Photosynthesis 11 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Releases oxygen
Photolysis
pigments
compounds that absorb light
Stroma
outside phospholipid bilayer membrane enclosing a fluid, part of chloroplasts
chlorophylls
pigments in the membranes of thylakoids. two types: a & b
Chloroplasts
sites where both light-dependent and light-independent reactions of photosynthesis occur
In photosynthesis, light energy is stored in
ATP
carotenoids
function as *accessory pigments in the thylakoid membrane (yellow orange and brown)
autotrophs
an organism that uses energy from sunlight to create its own food.
thylakoids
a system of membranes that are arranged as flattened sacs (like pancakes=]) *inside chloroplast*
Photosystem
Cluster of pigments molecules and the proteins in the pigment molecules.Two types: | and ||
The products of the Calvin cycle are
PGAL
A metabolic pathway that involves movement of substances between two kinds of cells.
C4 photosynthesis
Photorespiration
the biosynthetic pathway that leads to the fixation of oxygen
Products of noncyclic photophosphoylation are:
NADPH, ATP, and O2
Primary electron acceptor
A molecule that takes excited electrons and brings them to the electron transport chain.*In the Thylakoid membrane*
To generate ATP, chloroplasts rely on the ETC to
carry electrons
Stores energy obtained from light into NADPH.
Noncyclic photophosphorylation
Rubisco
Enzymes that bond CO2 and RUBP. Also, runs carbon fixation
What happens to H+ within the thylakoid membrane and stroma?
Combines with compound
What environmental and internal challenges have forced both C4 and CAM plants to evolve alternatives to the photosysthesis system used by other plants?
The dying off of photorespiration
Name 2 molecules that are produced during the light dependent reactions of phototsynthesis and serve as temporary sites for energy storage.
ATP and NADPH
C Pathway 4
Pathway that enables certain plants to fix CO2 into four-carbon compounds. Plants that use it are known as C plants. 4
What occurs in cyclic photophosphorylation?
Electrons move along an electron transport chain, electrons in chlorophyll become excited, ATP is produced, light energy is absorbed
What happens to high energy electrons within the thylakoid membrane and stroma?
Transported to make ATP
What happens to NADP+ within the thylakoid membrane and stroma?
Goes in Calvin cycle
What is the name of the three carbon molecule that is a product of the Calvin cycle (dark reactions)?
phosphoglycerate (PGA)
Chlorophyll is green because it
reflects green wave lengths of light.
names of two steps needed for photosynthesis
light reactions and calvin cycle.
In the overview of photosynthesis, indicate the most significant function of light reaction.
Convert solar energy to chemical energy makes ATP
What happens during photorespiration and why is it considered bad for plants?
When O2 is high concentration and Rubisco combines it to RUBD. It's bad because it can't make sugar / ATP
Indicate the role of the thylakoid membranes structure within the leaf:
interconnected system that water comes through
How is C4 photosynthesis different from C3 photosynthesis?
C4 plants are more efficient CO2 fixers than are C3 plants
What happens to an electron in chlorophyll in Photosystem II when the electron absorbs light energy?
Moves to higher energy level, passes along electron transport chain and is donated to P700 in photosystem I
To generate ATP, ATP is synthesized when
it is recieved by a primary acceptor
How does cyclic differ from noncyclic photophosphorylation?
Noncyclic - no NADP available, cyclic - NADP is available
What eveolutionary adaptation to the Calvin cycle is seen in CAM plants like cacti?
The opening and closing based on the time of day
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