Physiology 7 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Reproductive delcine
innominate bone.
Pacinian Corpuscle
Senses Vibration.
respond to pressure changes
What increases diffusive flux?
Pulmonary fibrosis ______ compliance
Kidney - para
No effect
normal osmolarity of RBC
290 mM
Paracellular pathway
Diffusion between adjacent cells
Endogenous opioid
inhibitory of the CNS
Agonists: lsd opium morphine heroin
high molecular wght sythesized in the soma
– clot formation• Liquid blood becomes gel.
vesicular transport
the movement of fluids, large particles, and macromolecules across the plasma membrane
- prolactin releasing hormone- stimulates the release of prolactin
Increased Ca++ channel openingFaster depolarization causes increased HRMore Ca++ causes more force, causes increased SV
involuntarily correlative with a voluntary action, as the contraction of the iris when the eye is opened
the concentration of solute per kilogram of water
Aldosterone actions
binds to intracellular hormone receptors, which stimulates synthesis of Na+/K+ pumps
The production of specific proteins (enzymes) is inherited?
Diffusion of water across a membrane
organic molecules that assist some enzymes
Retinal disparity

•Difference between images from two eyes
kidneykeeps salt in, so water follows
researchers examine the effects of various types of drugs on a person’s behaviors.
a particle with no (0) charge
Cardiac Cycle
Sequence of contraction and relaxation
4-valves, ZA-V, aortic/pulmonary, keep blood flowing one way.
changes a proteins acgivity by covalent modulation; phosphate group attaches to molecule
Tubular extensions from sarcolemma that carries depolarization to the cell's interior cytoplasm
T Tubles
Cytoplasmic increases in calcium not only trigger skeletal muscle contractions, but they also stimulate skeletal muscle glycogenolysis through the activation of the ______________ enzyme
When calcium entry is blocked, _____________ are not released.
excessive levels of chloride in blood is called?
Which body fluid compartment contains high levels of K+, large anions, and proteins?
intracellular fluid
A condition in which ventilation is insufficient to meet the metabolic demands of the body
Core Conditions
According to Carl Rogers, in client-centered therapy there are three core conditions that must be present in order for progress to occur. The three core conditions are: 1. an atmosphere of genuine acceptance on the part of the therapist; 2. the therapist must express unconditional positive regard for the client, and 3. the client must feel that the therapist understands him or her (empathic understanding).
When the liver converts amino acids, lactate, or pyruvate to glucose, what type of process is occuring
Active transport is always mediated by transport proteins referred to as
What is hemophilia?
defect in Factor VIII often.
Inhibitory pain neurons
-Descend from the cerebral cortex-Release enkephalin which inhibits incoming painful stimuli-Morphine and naloxone are similar drugs
Long-term exogenous glucocorticoid administration would be an appropriate treatment for…primary hypoadrenocorticism
secondary hypoadrenocorticism
iatrogenic hypoadrenocorticism
all of the above
none of the above – glucocorticoids are potentially dange
all of the above
what is released by nearly all excitatory neurons in brain and is inactivated by specific transporters
high concentrations of a hormone cause a decrease in the number of receptor proteins in their target cells
CHO rich area surrounding the cell (glycolipids + glycoproteins)
A post-synaptic neuron can have as many as 10,000 pre-synaptic neuronal contacts
object permanence
the understanding that an object continues to exist even when it can no long be seen
Where is absorption of nutrients
Small intestine mucosa
Intestines - symp
Decrease motility and toneSphincter CONTRACTION
single most important command center for homeostatic regulation of the internal environment. controls hormonal secretion by the anterior and posterior pituitaty gland
Cerebral Cortex
area between two z lines, functional unit of skeletal muscle
These are Primary receptors cells, (modify N' cells), that can't regenerate
Olfatory cells
a region where nerve impulses are transmitted and received in the brain
Sliding Filament Theory
Actin slides along myosin which doesn't move
Tracer used to measure RBC volume
51Cr labeled RBC's
Homeostasis - Oxygen and CO2 exhanged by
respiratory system
vestibular system
responds to gravity and keeps you informed of your body's location in space
What three metabolic pathways ar necessary for the handling of glucose
Krebs cycle
Electron transport chain
Graded Potential Changes
Starts at the synapse
Causes changes in the membrane potential, causing it to go away from the resting potential
Travels over the plasma membrane
Reaches the axon hillock
Motor proteins that travel along microtubule tracts
Dyenin and Kynesin
what are the two surfaces of the plasma membrane?
