Pharmacology 26 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
antibiotic, aminoglycoside
upper GI
p. 309
Alpha−blocker prototype

irreversible action. Used in pheochromocytoma
B blocker
-Reverse transcriptase inhibitor
-Anemia and neutropenia
-Lactic acidosis
alpha1 selective agonist
used against RSV
inhibits COX
analgesic, anti-inflamm, antipyretic
mild to moderate pain
Fluconazole, ketoconazole, clotrimazole, miconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole.
Platinum−containing alkylating cancer chemotherapeutic agent. Used for several solid tumors (eg, testes, lung). Carboplatin is similar.
Motilium (GI stimulant)
-Intercalating agent: antibiotic antineoplastic-Advanced testicular and ovarian carcinoma-Pulmonary fibrosis
Parasites (Amebiasis)MOA: Causes multiple-strand breaks, disruption of DNA replication & trx & inhibits DNA repairAdmin: oralSE: Nausea, headache, metallic taste GI, CNS, hematologic Disulfiram-like reaction TERATOGENICOTH: May potentiate oral anticoagulantsTX: Giardiasis Entamebiasis Trichomoniasis (also G. vaginalis, B. fragilis, C. difficile)
Nervous System AND Pain/AntiinflammatoryOpioid Agonist - "Buprenex"30x morph, good pain med for cats, sublingual, post-declaw, 4-10 hours, unreliable sedation
pure opioid antagonistuses:control crib biting in horsesreverse carfentanil-induced immobilizationlong duration of actionoral or parenteral use
To become electrically charge
Nifedipine blocks -- channels
Type of drug?
Intermediate acting
Antifungal azole prototype

active systemically; inhibits the synthesis of ergosterol. Used for C albicans, dermatophytes and for non−life−threatening systemic mycoses.

hepatic dysfunction, inhibits steroid synthesis and P450−dependent drug metabolism

irreversible blocker of H+/K+ ATPase proton pump in parietal cells of stomach. Used in Zollinger−Ellison syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Raise HDL?
Any, Niacin best
5HT/NA reuptake inhibitor anti-obesity, anti-depressant
Serotonin receptor antagonist, with special affinity for D4 rreceptors. Also anticholinergic. Used to treat schizophrenia (second generation antipsychotic).
Anti-Fungal (s7s drugs for mucocutaneous) MOA: inhibits microtubule function, with long-term therapy, this drug accumulates in the newly synthesized stratum corneum MET: well abs orally, esp with high fat diet; elim bile SE: Headache, Hepatotoxicity, GI, rarely teratogenic/carcinogenic TX: Dermatophytes (Trichophyton, Microsporum, Epidermophyton)
antiepileptic drugs:
phenytoin (Dilantin)
most commonly prescribed antiepileptic agent
known as broad-spectrum; effective in basically all forms of epilepsy except absence seizures
often drug of choice in adults & older kids
at therapeutic doses, does not cause general CNS depression
believed to stabilize membranes (hyperpolarization) & prevent spread of seizures from a hyper-reactive focus 
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors         Therapeutic uses
Heart failure
Myocardial infarction (MI)

Diabetic and nondiabetic nephropathy

Prevention of MI, stroke, and death in patients at high cardiovascular risk
What is second pass effect
Highest blood concentration. It's highest 1/2hr to 1hr after administration.
Drugs that decrease baroreceptor sensitivity
Does hydrochlorothiazide increase or decrease the excretion of calcium ion?
uses for cocaine
local anesthetic
Type of drug?
Tx for glaucoma
Opioid analgesic prototype

strong mu receptor agonist. Poor oral bioavailability. Effects include analgesia, constipation, emesis, sedation, respiratory depression, miosis, and urinary retention. Tolerance may be marked; high potential for psychologic and physical dependence. Additive effects with other CNS depressants
cortifoam (rectal foam) - steroid
Non-selective for alpha-1 subtypes (also binds alpha-2B). Treats hypertension, Reynaud's, & congestive heart failure. Binds alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (5% of drug is free) – inflammation may alter quantity. Half-life: 2-8 h. Increase dose slowly.
Uncommon/reversible reactions to cephalosporins
-Disulfiram-like reaction-Synergistic nephrotoxicity with aminoglycosides-Overgrowth of resistant organisms-Candidiasis
What is an antagonist?
prevents receptor activation
Since amphetamines and related drugs are addictive, what kind of drug can be used alternatively to tx hypersomnia and ADHD?
Sympatholytic Drugs (break down)
Inhibit SNSAdrenergic antagonist
Ca channel blocker
more selective VD
Pediatric considerations
Can they learn, age etc.
Cyclosporine (Sandimmune, Neoral)
T-cell and B-cell suppressors.
Degenerative disease that effects the optic nerve
saw palmetto
(GI distress, dec. libido, HTN)
Antiarrhythmics- K+ channel blockers (class III)
p. 322
clinical uses of aztreonam
(GNR only, nothing against gm + or anaerobes)
Type of drug?
Cancer drug- Anti-estrogen
Estrogen antagonist in breast, agonist in bone
Synthetic estrogen

