Drugs and Society Final Flashcards

Morphine
Terms Definitions
1 coke/pepsi-
*50mg.
cathinone
from khat bush
2-hypnotics
-Zaleplon (Sonata)
-Zopiclon (imovane)
-Zolpiden (Ambien)
short acting sleep aids w/ high margin of safety
dependency phase
synonym for addiction
synthetic
amphetamines are all _____
frequent highdose use
-alcoholism
-blackouts
-tissue dependence and -tolerance
-withdrawal
physical effects of downers
sedation
muscle reaction
drowsiness
coma, if dose is high enough
LD/ED Ratio 2/4
*10-20
Ex: Extasis
Downers depress ___ system
central nervous
amphetamines are...
synthetic stimulants that produce mental and physical effects similar to cocaine
LAAM
opioid being tested for heroin replacement theory
replacement for methadone
Schedule IV
Less abuse potential than III
Other Hallucinogens:
*Peyote
*PCP/angel dust (most likely to harm yourself or someone else)
*Ecstasy (synthetic with hallucinogenic properties)
75
about_____ species of mushrooms in which the strength varies from plant to plant. Doses of 10 mg to 60 mg produce sensory distortions that can last for 3 to 6 hours
Opium poppys first cultivated in __
Europe
delusions
false belief
ex) i am abraham lincoln
ingredients for wine
grapes
-unfortified 12%
-fortified 20-21%
dopamine is an important neurotransmitter used by neurons in the
brains reward circuit
Insiders
People on the inside; those who approve of and/or use drugs.
Purposive withdrawal
addict manipulation: to secure more drugs, money, etc
Compulsion Addiction):
*Behavioral rituals that are perform to prevent or get rid off obsessive thoughts of wanted to do a drug
swallowed, eaten
the marijuana plant, also called Cannabis or hemp, is used to make useful products and can be______ or_____ to alter physical and mental stress.
Cocaine ___ the reabsorption of neurotransmitters, thus __ their concentration in the synase and intensifying effects
prevents increasing
The most widely used preseibed group of drugs in the US are the: opiates/ barbiturates/ benzodiazepines/ none of the above
benzodiazepines
what speeds up absorption
heating the drink
carbonation
empty stomach
needle injection and snorting amph are less popular because
tissue irritation
When were hundreds of opium-laced tonics and medicines available?
In the 1800's
Time for muscle/under skin to reach body
3-5 minutes
behavioral tolerance
the person learns to compensate for the affects of intoxication
fatty liver
accumulation of fatty acids in the liver that arise after a few days of heavy drinking
Inhaling cocaine reaches the braine in _ to _ seconds
5 8
what introduced psychedelic mushrooms to ameicans?
Life Magazine in 1957
how many athletes polled they would take a drug that guaranteed their winning
over half
tobacco is a psychoactive drug that affects the same areas of the brain as
cocaine and amphetamine
autonomic and somatic
what parts are the peripheral nervous system?
The body speeds up the breakdown of the drug to eliminate it
dispositional tolerance
Heroin is used for __and __
coughs and chest pain
withdrawal
when a user stops taking their drug of addiction.
Caffeine effects on cardiovascular (low dose)
Heart activity increases, decreases, or does nothing
Dispositional Tolerance
The body seeds up breakdown of drug to eliminate. Alcohol roduces more enzymes to break down and deactivate drug, therefore more has to be drunk to reach same level
variants of the amphetamine molecule
The designer psychedelics are classes of synthetic drugs are________
in 20th century where has majority of psychedelics are used?
America and Africa
Trade name of a drug
refer to a drug company's specific product containing the psychoactive drug in a patened info.
increased heart rate, sweating, hyperactivity, bruxism
What are the physical effects of designer psychedelics?
Depressant effect on CN (low dose)
sedative- relieve anxiety and promote relaxation
sedation. bloodshot eyes, increase in appetite, increase in heart rate, loss of muscular coordination and decreased tracking ability.
What are the physical effects of marijuana?
heavy drinking is lower in which communities
african american than Caucasian or hispanic
What are the four components of the "four C's " of addiction
craving, control (loss of), continued use (despite negative consequences), compulsion
What are the dangers of rhoid use for men and women?
severe acne, increased chance of cancer and heart disease, high blood pressure, liver disease.
