Physical of Minerals Flashcards

Luster
Terms Definitions
Actinolite
Formula: Ca2(MgFe)5Si8O22(OH)2
Luster: NM
Hardness: 5.0-6.0
Streak: White, lt. gray
Specific Gravity: 3.04
Properties/Cleavage: Green to black, splintery, prismatic elongate softer if weathered
Mineral Class: Silicate
Uses: Asbestos, jewelry
Limonite
Formula: Fe(OH)
Luster: M-NM
Hardness: 1.0-6.0
Streak: Brown to dark yellow
Specific Gravity: 3.0-4.0
Properties/Cleavage: Earthy, dull yellow brown massive (rust)
Mineral Class: Hydroxide
Uses: Ore of Iron
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Luster: M-NM
Hardness: 1.5-6
Streak: Red to Red brown
Specific Gravity: 4.9-5.3
Properties/Cleavage: Red, red brown powdery (red ochre), silvery red (specularite), Red brown with tiny spheres (oolitic). Opaque. Massive, no cleavage, powdery to hard no cleave
Mineral Class: Oxide
Uses: Paint pigment, orin, steel, products.
Sillimanite
Formula: Al2SiO5
Luster: NM
Hardness: 7
Streak: White
Specific Gravity: 3.24
Properties/Cleavage: White to light gray, spintery, elongate
Mineral Class: Silicate
Uses: Spark plugs, gemstone
Olivine
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2SiO4
Luster: NM
Hardness: 6.5-7.0
Streak: White to pale green
Specific Gravity: 3.3-4.4
Properties/Cleavage: Pale green to yellow green. Small, granular crystals (sandy feel). No cleavage. Brittle. Hardness may test less due to friability
Mineral Class: Silicate
Uses: Peridot gemstone
Potassium Feldspar
Formula: KAlSi3O8
Luster: NM
Hardness: 6
Streak: White
Specific Gravity: 2.5-2.6
Properties/Cleavage: Orange, white, or green. Opaque to transluscent. exsolution lammellae, 2 good cleavages nearly 90 degrees.
Mineral Class: Silicate
Uses: Ceramics, glass, enamel, scouring powder.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Luster: M
Hardness: 6-6.5
Streak: Dark gray
Specific Gravity: 4.9-5.2
Properties/Cleavage: Yellowish gold. Poor to no cleavage. Cubic crystals may form masses, may have striations.
Mineral Class: Sulfide
Uses: Sulferic acid, explosives, fertilizer, insecticides.
Talc
Formula:
Luster: NM
Hardness: 1
Streak: White
Specific Gravity: 2.7-2.8
Properties/Cleavage: White to gray. Pearly to greasy luster and feel. No cleavage.
Mineral Class: Silicate
Uses: Make-up, talcum powder, ceramics.
Kaolinite
Formula:
Luster: NM
Hardness: 1.0-2.0
Streak: White
Specific Gravity: 2.6
Properties/Cleavage: White to grayish white, massive, earthy, clay-like to powdery
Mineral Class: Silicate
Uses: Ceramics and porcelian, glossy paper in magazines.
Kyanite
Formula:
Luster: NM
Hardness: 4.0-7.0
Streak: White
Specific Gravity: 3.6
Properties/Cleavage: Translucent, blue to gray, bladed habit.
Mineral Class: Silicate
Uses: Bricks, mortar
Gypsum
Formula:
Luster: NM
Hardness: 2
Streak: White
Specific Gravity: 2.3
Properties/Cleavage: Colorless, to white, tabular crystals (selenite), amorphous (alabaster), fibrous (satin spar). Good cleavage, can be scratched with fingernail.
Mineral Class: Sulfate
Uses: Plaster-of-paris, wallboard, drywall, sculpture medium.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Luster: NM
Hardness: 7
Streak: White
Specific Gravity: 2.6-2.7
Properties/Cleavage: Color variable - clear (quartz crystals, hexagonal), white (milky), pink (rose), gray (smokey), purple (amethyst) No cleavage. Massive.