used in many oral contraceptives
G/B cimetidine
Which enicillin is given IV?
Penicillin G
PGI2 analog that treats primary pulmonary hypertension (light and temp. sensitive). This and trepro are expensive.
is a histamine antagonist, which is used to treat indigestion, and as part of triple therapy in gastric ulcers.
Where does excretion take place?
Liver and Kidneys
____mg = 1 grain
60 mg= 1 grain
pathophysiology of hyperthyroidism
autoimmune disorder; TSI - thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin stimulates TSH receptors (pretends it's TSH)
excessive secretion of thyroid hormoneleads to increased metabolic rate, excessive heat production & increased responsiveness to catecholamines; these actions lead to profound changes in many organ systems
severe acute exacerbation (i.e. thyroid storm) may be life-threatening, emergent complication
Beta Blockers
block central adrenergic receptors to reduce sympathetic outflow, for situational anxiety
This drugs side effects include potural hypotension, impotence in men, nasal stuffiness and nausea and vomiting.
Phenoxybenzamine (prototype)
furosemide (Lasix)
Loop diuretics Furosemide (Lasix) is a loop diuretic often used to treat acute heart failure.
pharmacology effects
block peripheral nerve conduction and antiarythmic
Useful in reversing effects of Opoids
Opoid antagonist
Which MAOIs are reversible and don't cause as much toxicity?
Phen Bro Moc
antidote for salicylates =
alkalinize pee (acetazolamide), dialysis
Fibrinogen is converted to fibrin by _________
MOA penicillin
it binds to penicillin binding proteins
blocks the cross-linking of peptidoglycan
activates autolytic enzymes
betalactam ABx
dont allow assembly maintenance and regulation of cytoplasm
Which of the following anticonvulsants is correctly paired with the process it most likely affects?
diazepam (Valium)--GABA
binds to a pain receptor
has no effect on pain
(reverses the effect of the opioids)
3 more abortants
Misoprostol (a PGE1 analog), mifepristone (RU486), or methotrexate.
Inhibits the Na+/K+/2Cl- in the thick ascending loop. Have high-ceiling diuretic effects.
Having a coating (as on a capsule) that prevents stomach irritation.
What would happen if you combined SSRIs with MAOIs?
serotonin syndrome
beginning of the nephron; a tuft of capillaries branching off the afferent arteriole; the blood is filtered by the glomerulus & this ultrafiltrate enters Bowman's capsule
**more permeable than any other body membrane 
Glucagon Glucagen
HormoneDosage:Img IM/SC repeat 5 to 20 minDef: Protein secreted by pancreatic cell that causes a breakdown of stored glycogen into glucose and inhibits the synthesis of glycogen from glucloseInd:Hypoglycemia w/o IV access and to reverse beta blockerCon:Hypersensitvity to glucagon or protein compoundsPre:Cardiovascular or renal impairment only effective when sufficent stores of glycogen in the liver
which benzodiazepines are short-acting
TOM thumb: Triazolam, Oxazepam, Midazolam
pros of benzodiazepines
dec. dose of other anesthetic drugsmuscle relaxantweak resp. depressionminor CV effects
Define drug
Chemical used to diagnose, treat, or prevent disease.
Cephalosporins - NI
Careful admin. With other nephrotoxic drugs; beware of mult. Drug interactions, esp. when given IV; assess for bleeding. No alcohol consumption, can cause alcohol intolerance. Impairs alcohol metab., causes increased acetaldehyde and patient gets a hang-over effect (antabuse effect); disulfiram reaction (**within 72 hours of taking antibiotic)
Define assay
Test that determines the amount and purity of a given chemical in a preparation in the laboratory.
Which induction agents are used for seizure mapping
clinical uses of benzodiazepines
pre-anesthetic med (often w/ opioids)
tx of seizures (midazolam: neonatal seizures in foals)
tx anorexia in cats
tx fears & phobias
Rate of elimination is proportional to _______ ______ in 1st order elimination.
drug concentration
which epi drug is 1st line for trigeminal neuralgia
Outlide vitamin C's actions:
-oxidation of lysine
-reduction of Fe3+ to 2+ in stomach
-conversion of folic to folinic acid
-steroidogenesis in adrenals
-also: an antioxidant!
Anticholinergic drugs are used for?
-treat parkinsonism
-relief of extrapyramidal symptoms
a deficient amount of oxygen in the blood
Drug used to treat Parkinson's that is a sympathomimetic and is similar to dopamine.
Corticosteroid vs protease inhibitor SEs
-Corticosteroids: moon face with peripheral atrophy
-Protease inhibitors: facial peripheral atrophy
What is the best way to relieve stress from school?
contraindications of antihistamines:
in use w/ MAO inhibitors, narrow-angle glaucoma, peptic ulcer, prostatic hypertrophy
caution in elderly - excessive sedation
not recommended w/ bronchitis/pneumonia: dry secretions making them more difficult to remove
antihistamines taken by young kids can cause drowsiness w/ first few administrations & paradoxic excitement (CNS excitation) w/ repeated use
Adrenergic Receptors
Alpha 1, Alpha 2, Beta 1, Beta 2
A ratio used to evaluate the safety and usefulness of a drug for an indication.
Therapeutic Index
isotretinoin/13-Cis-retinoic acid (Accutane)
Drugs for acne and rosacea: Retinoids Isotretinoin/13-Cis-retinoic acid (Accutane) is a retinoid agent used to treat acne and rosacea.
Beta adrenergic blocking agents - uses, S/E, & NI
Hypertension, angina, arrhythmias, migraine headaches (preventative), glaucoma (drecrease aqueous humor production), anxiety/stage fright.

