Philosophy midterm exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Knowledge, knowing.
Wisdom, Truth, Knowledge
Oracle of Delphi
Know Thyself
Opp of empiricism
-belief that reason is best or sole guide to reality
The absense of causes (James)
To recognize, understand, envision, discern.
What is Socrates (moral.....)
Moral Realist
Moral Cognitivist
a communication or declaration in speech or writing setting forth facts, particulars, etc. a fact or assertion offered as evidence that something is true. Has to be declared.Basis of an argument.
the metaphysical view that many distinct substances are in the universe and perhaps many different kinds of substances as well (125)
Atoms, Materialist, Laws of necessity, existence determined by physical laws
stand to tension and compression. lacks nerve fibers and avascular. nutriets are from diffusion. fluid matrix allows it to rebound after compression,
out of keeping or place; inappropriate; unbecoming:
a deceptive, misleading, or false notion
Theological Argument
God predetermines future through his divine foreknowledge.
political philosophy
branch of philosophy that analyzes that states and related concepts such as obligation, law, social justice, and constitution
The beginning of and end of everythingUltimate inner essences of all things
Method of inquiry, method of doubt, Cogito ergo sum- I think therefore I am.
What are the 3 kinds of Evidentialism?
Cosmological Argument
The existence of contingent things implies the existence of something necessary (The universe had to come from somewhere).
Making reference to the different inputs, outputs, and other features of the program that the computer uses to operate
Software view
derived from or guided by experience or experiment.
the process of forming ideas or images.
the act of reproving, censuring, or rebuking.
Free will defense
Traditional christian response to the problem of evil which claims that adam and eve or all of humanity
289. (a) TRUE or FALSE: The instincts of a non-human animal are called its “estimative power.”
At the beginning of an excerpt from Aristotle’s discussion on the unmoved mover, Aristotle tells us that the unmoved mover is continually engaged in the very best activity. In this same paragraph Aristotle also introduces an important new term. What imp
Simple Indeterminism
the theory that actions are free because they don't have causes (Taylor thinks James is a simple indeterminist)
What is a syllogism?
A logical three step argument
introducing a technical term such as work by explaining how the term will be used is giving a stipulative definition
What is the normative ethical position that moral agents ought to do what is in their own self-interest?
Ethical egoism
priori belief...
belief that does not depend on experience for justification...

ex: how do you know God or a malicious demon isn't deceiving you
the doctrine or belief that all events are determined by their purposes or goals.
What type of God did Socrates believe in
1 God
Silence argument
Billions of people have died, why is there no communication if there is an afterlife. Argument against: maybe dead have other things to do, or cant communicate.
Epistemological Rationalism:
The view that much of human knowledge is innate. Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz.
red is not green example
What is foundationalism?
In epistemology - the view that knowlesge must be viewed as a pyramid mde up of building blocks the upper levels of which rest upon a solid foundation which itself is basic and needs no support.
What is intuition?
A direct awareness of something that is directly present to consciousness.
Ad hominem
Literally, "to the man"; in logic, an attack on or appeal to the personal rather than to reason.
subjective idealism
a doctrine that the world has no existence independent of sensations or ideas
What is the “alternate possibilities” view of responsibility?
That means you’re responsible for that action only whenever you could have done otherwise
what can be said of parts can be said of a whole
Ex: Each player on a football team is an excellent athlete. Therefore, the team as a whole is excellent
Does the Bible accept empirical evidence and what verse deals with it?
Yes it does
Matthew 11:2-6
The healings and miracles offer sensory experience as proof for Jesus
A continual bestowal of being, or the thing would be annihilated
Act of being
a posteriori
not existing in the mind prior to or independent of experience.
273. MULTIPLE CHOICE: What determines the “figure” of a syllogism?a. where the middle term is placedb. which combination of A, E, I, and O judgments is used, and in what order they are used
Where the middle term is placed.
What 4 categories did the Milesians divide matter up into?
earth, water, air and fire
Hobbes’s Ship of Theseus TE
This thought experiment brings up the idea of Theseus's ship that goes on many voyages and has many repairs
Eventually all the peices are replaced for new ones.
Is it still the same ship Theseus started with?

This thought experiment questions the idea if the idenity of something is in it's properties or if it's the actual thigns that make up the ship
What two words is Philosophy derived from?
Philein → to love
Sophie → wisdom
1st Order Desire
A desire to "X." A desire to act in some way.
How is Noam Chomksy's idea rationalism?
Innate knowledge of grammar so innate knowledge
What is Taylor’s argument for the existence of God?
1.) the world exists contingently
2.) So, its existence depends on something else
3.) either a.) something else is another contingent which depends on another contingent...
or b.) the world derives its existence from a necessary being
4.) a.) is impossible
5.) b.) is true. There must be a necessary being on what everything depends
6.) God exists
What in particular does the self-controlled man follow?
He observes the mean in these matters. Explain. He takes no pleasure in what is most pleasant to the self-indulgent, but rather finds it disgusting; in general, he takes no pleasure in touch and taste. He feels neither pain or appetite, or only moderately, when he does not have these pleasures: he feels them no more than he should, nor when he should not, and so forth. But all the pleasant things that contribute to his health and well-being he desires moderately and in the way he should, and also other pleasures as long as they are neither detrimental to health and well-being nor incompatible with what is noble nor beyond his means. A man who does not observe these standards loves such pleasures more than they are worth. But a self-controlled man is of a different sort: he follows right reason.
Why did Kant refer to his theory of knowledge as a "Copernican revolution" in epistemology?
7. "Copernican Revolution," that, as he puts it, it is the representation that makes the object possible rather than the object that makes the representation possible. This introduced the human mind as an active originator of experience rather than just a passive recipient of perception. This gives rise to questions about whether our "knowledge" is anything to do with the "world as it is."
Refers to the fact that those data, do not unambiguously select one and only one law.
Undetermination of theories by data
By the end of Hegel's life, his disciples were split into left-wing and right-wing Hegelians. These two factions advocated, respectively,
a radical assault on existing social, political, and religious institutions, and a liberal and progressive approach to change
What is the connection between rationality, universality and objectivity?
If a trutch is rational, then it will be true for everyone, because what we all have in common is our reason. It is our passion, our self-interest, our emotion that makes us different from one another, hence, rationality implies universality. If a truth is rational, then it will be onjective - it will be true of the object, not of the subject who is stating the truth.
203. What does the theory of hylomorphism teach about the relationship of the human body and the human soul?
your body and soul are both part of you.
From the remarks toward the end of the Allegory of the Cave Plato appears to have thought that Socrates was executed because?
he was an advanced thinker whose fate was determined by ignorant jurors who misunderstood his motives and methods
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