Philosophy Quiz 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Arche: Thales
Judging Theories
1.State claim/problem2.Evidence3.Alternative possibilities4.Evaluate- Criteria of Adequacy
a posteriori
appeals to observation/senses
presenting favorable conditions; favorable:
Particular Affirmative
Some S is P 
Law, art, philosophy, religion-keep people submissive, state and religion are product of dominant economic group "religion is the opiate of the people"
not consonant or in accord.
Which Fallacy: Sparrows are plentiful. Pete my pet bird is a sparrow. Therefore Pete is plentiful?
Brahman is often described by this
\"Bundle of Perceptions\" refers to mankind b/c mind is like a theaterEasy transition of mind makes us overlook differences (dollar is same to us as chipped dollar, lose fingernail but still same person)1st Contradiction: Ship of Theseus=Whose ship is original ship? According to Hume, if you change just 1 part you have a different thing.2nd Contradiction: Paradox of Heap=heap of stones, subtract one and you still have a heap..keep subtracting and heap will be completely gone
a ______ argument could provide knowledge of a non-trivial moral conclusion
manist view that only mental substances and ideas exist
serene, calm, or well-balanced; poised and disciplined.
terza rima
Enter your back text here.
Cogito, God, math, World
Descartes' steps to truth
An attempt to explain God's actual reasons for permitting evil in the world.
a categorical statement can be affirmative (it affirms that a general term applies to some objects) or negative ( it denies that some general term applies to an object.)
Deductive Reasoning
Arguments have premises and a conclusion. The truth of the premises should provide grounds for the truth of the conclusion, so that the argument gives one who believes the premises a good  reason for believing the conclusion. 
What philosophical field trys to solve this: What truly exists and how what exists is ordered or organized are characteristic problems.
a statement that that supports or provides justification for the conclusion.
True or False: Descriptive ethics tells how one ought to behave
a secondary or additional symptom or complication arising during the course of a disease.
having no common basis, measure, or standard of comparison
Natural Law Theory
Morality hard wired in humans (Aquinas)
A being with Good Will, according to _, automatically does its duty.
Berkeley Empiricist Quote
To be is to be perceived
Confucianism: Ritual
Tradition is accumulated wisdom of the past
not just the living matter
is an argument that is invalid because it is missing a key promise. Often the missing premise is implied or obvious from the context of the argument, but since it is not explicitly stated the argument is invalid.
The ____ states the point being argued for, and the ____ state the reasons being advanced to support the _____.


What are the teachings of Hinduism?
- Renounce "cravings"
- Not "hanker after happiness"
- Not be "shaken by adversity"
- To "control the senses"
- To be "free from ego, free from pride"
- To break "the bonds of the flesh"
This former friend of Wagner wrote about the Ubermensch or Superman
Friedrich Nietzsche
a branch of knowledge or study dealing with a body of facts or truths systematically arranged and showing the operation of general laws:
a concept developed by the mind of what is desirable or ought to be; ideal
Act-utilitarianism and warfare

AU basically says that we can conduct warfare in 
whatever way we want, so long as we do what 
promotes the community’s good in the long-run. 
  According to AU, whether one is a civilian or a 
combatant – guilty or innocent – does not matter. It 
is all just a question of maximizing utility. 
  There is no type of action – no matter how barbaric 
– that AU says is always wrong, on principle. 
conceptualist model
God does not acquire his knowledge of the world by anything like perception
Aristotle v. Plato
Both say that the most important aspect of a human is reason
A: knowledge begins with the senses
P: reason is inhibited by the senses
comparitive justice
treated the same as others who have committed similar offenses
Act Utilitarianism
Someone does the right thing if the foreseeable or intended effect of his action brings about more happiness than any other action available.
What are the three theodicies?
free-will, contrast, and soul making
law of parsimony
a principle according to which an explanation of a thing or event is made with the fewest possible assumptions
Second level Moral principles
These are specific guides to decision making developed by society. These do not justify themselves, but are justified when used in combination with the pluralistic ethical standards.
These are derived from 2 sources.
1) the collective moral experience of a society or of a group within that society.
2)The work of contemporary moral or social critics.
