Physical Geography 5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
rift
narrow trough
Gravel
particles are greatest
Big trough equals
biggest storms
Sand
particles are second greatest
Tropopause
upper part of troposphere
Narrow, jagged, knife-like ridges formed by glaciers eroding into the ridge from both sides are
arete
What is thunder?
Expansion of air
fog
a cloud on the ground
midlatitude cyclones
large, migratory low-pressure systems
Hemisphere
Half a sphere or globe.
relief
vertical characterization of a landscape
solar altitude
90 - arc length
oxbow lake
a crescent-shaped lake (often temporary) that is formed when a meander of a river is cut off from the main channel
Subsurface water found under the surface in soil and rock
groundwater
The natural, terrestrial surface layer containing living matter and supporting, or capable of supporting, crops is BEST called
soil
A complex organic molecule that absorbs light energy for use by plant cells is a(n)
chlorophyll
convection
gases and liquides transfer energy through ______ in which their physical mixing involves strong vertical motion
s-waves
transverse waves, up and down movement
Thin, high wispy clouds composed almost entirely of ice crystals are called
cirrus
...

 140. The depression resulting from a piece of trapped ice occupying area during till deposition and then melting is a(n):
sublimation

 2. ___________________ is when ice changes directly from the solid phase to the gaseous phase without a transitional liquid phase.
Kauai is how old?
5 million years
Mantle
consists of different layers of molten rock; upper layers appear to be a bit more solid and deeper layers more liquid
The chief source of glacial ice
snow
Greenhouse Effect
The atmosphere easily transmits shortwave radiation from the sun.
Atmospheric Obstruction
Clouds and haze deplete insolation
slip face
steepest sloped side of a dune
pediment
bedrock platform a surface left by weathering and the removal of rack rather than by deposition
kames
Small hills that are formed from deposits left by streams on the surface of a glacier
Alluvial terraces are ______ that form along the edges of the stream valley bottom and above the modern stream bank.
steppes
The series of communities that follow one another through time in a location is called a(n)
sere
The variety of biological life on Earth or within a region is the
biodiversity
Cells vary with...
carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
Scattering
particles and gas and vapor molecules momentarily capture energy, then disperse it in all directions
conduction
the molecule to molecule transfer of heat energy as it diffuses through a substance
advection fog
warm, moist air moves horizontally over a cold surface
glacial depositions
end moraines, till plains, outwash plains
Perihelion Position
Closest position between the two bodies, 91.45 million miles, occurs on or about January 3.
The annual cycle of prevailing weather conditions at a given place based on long-term conditions is known as
climate
pack ice

 135. Sea ice that completely covers the sea surface is:
surface runoff

 14. Precipitation that does not evapotranspirate or infiltrate once it hits the ground surface contributes to:
source

 18. The __________ is another name for a stream's point of origin.
barrier-island coast

 79. What types of coastal landforms do not form as a result of erosion?
fjord

 117. When an alpine glacier erodes to the sea then melts, the ocean flooded valley is a(n):
Winkel Triple
A oval projection that maintains realistic shapes with minor size distortions at all latitudes.
Subduction
a process where a denser oceanic plate runs into and dives under a less (continental) plate
Transportation
refers to the actual movement of sediment, rocks, or dissolved materials
Composition of the Atmosphere
Nitrogen and oxygen dominate
delta
a nearly flat plain of alluvial deposit between diverging branches of the mouth of a river, often, though not necessarily, triangular:
base level
Lowest elevation to which the stream can erode downward, for many streams, the water surface level of the body of water into which they flow
sand dune
an aeolian deposit in which loose windblown sand is heaped into a mound or low hill
Continental Drift
the gradual movement and formation of continents (as described by plate tectonics)
The most recent glaciation in North America is called the:
Wisconsin glaciaion
A snakelike ridge of sand and gravel marking a streambed within a glacier is a(n):
esker
A very widely distributed species is said to be
cosmopolitan species
Teleconnections
where climates are linked to on the planet, allow us to find statistics to be able to predict forecast
James Hutton
a Scottish physician and farmer, put forth a newway to look at Earth's history. Hutton spent much time looking at the rocks nearhis home and on his travels and came to the conclusion that the past could beexplained simply by applying the processes working today. "The present is thekey to the past" sums up Hutton's idea
aerosols
tiny solid and liquid particles in the air, excluding water droplets.These occur naturally, but also are a form of pollution.
All processes related to river flow
erosion, transportation, deposition
perennial flow
a stream that flows all year round
If ______ evapotranspiration exceeds _______ then there is a deficit in water.
If potential evapotranspiration exceeds precipitation then there is a deficit in water.
The most powerful and destructive type of cyclonic storm is the
tropical cyclone
medial moraine

