Physical Geography 8 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
pressure creates?
0-180 degrees, east-west
stream gradient
elevation change; headwaters
Electromagnetic Radiation
Oscillation of electrons
a high peak or point
The largest recognizable subdivisions of terrestrial ecosystems are called
continental collision
wide zone of deformation
continental landforms
formed by ice sheets

 10. Atmospheric moisture deposited at the earth's surface as rain, hail sleet, snow etc.
partially decomposed plant remains; is a source of nutrients to living plants; spongy consistency of humus increases soil's water retntion capactiy; helps resist erosion
Hurricane Characteristics
Intense low pressure
Cyclonic convergence
Minimum wind speed
Heavy rain
Little to no Lightning
Energy source and release
What causes wind?
changes in pressure
hill that rises abruptly from surrounding area with sloping sides and a flat top
Wind deposits from glaciated and desert areas are called:
Plants with several stems branching from base near the soil surface and foliage close to ground level are
Saffir/Simposn Scale
classification for sizes of hurricanes
what is the ultimate system
the universe
igneous rock
molten rock solidifies; extrusively formed from volcanic activity at the earths surface; intrusively formed within the earths surface
source regions
the formation of air masses
meandering streams

 49. Characteristic features of __________ include cut banks and point bars.
several horizonal layers that are relatively soft and pliable
lower magnitude floods
less discharge, higher frequency
Zone of uniform distribution of gases
Wind refers to
horizontal movement of air
a certain (any) curve in a stream
________ is/are the most difficult sediment loads for a stream to move.
Bed load
Sorted and layered materials deposited by a glacier are BEST called:
stratified drift
Plants and animals together are BEST called
Plants that survive for a single season are called
The climate BEST associated with the sclerophyll forest is
The descriptive property of the mineral portion of soil based on varying proportions of sand, silt, and clay is the
soil texture
There are other techniques to statistically predict the weather with no knowledge of..
atmospheric processes
a line connecting all pointes along the same latitudinal angle
structured set of components which are related to each other and which operatetogether as a complex whole.
high or low features in the earth
Average temperature of the tundra?
10 degrees farenheit
In an anticyclone located in the southern hemisphere winds spiral
Precipitation that flows on the land into streams and rivers and then eventually to the lakes and oceans is known as
Southern Wisconsin

 147. The Driftless Area is in:
alluvial fan

 66. __________ often form along the edges of steep mountain ranges in arid climates that experience infrequent, but intense, rainfall events:
the surface features of a particular place or region
when soil have relatively an even percentage of all three particles; occupy an intermediate position in terms of water rention and are preferred for agriculture
What is the most prevalent geomorphic agent?
What 3 scales measure temperature?
Fahrenheit, Celsius, kelvin
Define gyre.
circular ocean current that transfers heat energy
Stream Rejuvenation
occurs as a result of tectonic uplift
measures the size of the stuff that can be moved by river flow it is a function of speed which is a function of volume/gradient
In today's society, 12 countries are classified as having less than 50% of their total population using ______, which is a problem that must be addressed in the future
drinkable water
A conical mound of poorly layered material formed by accumulation of debris in a hole int he glacier and dropped down on to the landscape when the ice melted is a(n):
glacier terminus
The functional role played by an organism or its "profession" is BEST called the
ecological niche
The total amount of new carbohydrate placed in storage is
gross photosynthesis
Synoptic forecasting
explore weather maps, looks a pressure changes that are occurring
On which axis does the earth rotate?
North/ South
natural selection
the idea that those better adaptedto the environment are more likely to reproduce
the rate at which soil or rock transmits groundwater
continental divide
marks major changes in flow directions of major river systems
The magnitude of the Coriolis force is largest at the
ice sheet

