focus on differences among people is to the _____ perspective.A)trait; social cognitiveB)psychoanalytic; humanisticC)psychoanalytic; traitD)social cognitive; humanistic
C)psychoanalytic; trait
Empathic Understanding
a therapist must seek to understand the subjective experiences of a client (if the client is sad the therapist must feel that sadness
a structure located near the base of the brain that is believed to play a role in emotion, especially negative emotions such as anger and fear
natural organismic valuing system
evaluation system called by Rogers
experiences in accord to the actualizing tendency are satisfying to the individual, not in accord are unsatisfying and a source of distress for the individual
allows the person to coordinate its experiences with its tendency toward self-actualization
takes good and bad things and projects it on the other people
entity theories
in Dweck's theory of motivation, an individual's belief that abilities are fixed and unchangeable
Trait-Situation Interaction
Involves the idea that influence of external/environmental settings or circumstances has an impact on the expression of personality traits.PERSONALITY SHAPES HOW WE INTERPRET EVENTS.
von Helmholtz
1850, all behavior should be explained by only physical forces, EMPIRICIST, invented ophthalmoscope, vibrations involved in hearing
psychodynamic perspective
a strong biogenetic foundation on what determines personality and the belief that we are largely unaware of how our individual personalities developed with an emphasis on the importance of internal dimensions of personality; developing in stages--Freud
The consistent ways in which one behaves. Latin for "mask"
rorschach test
a test for revealing the underlying personality structure of an individual by the use of a standard series of 10 inkblot designs to which the subject responds by telling what image or emotion each design evokes.
Personal Unconscious
Jung's term for that portion of the unconscious corresponding roughly to the Freudian Id.
Organic Metaphor
an image that calls attention to the potential for growth and form that is inherent within every person, nurtured by growth-producing circumstances (personality compared to the growth of plants and animals)
peripheral nervous system
the system of nerves throughout the boy, not including the brain and spinal cord
what 3 theory types can Kelly's theory be defined as?
CognitveExistential HUmanistic
clinically significant
an association that is large enough to have some practical importance.
The Essential Trait Approach
research strategy that attempts to narrow the list of thousands of trait terms into a shorter list of the ones that really matter
self discrepency theory
3 kinds of self relevant schemas- actual, idea, ought
Is there an unconscious? How do you know? How would you subject this concept to empirical examination?
Norman's Big 5 dimensions of personality
Openness to experience, neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness
Bandura and human nature:nature vs nurture?individuality vs universality
indivs create own environmentabnormals can be changed by behavior modbehaviors are learned, genetic factors play a minor role(clumsy vs graceful child upbringing)
requirements for theory of motivation
mst recognize the nature or motivesallow existence of several motivesrecognize importance of cognitive processesrecognize each person is unique
temporal contingency
CS and UCS have to occur close in time
minnesota multiphasic personality inventory
a widely used test designed to identify configurations of personality traits in normal persons and to study the personality patterns occurring in various types of mental illness.
Men & locus of control
high internal when it comes to academics
law of effect
organism is going to be more likely to repeat a behavior the lead to favorable responses.
In Freud's theory, if a parent overindulges or frustrates the child's expression of pleasurable feelings at a particular psychosexual stage of development:A)the ego may not develop.B)the child may experience fixation and continue to seek pleasure through
B)the child may experience fixation and continue to seek pleasure through behaviors associated with the particular psychosexual stage.
How important to Roger's was the self-actualizing tendency?
Very strong. All biological drives are subsumed underneath the actualizing tendency.
What are the 3 structures Freud believed made up the personality?
The id, the ego, and the superego
How universal did Rogers think the need for positive regard actually is?
he believed it was universal just not innate in some cases.
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