Physio Psych Midterm Flashcards

Terms Definitions
X Chromosome
1,500 proteins.
Independent Variable
is manipulated
Behavior
Depends upon communication between neurons.
Contralateral
Opposite side of the body.
fMRI
directly monitors blood deoxygenation indirectly monitoring blood flow and neural activity
Contralateral
Electrical stimulation of the right motor cortex elicits limb movements on the left side of the body and vice versa. Which term below best describes this organization of the motor cortex and the muscles of the body?
What are monoamines?
Non-acidic modified amino acids.
Dualism
The belief that there are different kinds of substances and the mind and body are separate entities.
diffusion
The process by which molecules are evenly distributed throughout a medium is called diffusion/ electrostatic pressure (circle one)
What is contained in the hypothalamus?
Pituitary gland.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
condition marked by hyperactivity, impulsiveness, difficulty maintaining attention, varying degrees of mental retardation, motor problems, heart defects, and facial abnormalities; children of mothers who drink heavily during pregnancy
Sensation
The process by which the nervous system takes in information from the environment; sensory stimuli activate specialized receptors
Genes 2
Basic unit of information and are aligned along chromosomes and come in pairs.
90 minutes
A single cycle of non-REM/REM sleep lasts about:
What are most popular drugs now considered?
Reuptake inhibitors.
An enriched environment...
enhances sprouting of axons and dendrites, more neuronal development; no evidence that a "super enriched" environment would be better
Substantia Gelitanosa
refers to where A-delta and C-fibers are synapsing in the gray matter of the spinal cord
Opiate Receptors...
act by blocking the release of substance P
All Neurons Contain:
Dendrites, Soma, Cell Body Axon, and Presynaptic Terminals.
What is Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential?
IPSP. A neurotransmitter that hyperpolarizes the cell, either by stimulating the release of potassium (+) or an influx of chloride (-).
What are exogenous chemicals?
Chemicals introduced from outside the body that either mimic specific neurotransmitters or alter the body's production rate.
Chemical Gradient
the idea that axons with the greatest concentration of TOPdv will connect with the tectal cells with the highest concentration of TOPdv and vice versa
What 3 parts make up the parasympathetic nervous system?
Craniosacral stystem, long preganglionic nerves from the spinal cord, and short postganglionic fibers.
What is the chemical sequence of communication?
1. Neurotransmitters are synthesized.2. The action potential opens channels that pull in calcium (+), which push the neurotransmitters out of the gap.3. Released molecules attach to receptors in the dendrites of the next neuron.
The difference between Autism and Asperger's is...
Asperger's patients often have exceptional language ability
intravenous (IV)
The fastest way for a drug to reach a site of action is via the _______ administration route.
What is the Central Nervous System composed of?
The brain and spinal cord.
What is a reflex arc?
The total amount of time from stimulation to reflex.
astereognosia (damage to the primary motor cortex)
inability to recognize things by touch
What is the function of the thalamus?
Sensory switchboard both ways. It regulates continual perception to interesting events. Decides what to pay attention to.
Where are large neurotransmitters synthesized?
They are made in the neuron, then transported.
5. All of the above are correct
A key function of the autonomic nervous system involves control of 1. Smooth muscle 2. Glands 3. Cardiac muscle 4. “vegetative” bodily processes 5. All of the above are correct
What is a coronal plane?
A cut from the top to the bottom (side to side).
Do exogenous chemicals affect the endogenous chemicals?
Yes, there is a complex series of effects on endogenous chemicals.
What are the five research methods that neuroscientists use to study the brain?
1. Using CAT scans to study the structure of the brain.2. Study the effects of brain damage.3. Neural stimulation.4. Recording brain activity (with PET, rCBF, fMRI).5. Correlating brain activity and behavior.
What is the activation and duration of metabotropic binding?
activate within 30 ms or longer and can last for days.
C. Drug A has a therapeutic index of 4.0
The effective dose 50 (ED50) value for Drug A is 2.0 mg/kg while its lethal dose 50 (LD50) value is 8 mg/kg. Which of the following is true of Drug A?A. Drug A is ineffective for its intended purposeB. The therapeutic index of Drug A is 0.25C. Drug A has a therapeutic index of 4.0D. Drug A is safe for use in humansE. A and D are correct
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