Physical Geography 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
process of layering
Coriolis Effect creates...
cyclonic motion
One who studies oceans.
puffy fair weather clouds
Fluvial Processes
weathering, erosion, transport, deposition
Mountain building is generally associated with...
the uppermost layer of soilcharacterized by a high organic contentthe organic layer of the soil
the coldest place on earth?

 38. __________ topography is characterized by many sinkholes and disrupted drainage patterns.
any naturally occurring inorganic substance, usually having a definite chemical composition
Hurricane Season
Warm seasons
The Atlantic hurricane season runs from June 1 through November 30
desert landscape consists of exposed bedrock sometimes composed of sedimentary material that has been cemented together by salts evaporated from groundwater
___________ are places you would expect to find depositional landforms.
The subdivision of the environment according to the needs and preferences of organisms or groups of organisms is the
based on carbon and other elements–thesubstances making up living tissue are organic.
structure of the outer core
liquid iron
three types of rock
igneous, metamorphic, sedimentary
In the northern hemisphere mid-latitudes, the sun will reach its highest position in the sky on the
June solstice

 120. Landforms often found where tributary glaciers join a main glacier include:

 5. Oceans, lakes, and rivers return water to the atmosphere through:
Nitrogen fixation
converting atmospheric nitrogen into a form that plants can use
Hydraulic action
water easily sweeps away unconsolidated materials, but only significant floods can budge large boulders
0-90 degrees measures north and south
an embankment for controlling or holding back the waters of the sea or a river:
natural levee
elevated landforms that parallel some streams and act to confine their waters, except during floodstage
coastal deposition
beaches are and example of deposition
When two glaciers erode through a ridge making a pass, the landform created is a(n):
Cultivation that involves clearing land, growing crops, and moving on a few years later to newly cleared land when the fertility has decreased is called
slash and burn
Areas of especially high biodiversity are called
hot spots
Is heavy weather associated with cold or warm fronts?
one plate moves down in ocean-ocean convergent boundary
created by charged particles. It is what flows through wires to lightbulbs and is found in nature as lightning.
zone of elluviation
the horizon accumulating materialsthe A horizon
endogenic process
originates within the surface and increases relief
Consists of the entire "solid" portion of the Earth. It includes the crust and upper portion of the Mantle
The return of precipitation to the atmosphere as water vapor occurs through
In the United States, the moist continental climate covers most of the
The largest portion of fresh water today is located in
Political Maps
Maps that show countries and cities.
gas, ash, steam, and large rock fragments produced by volcanoes
A substantial portion of any stream's ? consists of dissolved material
are deposits of alluvium formed when streams enter standing water (either lakes or oceans). The word comes from the Greek letter delta, which is the shape of the classic Nile River Delta in Egypt
Zone of layers
Gases are in layers according to molecular weights
Define karst.
landscape dominated by features formed from limestone dissolution and underlain by cavern systems
The slow movement of tundra soils down slopes as a result of annual freezing and thawing of surface soil and the actions of water and gravity
biological weathering
any weathering that's caused by the activities of living organisms.
An ocean flooded glacial trough is a(n):
fjord coast
Where are sizeable groundwater reserves typically found in arid landscapes?
in springs and seeps
A climate that corresponds with the low-latitude rainforest is
wet equatorial
The uppermost layer on a well-developed and undisturbed soil is the
organic horizon (O)
Where do plants draw water from?
outside the soil
atoms or groups of atoms are found with a positive or negative electrical charge.
recessional moraine
marks the retreat positions of glacial ice
stream transportation
all streams and rivers, regardless of speed of flow, will move sediment
Potential Evapotranspiration
approximates the water use of plants with an unlimited water supply
Water vapor that changes state to form a cloud is an example of
fault coast