S/E: relate to blocking of beta receptors. Dose related.

NI: Assess resp. and cardiac, ortho static hypotension, titrate down, otherwise the rebound effect can occur. Assess for hypoglycemia if B2 is blocked. Drug interactions can cause changes in memory and sleep disturbances, bronchial constriction.
the drug is placed into a body cavity
Topical (instillations)
What are the names of the pharmacologic reversal agents for sedation?
Flumazenil and naloxone
what phase of succinylcholine neuomuscular bloackade is irreversible?
phase I Succinylcholine neuromuscular blockade cannot be reversed
food in the stomach _____ the GER

gastric emptying rate
Muscle spasticity may result from?
increase in excitatory influences within CNS or a decrease in inhibitory influences within CNS
What is 5 mg hydrocodone + 500 mg acetaminophen?
Extravascular infilitration
Injection of local under the skin in the immediate area of surgery
How much of the drug will be out of the system within 3-4 half-lives?
Drug interactions with ACE inhibitors
all ACE inhibitors enhance hypotensive effects of diuretics and other hyertensives, such as BBs
can increase serum lithium levels, possibly resulting in lithium toxicity
Digoxin: increased risk for toxicity
when used w/ K-sparing diuretics, K supplements, or K-containing salt substitutes, hyperkalemia may occur ("kalemia" = "in serum")
aspirin & NSAIDS may interfere w/ ACE inhibitor effects
Drugs that have anticholinergic effects are derived from natural sources such as the:
Atropa belladonna or “Deadly Night Shade”
This drug acts of GABA β receptors and they reduce the release of excitatory transmitters from the brain and spinal cord leading to presynaptic inhibition
Baclofen, (LIORESAL, prototype)
What are some drugs for constipation?
Piates, Antacids, Chemo agentsMost are OTC, others are Lactulose (chronulac) and Golytely
Tetracycline NI
NI: Not given to children under 8 yrs or after 4 months of pregnancy; chelate.
Admin minerals 2 hrs apart fm Tetracycline; give on empty stomach. Check for s/s of superinfection. Take w/ 8 ounces of water.
What are fungal diseases called?
Mycoses; the drug Mycostatin is antifungal agent
What are the cell cycle Nonspecific oncologic drugs?
alkylating agents and antibiotics
which receptors are associated with Gi
MAD 2's
alpha 2
Dornase alfa (Pulmozyme) may be used to treat what two lung diseases?
bronchitis and cystic fibrosis
Tiotropium (advantages, how taken, and treats what?)
Bronchial effects similar to ipratropium, and is administered as an inhalant. Its advantages are its long-duration of action and its greater selectivity for M1 and M3 receptors. Can treat COPD.
3 drugs used for generalized seizures
Ethosuximide, valproic acid, and sodium valproate.
The two routes of drug administration are?
Enteral: oral (suffers first-pass effect where drug gets metabolized in the gut wall and liver), sublingual (like nitroglyrcerin which is very lipophilic), rectal (partial avoidance of first-pass effect) Parenteral: IV, IM, subcutaneous, intradermal (PPD)
Bile Acid Resins Administration
Give one hr before, 4-6 after other meals, mix w cool liquids,
My friend Barb was very anxious so her doctor gave her barbiturates to increase the duration of the time she could speak in public without freaking out and having a seizure. She became so dependent on it that she recommended it to her friend Portia who
clinical pharmacology made ridiculous. Period
How does Paclitaxel work? 2. Side effects?
1.M-phase-specific agent that binds to tubulin and hyperstabilizes the polymerized microtubules preventing mitotic spindle breakdown. 2.Myelosuppression and hypersensitivity