 106. A large, thick plate of glacial ice moving outwards in all directions is a(n):
cone of depression

 28. A ____________ will typically develop around a well when the rate of pumping exceeds the rate of recharge.
Part of a map showing colors, patterns or symbols and what they represent.
geologic time
far different than time for people. we think earth is 4.6 billion years old
Sedimentary rocks
formed when rocks are broken down into smaller particles called sediment; cover almost 2/3 of earth's land surface
organic sediments
produced from remains of plants & animals... many are associated with animal shells
natural levees
the somewhat more elevated areas of land on either side of a channel banks
How do glaciers form?
whenever snowfall input (accumulation) exceeds snowmelt (ablation) year after year - pressure increases, and the snow is changed into a firn, then ice
Stream Drainage Patterns
the pattern formed by the stream courses in an area
process by which a block of a glacier breaks off and falls into the sea to form an iceberg
When streams are just able to move the amount of sediment that they receive, they are said to be
Oak, beech, hickory, walnut, maple, elm, and pines are BEST associated with
trees of deciduous forest
Glaciations change...
the elevation of the land areas lowers the temperature of the Earth
At what degree is Earth's axis inclined?
23 1/2 degrees
stored energy that may be used in the future. It is theenergy in the gas of a parked car, in an unused battery and a rock sitting on a hillside.
metamorphic rock
changed state, formed due to heat or pressure; very hard and compact
Difference between climate and weather?
Climate = long-term (30-year) averageWeather = the current temperature
______ is a very important mechanism for transporting large amounts of energy from one region of the Earth to another
Latent heat transfer
The distance light travels in a year in a vacuum, approximately 5.88 trillion miles.
The speed of light is 186,000 miles per second.
In space, distances are so vast that they are measured in light years. 
fine textured soils
prevent the movement of water through them; they may retain too much water or completely prevent water from penetrating to deep layers
what is the most fluid major type of land movement?
If air moves fast does it rise or lower pressure?
Define residence time.
average length of time a substance spends in a reservoir
Sea Floor Spreading
The process that creates new sea floor as plates move away from each other at the mid-ocean ridges
People often swim in the ocean and find themselves far downshore from where they first entered the water. They moved downshore because of:
long shore currents
Spring is best time to have storms in this area
Central USA
tropic of capricorn
The Sun is directly at zenith at 23.5° S and wecall this line of Latitude
Plane of the Ecliptic
An imaginary plane that passes through the sun and through the Earth at every point in its orbit around the sun.
A dry, hot local wind system that contributes to wildfire problems in southern California is the
Santa Ana Winds
long shore currents

 81. People often swim in the ocean and find themselves far downshore from where they first entered the water. They moved downshore because of:
joint and fracture formation
caused by tectonic forces and rapid cooling; they create more pathways for weathering agents to continue the process
rivers are dynamic environments which are
environmental systems are intricately connected to each other so that changes in one system are propagated through many others
Continental Ice Sheets
blankets of ice that cover all of the existing terrain can be thousands of feet thck (Greenland/Antartica) they form in non mountanous areas
Tree rings preserve..
a record of past climates in terms of their size and chemical structure
true soil
has one or more of O, A, and B horizons
stratified drift and till

 128. The two types of drift are BEST called:
large areas may become blanketed with thick layers of ash, which may become a ?
mudslide after a heavy rain
when air is raising before dew point
dry adiabatic lapse rate 10degreese
Sand on the beach moves in a zig-zag pattern because swash waves strike the beach:
at an oblique angle
Air pressure is caused by
the force of gravity acting upon the overlying column of air
Lengths: Standard Measure
1 mile (mi) = 5,280 feet (ft)1 mile (mi) = 1,760 yards (yd)1 yard (yd) = 3 feet (ft)1 foot (ft) = 12 inches (in)1 fathom (fath) = 6 feet (ft)' commonly denotes feet." commonly denotes inches.
Where are the stream's carrying capacity more likely to be exceeded?
inside bends of streams; places where the stream channel widens; along the lower reaches of a stream (especialy when it empties into a standing body of water); and behind dams in reservoirs
Explain glacial mass balance in the context of the accumulation zone, the equilibrium line, and the ablation zone.
accumulation zone - where input exceeds output (positive balance)
ablation zone - where output exceeds input (negative balance)
equilibrium line - where accumulation = ablation
what does timekeeping have to do with the longitude?
the prime meridian is the International Date Line which is a measure of longitude; the west side of the line is always one day ahead of the east side
the greater the velosity of the water in a stream...
the greater it's ability to erode
What happens when water changes states? Why is this important to weather?
latent heat is taken in or released; impact on weather - heat exchanged produces greater than 30% of energy for general circulation
Why does magma come up to surface?
the density of magma is less than that of the rock from which it melts
name the altitude at which these clouds can be found:1. Cirro2. Alto3. Strato
1. Cirro = 6,000+ mMade up of ice crystals2. Alto = 2,000-6,000Made up of ice crystals and water droplets3. Strato = less than 2,000 mmade up of water droplets
What happens to PET in winter if you are in a place with snow cover?
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