AA
Alcoholics Anonymous
Caffeine reduces-
*Colon cancer
failure rate for therapies
70-80%
Drugs of Schedule V
Robitussin
DUI
driving under the influence
what are Analgesics
Pain killers
Drugs of Schedule III
Testosterone, steroids
axon terminal
Where are neurotransmitter vesicles?
phenylalkylamine psychedelics DRUGS...
mescaline (peyote)
designer psychedelics (ecstasy...MDMA)
**effects take longer to appear than LSD**
relates to Adrenaline, Amphetamines
nicotine replacement
patches(control release of controlled amounts of nicotine)
gum(slows nicotine absorption)
sprays(quick craving relief)
inhalers (fastest relief)
major opiates found in opium are...
morphine
codeine
Alcoholism-
*continued excessive or compulsive use of alcoholic drinks
protracted withdrawal
reoccurance withdrawal symptoms after a person has already detoxified often craving for a drug resulting in a relapse
Agonist does what?
facilitates effects of neurotransmitter, makes more available
Cocaine use is associated with increased __ and violence
aggression
% of hospital admissions for alcoholics
30%
ways to take amphetamines
orally, intravenously, smoked
What is the single most preventable cause of death in the nation
Cancer
Drugs of Schedule II
Opium, Morphine, Oxycodone, Hydrocodone, Percocet, Cocaine, Ritalin
Oral ingestion time to reach body
20-30 minutes
all arounders
a combination of uppers and downers
Which drug has multiple plant sources rather than one? : caffeine/ nicotine/ cocaine/ all of the above
caffeine
analgesics (pain killers)
include topical analgesics, local anesthetics, systemic analgesics and narcotic analgesics
Effect of cocaine (3)
Effects dopamine, noradrenalin, adrenalin, and serotonin. Local anesthetic effect
Inhaling (administration)
heat vaporizes the drug and it's absorbed into the blood via the capillaries of the lung air sacs. (*fastest onset, 7-10 secs)
*Most addicting method*
Tissue Dependence
Biological adaptation of the body due to prolonged use. Tissue and organs can come to depend on drug just to stay functional (allostasis)
Caffeine-
*85% of the US consume caffeine every day
* much less than europeans
sensory deprivation, "mind-body"
PCP has mental effects that include________ and_____ separation
__ sends pain messages to the brain
substance p
Concerning problems with cafeine, which of the following is of greatest concern? : cancer/ cardiovascular or heart problems/ breast disease/ acute overdose
cardiovascular or heart problems
Alcohol creates: physical dependancy/ tolerance/ psychologicaly dependancy/ all of the above
all of the above
Cocaine administration
Orally (chewing on coco leaf), Inhaled (snorting), injected, smoked (freebasing or ice)
The blood-brain barrier
The capillaries which supply blood to the brain have a fatty protective covering to prevent toxins, viruses, and bacteria from entering the central nervous system. *psychoactive drugs can cross the barrier because they're Fat Soluable.* Ex: Heroin, alcohol, LSD, THC.
Alcohol and Crime-
*50-60% of all murders
*60-70% of domestic violence
*60% of child molesting
*People with higher testosterone tent to be more aggressive when they drink
Indole psychedelics, phenylalkylamines, anticholingerics, others, and cannabinols
What are the main classes of psychedelics?
Opioids are used nonmedically for three things:
emotional pain, rush, euphoria
The danger of death by acute over dose while taking LSD is: quite high/ about the same as alcohol/ similar to MDMA/ essentially non-existen
non-existent
prolonged use of amph leads to
paranoid hallucinations form over stimulation of dopamine
Effective Dose (ED)
*The smallest dose of a certain drug necessarily to produce the wanted drug effect in a giving % of the population
regarding hte five drug schedules, where does alcohol fit in?
it isn't in the schedule
benzodiazepines tissue dependence
can develop if take 10-20 times the normal dosage daily for a couple of months or for a yr or more
-to withdrawal symptoms physicians slowly reduce patients dosage
Three ways for mucous membrane to reach body
Through nose, sublingually (under tounge), buccally (between gums/cheek) 3-5 minutes
What is the proper sequence for legislation regulating drugs? : first safety concerns, accurate labeling, finally effectiveness/ first effectiveness concerns, accurate labeling, safety/ accurate labeling concerns, safety, effectiveness/ accurate labeling,
accurate labeling concerns, safety, effectiveness
from 1886 to 1903 a bottle of coca cola contained
5 milligrams of cocaine
Natives of South America used cocaine for what sort of effects?
Lessen hunger, fight fatigue, and increase indurance
What are the abusive dangers of Nitrous Oxide?
frozen lung tissue if inhaled directly from a pressurized tank and oxygen depletion of the blood which can lead to brain damage
Symptoms of short term male rhoid use.
increase in muscle mass and tone, bloated appearance; long-term involves inhibition of naturally produced testosterone, impairment of sexual functioning, shrunken testicles, feminization of breasts.
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