What are the three receptor sites of norepinepherine
Alpha, Beta, and Dopaminergic
What toxicity mactches the following drugs 1. Halothane 2. Methoxyflurane 3. Enflurane 4. Rare
1. Hepatotoxcity 2. Nephrotoxicty 3. Proconvulsant 4. Malignant hyperthermia
If a drug has a half-life of 6 hours and a starting blood concentration of 100mg/kg, how long will it take until the concentration of the drug in the blood is 25mg/kg?
12 hours
Rifampin mechanism of resistance
Mostly by target site mutation in gene for rpoB subunit of RNA polymerase
What is the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation?
pH = pK + log ([Unprotonated form]/ [Protonated form]) NB that the most important application of this equation is in the manipulation of drug excretion by the kidney
what classes of drugs are used to treat glaucoma
alpha agonists, beta blockers, cholinomimetics, diuretics, prostaglandins (*mnemonic -- treating glaucoma is easy as ABCD)
What are 5 different treatment types used for lameness?
• Anti-inflammatory NSAIDs, can use 24 hours pre race Corticosteroids, mostly used intra-articularly (IA), not systemic• Replacement Hyaluronic acid: HA given IA (significant flare if given alone), analogs given IM (Adequan) or IV (Legend) Chondroitins, glucosamines: cartilage builders• Analgesia (mild): Sarapin, methylcarbamine(muscle relaxant)• Counter-irritation to promote blood flow Internal and external blisters• Adjunct therapy: physical therapy (swimming, training)
What does the abbreviation stand for: mg
milligram, one thousandth of a gram
how does lithium help people with bipolar disorder
prevents relapse and acute manic episodes
What is the MOA of erythropoietin?
Binds to JAK/STAT factor to increase RBC formation and release
Why must lidocaine levels be checked continuously?
It distributes to peripheral tissues, metabolized by the liver, and 80% is protein bound.
how do mast cell stabilizers work to prevent an asthma attack? They are which type of med?
what is the prototype mast cell stabilizer med for asthma?
how long to reach th. levels?
not good for_____?
especially good for____?
prevent mast cells from releasing histamine; antiinflammatory
 prototype:  cromolyn sodium (intal)
takes several weeks of daily use to reach th. levels
not good for acute attacks
especially good for seasonal allergic attacks (start before season begins to build up th. level)
Tx of accidental ingestions of salicylate?
150-200 mg/kg may be managed at home with dilution and observation
What is the most frequent form of bacterial resistance to antibiotics?
destruction of the antibiotic by bacterial enzymes
What size needle would you use for a SQ injection?
SQ injection:
1/2 inch; no larger than 5/8 in.
 25- 27 guage needle.
Greater than 200 mg/kg of salicylates are Tx how?
Referred to ED for AC and salicylate levels. Levels are obtained every two hours until you get two levels that are less than 30 mg/kg. Peak levels may be delayed by six hours or more with tablets, and 12 hours or more with enteric coated preparations.
What size needle would you use for an IM injection?
IM: 20-25 gauge
1-3 in (depending on the size of patient and iscosity of the drug)
1 Centrally acting agents affecting the CNS (methyldopa, clonidine)
1 Act at specific sites in the SNS, the BP control centre in the brain, to decrease blood pressure
1 Act at alpha2 receptors, decrease NA release in the brain and therefore decrease SNS outflow to periphery = decreased BP 
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