Personality Test 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Cognitive Person Variables
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traits
relatively enduring personal charactersistics
MMPI
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (2), revised in 1980s; objective tests; most widely used object of personality test; originally developed as an aid in diagnosing psychiatric disorders; two versions-adult and adolescent
neuroticism
Eysenck's Model, referring to tendencies toward emotional instability, anxiety, and worry
denial
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people refuse to believe or even to perceive painful realities.
Personality
an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
regression
psychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated
Focus
how we (thoughts/feelings, etc) interact with our environment
rationalization
defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions
sublimaiton
the channeling of unacceptable impuleses into socially sanctionedbehaviors or interests
id
unconscious; innate sexual and aggressive instincts and drives
pleasure principle: seeking to achieve immediate gratification and avoid discomfort
displacement
psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet
MNEMONIC: displacement, like misplacement, putting it somewhere else
APPLICATION: kicking your dog instead of your mom
archetypes
[Jung] primitive images contained in the collective unconscious that reflects ancestral or universal experiences of human beings
collectivistic culture
culture that emphasizes people's social roles and obligations
situation variables
Mischel, environmental influences on behavior, such as rewards and punishments
reciprocal determinism
the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment.
repression
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness
Superego
the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations.
Ectomorph
thin, high strung, solitary, loves cerebral activity
psychoanalysis
Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
Sublimation
In Freudian theory, a defense mechannism involving the channeling of unacceptable impulses into socially sanctioned behaviors or interests.
androgyny
a type of gender-role identification that characterized people who possess high levels of both masculine & feminine traits.
Carl Jung
splits unconscious into personal unconscious and collective unconscious
personality inventories
questionnaires (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors assessing several traits at once.
oral stage
Freud, psychosexual stage of development; age: 0-18 months; focus: oral cavity; task: transition from bottle/breast to solid food; conflict: id derives pleasure from sucking/excepting into mouth; if child fails to complete tasks, (s)he becomes fixated; fixations-underindulged oral-suspicious, sarcastic, pessimistic, trust issues; overindulged oral-clingy, optimistic, gullible, needy
phallic stage
Freud, psychosexual stage of development; age: 3-6 years; focus: genitals; task: Explorer genital region, develop a relationship with parents, especially same gender parent; conflict: Oedipus/Electra complex-child competes with same-sex parents were opposite sex parent's attention; fixations-male-Castration Anxiety-because father possesses mother and therefore has power, dad "castrates" sign (removes power), must prove self, dominant, marries mother figure; female-penis envy-according to Freud penis equals power, submissive, dates older men
EGO
The part of the personality that mediates conflicts between and among the demands of the id, the superego and the real world
adrenocorticotrophic hormone
pituitary hormone that activates the adrenal cortex to relesase corticosteriods
health psychology
subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine
defense mechanism
in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.
Alfred Adler
thought that people posess innate positive motives and strive for personal and social perfection
agreeableness
refers to how friendly/caring a person is
Free Association
in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
defense mechanisms
in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
identification
the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos
Psychoticism
One of the three underlying dimensions of personality in Eysenck's model, reffering to tendencies to be perceived as cold and antisocial..
Individual psychology
Adler's theory of personality, which emphasizes the unique potiential of each individual.
anal stage
the second stage of psychosexual development, during which sexual gratification is centered on processes of elimination
psychodynamic theories
neo-freudian approaches; Carl Jung and Alfred Adler
personal control
our sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless
self-esteem
one's feelings of high or low self-worth
Anima
Jung; female archetype as expressed in a man; masculine side of a woman; originates in the collective unconscious; comes from women's experiences with men which create the concept of men, appears in dreams, visions, fantasies
Psychodynamic Conflicts (intrapsychic)
Freud described the inner clashes among 3 personality components
collective unconscious
[Jung] part of the mind containing ideas and archetypal images shared among humankind that have been transmitted genetically from ancestral humans
projective test
a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics
Determinism
if all influences acting on a person at any given time were known, it would be possible to predict that person's behavior
positive psychology
the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 628).
oedipus complex
according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
Unconditional Positive regard
valuing another person as having intrinsic worth, regardless of the person's behavior at the particular time
Creative self
In Adler's theory, the self-aware part of personality that organizs self-seeking efforts.
conscious
in freudian theory, the part of the mind corresponding to the state of present awareness
reaction formation
expressing the opposite of how one truly feels
self-actualizing tendency
Rogers; drive of an individual to achieve his/her self-concept or self image; living up to the image of yourself that you create
psychosexual stage: oral
0-1 years. pleasure center in mouth
if fixated: oral fixation
Projective Personality Tests
A test made up of unconstructed stimuli that can be percieved and responded to in many ways
source traits
Cattell, traits at a deep level of personality that are not apparent in being observed behavior but must be inferred based on underlying relationships among surface traits
Pleasure principle
According to Freud, the way in which the id seeks immediate gratification of an instinct
Minnesota Mutiphasic Personality Inventory
The most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders, this test is now used for many other screening purposes.
Preconscious
To Freud, the part of the mind whose contents can be brought into awareness through focused attention.
humanistic perspective
School of thought that focuses on the study of conscious experience, the individual's freedom to choose, and capacity for personal growth.
Electra Complex
A young girl's sexual desire for her father and hatred for her mother.
reality principle
Freud; ego process; means by which the ego satisfies the id without compromising the value/morals are the superego
Eysenck's Biological Trait Theory
Utilized factor anaylsis to identify 2 basice personality factors: introversion (sociable, outgoing, grp activites), emotionality stability (moodiness, restlesness, worry, anxiety), neuroticism (calm, even tempered, relaxed emotionally stable)
Internal Locus of Control
the perception that you control your own fate
Fight or flight response
The body's built-in alarm system that allows it to quickly mobilize its resources to either fight or flee when faced with a threatening stressor.
external locus of control
the perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine one's fate
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