 72. A shoreline with lots of bedrock in the water and coastal cliffs with terraces is probably __________.
(1) A manmade object or vehicle made to orbit the earth, or
(2) A celestial body orbiting another of larger size. 
Ice Sheet
An extensive, continuous area of land ice. Greenland and Antarctica are the only two in existence today.
rests squarely in the middle of the pacific plate and are part of a long arc of volcanic mountains trending northewest to southeast
have steep sides and appear to be somewhat smaller plateaus surrounded by lower lying plains
Factors That Can Change Energy Balance
Solar Output
Orbital Variations
Green House Gasses
a piece of land almost surrounded by water or projecting out into a body of water
drainage basin
all the land thats going to contribute ground water to the stream
fluvial deposition
water will deposit as well as erode areas it will also transport materials.
The Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States are mostly ______ coast
barrier island
The soil layer rich in both mineral and organic matter is the
A horizon
Oxygen isotopes
when the atmosphere is warm- oxygen 18 isotopes, cold- oxygen 16 isotopes.
distance from the crest of one wave to the crest of the nextone.
acid rain
the deposition of either wet or dry acidic materials from the atmosphere on Earth's surface
stream roughness
friction at the bottom and sides of channel
What is it called when plants sweat to stay cool?
The surface layer of a beach would heat up _____ that the adjacent water surface during the day, and cool down ____ during the night, during a summer day-night cycle
faster; faster
Hydraulic conductivity/transmissivity: the ability of an aquifer to transmit water (how permeable it isSpecific storage or storativity: a measure of the amount of water of a confined aquifer will give up for a certain change in head

 21. What conditions would be most consistent with the characteristics of a good aquifer?
Ice Shelf
A large sheet of ice extending from land over the surrounding sea.
on occasion, geoscientists can obtain data that help them accurately predict an eruption, but other times, violent eruptons provide no
warning of any kind
Waterfalls and rapids
are portions of channels with steep gradients. Erosion is most intense here and these features are eventually worn “back.
What is temperature?
Heat energy (the movement of different molecules)
mountain range
a lone of moutains connected by high ground
What makes up only about 2% of the world's water supply?
fresh water
Spruce and fir are BEST associated with
the boreal needleleaf forest
Most popular technique to predict weather is
teleconnections linking conditions in one part of the world to future conditons in other parts of the world
evaporation fog
water vapor is added to cold air that is already near saturation
We are currently in the Holocene age
10 kya - present
If the Earth's axis was perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic, insolation would be
greatest at the poles
A celestial body that is a few feet to several hundred miles across and has a distinct orbit.
Sudden movement of earth materials sends....
shock waves through the earth
Dew point
the temp to which the air must be cooled to form dew
The water table is at the top of the _________
saturated zone
what is wave frequency
the number of waves passing a given point over a set time period
Name the ice ages from newest to oldest:
Wisconsinan, Illinoian, Kansan, Nebraskan
plants die and serve as a source of...
nutrients for living plants
the first materials deposited are the heaviest; then...
progressively smaller materials are deposited until the stream's load is reduced to it's capacity
Adiabatic Cooling and Warming
This is the change in pressure and therefore the temperature of air that is rising or descending
physical matter and resources
Earth is a closed system in terms of ______ ______ and _______
Rain shadows are found
on the dry side of the mountain, the side opposite which the cloud has formed over a large body of water
What was the problem with Alfred's theory?
he could not satisfactorily explain the mechanism that caused the movement in the crustal plates
Steeper gradients across space lead to more
vertical erosion or down cutting in any given stream
What are the primary and secondary causes of storm surge?
primary cause - wind-driven surge driven by low pressure convergence
secondary cause - low pressure near center of storm
The geoid, a reference surface that closely approximates the shape of the Earth, is based on
the pull of gravity around the globe
when temp and humidity (dew point) are the same
lifting condensation level (LDL), the lowest point that clouds can occur
how does the sun produce so much energy?
the sun produces trememdous amounts of pressure and high temperatures in its core. the suns atoms of hydrogen are fused together therefore creating huge amts of energy
What is the difference between the environmental temperature lapse rate (ETLR) and the adiabatic lapse rate?
ETLR - rate at which temperature sinks with rising altitude (still air)
ALR - rate at which temperature of moving air parcel lowers with rising altitude (moving air)
most major faults extend into the ground and?
may or may not be clearly visible at surface
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