Mineral Class: Silicate
Uses: Glass, abrasives, gemstones
Chalcedony
(Cryptocrystalline)
Formula: Si02
Luster: NM
Hardness: 7
Streak: White
Specific Gravity: 2.67
Properties/Cleavage: Transluscent white to gray, waxy, laminated, massive
Mineral Class: Silicate
Uses: Jewelry, (Agate is banded chalcedony)
Muscovite
Formula:
Luster: NM
Hardness: 2.5-3.0
Streak: White
Specific Gravity: 2.7-3.0
Properties/Cleavage: Colorless, yellowish white, silvery white. One direction, excellent cleavage. Splits into thin flexible transparent sheets.
Mineral Class: Silicate
Uses: Computers, roofing, insulation, make-up.
Celestite
Formula:
Luster: NM
Hardness: 3-3.5
Streak: White
Specific Gravity: 3.9
Properties/Cleavage: Translucent, blue, gray crystalline
Mineral Class: Sulfate
Uses: Ore of strontium
Biotite
Formula:
Luster: NM
Hardness: 2.5-3
Streak: light brown
Specific Gravity: 2.7-3.1
Properties/Cleavage: Black, green-black. One direction, excellent cleavage. Splits into thin elastic transparent sheets.
Mineral Class: Silicate
Uses: Fire-resistant tiles, rubber, paint.
Bornite
Formula: CuFeS4
Luster: M
Hardness: 3.5
Streak: Gray to Black
Specific Gravity: 4.9-5.3
Properties/Cleavage: Black with irridescent tarnish of purple, blue, yellow
Mineral Class: Sulfide
Uses: Ore of copper
Azurite
Formula:
Luster: NM
Hardness: 3.0-4.0
Streak: Blue
Specific Gravity: 3.8
Properties/Cleavage: Dark blue, opaque to crystalline, reacts to HCI
Mineral Class: Carbonate
Uses: Secondary copper mineral
Copper
Formula: Cu
Luster: M
Hardness: 2.0-3.0
Streak: Copper
Specific Gravity: 8.8-9
Properties/Cleavage: Copper color tarnishes brown to green. No cleavage. Soft nuggets or dendritic.
Mineral Class: Native element
Uses: Pipes, electrical wiring, coins
Plagioclase Feldspar
Formula: NaAlSi304 to CaAlSi2O8
Luster: NM
Hardness: 6
Streak: White
Specific Gravity: 2.3-2.8
Properties/Cleavage: White to gray or black. darker colors may be irridescent. Opaque to translucent. Striations. 2 good cleavages nearly 90 degrees.
Mineral Class: Silicate
Uses: Ceramics, glass, enamel, scouring powder
Cleavage
Breaking along preferred directions, planar and smooth.
Chert, Flint, Jasper
(Cryptocrystalline)
Formula: SiO2
Luster: NM
Hardness: 7
Streak: White
Specific Gravity: 2.6-2.7
Properties/Cleavage: Gray or white - chert, black to brown - flint, red or brown - jasper. Waxy luster. Concoidal dracture.
Mineral Class: Silicate
Uses: Abrasive, glass making, gemstone, Artifacts, tools.
Fingernail
Mohs Hardness Scale - Rank 2.5
Diamond
Mohs Hardness Scale - Rank 10
Calcite
Mohs Hardness Scale - Rank 3
Apatite
Mohs Hardness Scale - Rank 5
Taste
Halite can be identified by this.
Streak
Obtained by scraping the specimen across a peice of unglazed porcelain, aka streak plate - hardness 6.5.
Effervesces
Minerals in the Carbonate class react with hydrochloric acid by producing bubbles. Metallics will emit rotten egg like odor.
Crystal Form
Set of planar faces, geometrically equivalent.
Porcelain Streak Plate
Mohs Hardness Scale - Rank 6.5
Hardness
The resistance of a mineral to being scratched. May be determined by scratching it against a mineral of known hardness.
Magnetism
Diagnostic test to see of a mineral is attracted to a magnet.
Specific Gravity
A comparison of the weight of a mineral to the weight of an equal volume of water. Minerals lighter than water will float.
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