 115. The process of two alpine glaciers joining often produces a(n):
notch/cave

 84. At the base of a wave-cut cliff, one will usually find a __________.
SEA
A body of water smaller than an ocean.
Physical Geography
geography that deals with the exterior physical features and changes of the earth
Topographic features
they can change rapidly while others can take a long time
flood plain
the portion of the stream that usually does not contain water, but which occasionally contains water when the channel exceeds bank full discharge
define front
when one air mass collides with another air mass
gulf
a deep inlet of the sea almost surrounded by land
sheet erosion
occurs when water that is flowing as sheets picks up and carries away sediments
meander neck
when a meander curves more than 180 degrees
________ often form along the edges of steep mountain ranges in arid climates that experience infrequent, but intense, rainfall events.
Alluvial fans
When new land forms and plant and animal communities begin to develop, the process is called
primary succession
Hurricanes begin as...
easterly waves and develop over warm water
gravitional force
such that any two things are attracted to each other. Theamount of attraction is determined by how much mass each has and how far apart theyare.
glacial plunking
chunks or rocks are plucked from their sources and frozen into ice; occurs commonly on down flow of small hills and results in oversteepened downflow slops
During the daytime, air temperature tends to _____ closer to the ground, and during the night it tends to ______ closer to the ground
be warmer; be cooler
A maritime polar air mass would tend to bring _______ conditions when it arrived in an area
cold, moist
ice floe

 124. When pack ice breaks up, it becomes a(n):
Goode Projection
A projection of the Earth in which certain portions of the oceans are removed to lessen distortion.
sandy soils
allow water to move through them too quickly and may require irrigation to cultivate
Floods can occur
-when a river or stream channel recieves more water than it can handle in a certain period of time-happens 2 out of 3 years in natural streams
tributary
a stream that flows to a larger stream or other body of water.
A thin layer of till that blankets the landscape after a glacier melts is called:
ground moraine
The amount of water a soil can hold against the pull of gravity is its
storage capacity
lowest layer of earth
iron nickel core (molten outer core; solid inner core)
drainage divide
the zone or line where water drains in separate directions; perimeter of a basin often marked by ridges
environmental lapse rate
occurs at about 6.5 degrees per 1000 meters
long shore current

 87. A current within the surf zone that parallels the shoreline is a ___________ current.
Fossil Fuel
a fuel (as coal, oil, or natural gas) formed in the earth from plant or animal remains
river systems are separated into ____ or ____
watersheds or drainage basins
Briefly explain how thunderstorms and hail form.
cumulonimbus clouds --> unstable atmospheric conditions
thunderstorms - associated with vertical air motion, humidity, instability
hail - form within cumulonimbus clouds, raindrops cycle + and - freezing, builds up ice layers, updrafts and downdrafts
The humus content of the soil makes it appear
brown or black
tropic of cancer
The Sun is directly at its zenith at 23.5° N.We call this line of Latitude
The gulf stream carries _____ water to the _______
warm; Northern Atlantic Ocean
soils can be thought as a renewable resoure because
it accumulates over time
What are the 3 phases of single activity?
Erosion, Transportation, and Deposition
Define aquifers and give a few examples.
permeable rocks/materials that hold H2O
ex. sand and gravel, limestone, heavily fractured rocks, sandstone
how is UTC (coordinated universal time) calculated?
regular vibrations of cesium atoms in primary standard clocks measure the length of a second and UTC accurately determines the time
at an oblique angle

 78. Sand on the beach moves in a zig-zag pattern because swash waves strike the beach:
where are divergent plate boundaries located?
beneath the world's oceans where the zone of divergence features not only spreading but also vertical development
The different forms of running water from raindrops, to thin sheets, to channels creates...
an assortment of erosional and depositional land forms of different scales and shapes
Volcanism could induce ice ages by:
creating plumes of dust that go into the stratosphere and block solar radiation, lowering the temperature
the stream experiences an increase in sediment

 61. A stream will likely begin aggrading sediment along its bed when:
How is residence time calculated?
T = S/F
T = residence time
S = amount of substance stored in reservoir
F = flux, the amount of substance input OR output from a reservoir

high rates of erosion by overland flow from slopes sweeps clay particles into the stream channels

 51. In parts of the Great Plains region of North America, badlands form as a result of __________.
How do Hadley cells contribute to to the huge dry climate belts located at about 30 N/S?
Hadley cells pull air and moisture back towards equator at 30 degrees (Ferrel cells are also moving air away from 30 N/S towards poles)
the greater the sediment load in a stream
the more that stream is able to erode
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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