Straw Man
setting up an argument in such a way that the opposing view is easy to refute
Churchland on self
self is a construction of the brain; the self of self-control. it is a brain-dependant network that monitors body states and creates separation between inner and outer worlds.
argument contains implicit premises which are evaluative
why the "communism is bad" argument doesn't bridge the is-ought gap
38. Name 4 criteria established by B.J. Palmer to define a subluxation?
malposition, occlusion, nerve impingement, interference
Lockes modern empiricism foresees a scientific methodology that would?
combine reasoning with sense evidence; observe objects to discover their basic structures; employ technology to expand and enhance the powers of our senses
NOTICE THIS: Aristotle says that abstract ideas are MENTALLY ISOLATED forms, so they are indeed one kind of form. But in order to even understand the definition of abstract ideas as a kind of form, you have to already understand some more basic definition
NOTICE THIS: Aristotle says that abstract ideas are MENTALLY ISOLATED forms, so they are indeed one kind of form. But in order to even understand the definition of abstract ideas as a kind of form, you have to already understand some more basic definition of the word “form.” Therefore, “abstract idea” is NOT the most basic meaning of the term “form,” in Aristotle’s terminology.
What does the Bible say about Existentialism vs. Evidentialism?
Favors evidentialism
Choice based upon evidence
The idea that at any moment one can directly choose to believe or not to believe a given item.
Direct doxastic voluntarism
How does the Basic Argument work?
Bad people can’t help being bad people, they are just created that way.
How does a person distinguish between legitimate and illegitimate freedoms?
Legitimate freedoms are freedoms that we should be allowed to have in society. Illegitimate freedoms are the opposite. Ex. We can be free as long as we don’t harm others
Mackie's response to fallacious solution III
God should have made men such that they always freely choose the good in order to maintain free will and lack of evil
Enumerate (name) five theories of art and briefly explicate each of them.
Art as Imitation - Presents a reproduction or likeness of some reality such as a view, person, etc.
Art as Expression of Emotion - Art that when the artist expresses his emotion in a way that arouses the same emotion in the audience.
Art as Form - Its parts and materials are arranged and put together (its form) so as to stir our aesthetic emotions.
The End of Art - Contemporary artists push the boarders of art to ask the question what is art and in doing so they stop being artists and become philosophers
Art is What the Art World Says - An artifact specifically made to be presented to an art world public that is prepared to understand it.
According to Kant, what is the highest good?
virtue together with happiness (which is in proportion to moral worth)
What is Descartes' first mediation about?
Sciences: He offers the reasons why we can doubt all things in general, and particularly material objects, at least as long as we do not have other foundations for the sciences
Which Fallacy: All the best families now provide skiing lessons for their children. Your children will thank you for investing in their future with Ski Tuesday Private Lessons?
Appeal to popular opinion or appeal to the people (bandwagon fallacy)
Which of the 4 sources of knowledge are most problematic for the skeptic?
The sources most problematic for a skeptic are sense perception and memory. Sense perception can mislead individuals to the truth, and some senses are weaker in individuals, meaning they cannot gain knowledge as well as others. Memories can be very vague and can lead someone to believe that something is true, when it’s false.
Doing ethics (Brincat & Wike)
what a person should do in order to be moral
Who was a famous Sophist and what did he say?
Protagoras (485 B.C.)- “Man is the measure”
Man uses himself to gauge everything he sees and believes
Immigration: The private club analogy
- How Kershnar uses it
Ar g u m e n t f o r ( 1) :
• a.) Private clubs have the right to exclude new members (for their own personal reasons) - existing members can decide on whether someone can join or not
• b.) Countries are like private clubs (why? Because Kershnar believes a country is a voluntary association, just like a club, because he believes in the Social Contract)
• c.) Countries have right to exclude (they can make up their own rules for whom they want allowed into their club - ex: only rich or smart people...)
- Huemer's argument against, esp. the reductio ad absurdum
- If the club analogy is right, then state has right to control membership in the same way as private clubs.
- Hence, state can impose any membership conditions that could be imposed by a private club. - A private club could impose any of these requirements for membership:
o Cutting off your arm.
o Refusing to vote if female.
o Refusing to express political opinions. etc.
- But none of these is a valid condition for citizenship. - So the state-private club analogy fails.
 what's wrong with this argument? - Countries are not like private clubs... Citizens become a part of this "club" by being born into it as well - real clubs don't usually accept memberships based on being born into it
 We didn't consent to this club - the Social Contract theory is false, but at the same time, we consented by living in the territory
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