Calcitonin…decreases renal tubular reabsorption of calcium.
increases blood phosphate levels.
is essential to survival.
stimulates calcitriol production.
none of the above.
decreases renal tubular reabsorption of calcium.
network of capillaries in walls of ventricles - ventricles lined with ependymal cells
choroid plexuses
Passive Transport
The movement of small molecules across the membrane of a cell by diffusion
Cellular differentiation
the process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type.
active processes
require energy expenditure by the cell (ATP)
Messenger Transport (Diffusion)
Ligand is degraded quickily, Para. auto crines
What is the set of peritubular capillaries located on the loop of henle?
vasa recta
this is a protein found red blood cells (erythrocyte)
each hb binds 4 O2 molecules preferentially in the lungs
Hb loses affinity O2 in the targe tissue
ADH is stimulated by
Increased blood osmolality or decreased blood volume
Two substrates of Factor XIIa?
Factor XI and Prekallikrein
The blood concentrations of oxygen are relatively high and the blood concentrations of carbon dioxide are relatively low in the ___________ and in the systemic arteries.
pulmonary vein
pulmonary circulation
the circulation of blood from the heart to the lungs for oxygenation and back to the heart
what type of proteins are on the outside and inside of cell membrane that can be removed without damaging cell membrane?
extrinsic membrane
The inside of a resting cell is slightly negative relative to the outside. This is an example of
chemical disequilibrium
Active reabsorption of solutes
Solutes can be actively transported against their concentration gradients across either the basolateral membrane or the apical membrane
Signal transduction
the process by which ligand binding to a receptor causes a response in the target cell
Potential difference = E
difference in voltage between two points
What is Permissiveness?
One hormone needed for another to exert its effectsEX : TH suppressing adrenergic receptors in bronchi
what is the first step to metabolizing amino acids?
what does this reaction consist of?
the amino acid is cleaved into the amine (nh2) group and an alpha-keto acid.
the a-k acid can enter the krebs cycle through a couple different points in the reaction.
the amine group enters the urea cycle.
Where in a cell are peptide/protein messengers packaged into secretory vesicles? 112) _____ A) rough endoplasmic reticulum B) nucleus C) lysosomes D) smooth endoplasmic reticulum E) Golgi apparatus
E) Golgi apparatus
Which adrenal hormone stimulates salt reabsorption?
- Aldosterone, promotes reabsorptionof Na+ by distal tubule and upper collecting ducts. After Na+ is absorbed, then Cl- follows to preserve electrical neutrality and then water follows.
if there are low levels of CO2, what happens to bronchioles?
Auto receptors
Shut off receptors When NT is released it binds to post synaptic receptors and auto
what is the back flow of stomach contents called?
- "heartburn"
What type of receptor is found on the end of motor neurons?
Actual movement of oxygen in to blood - carbon dioxide out to the chest cavity
Gas exchange
Regulation of cardiac contraction
alterations in fiber lengthchanges in contractility
the ability of an organism or part of an organism to react to stimuli; degree of susceptibility to stimulation
low permeability through simple diffusion
- large, uncharged polar molecules (glucose)- ions (H+, Cl-, Na+, K+)
Countercurrent refers to the
opposite directions of fluid flow in the descending and ascending limb by the reabsorption of water in the descending limb
Scientific term for Fraternal twins:
dizygotic, made from two different eggs
What is Hypoparathyroidism?
caused by bad surgeries on thyroid or low Mg, causes over excitability of neurons
body response to bacterial infection
bacterial invasion causes increase in mast cell production
mast cells have granules (like basophils) that produce histamine, bradykinin and cytotoxic t-lymphocytes (CT) around blood vessels
CT  cells kill bacteria and brady kinin increases blood flow and circulatory permeability which allows tissue to be flooded with WBC, ISF and antibodies
Most Common Form of Cellular Communication
Cytokines, through paracrine or autocrine signaling
Residual Volume (RV)
• Volume of air that remains in the lungs after maximum respiration (1200ml ~)• This is important for 2 reasons a) it allows lungs to inflate easier, b) always air in the lungs to allow gas exchange.
what are the effects of impaired bulbar muscles?
aspiration of food particles
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
everything other than brain and spinal cord
dx of acute pancreatitis
- serum amylase (rise w/in first 24hrs; elevated for 72hrs)- serum lipase (rise w/in first 24-48 hrs; elevated 5-14d)- urine amylase (increased urinary clearance)- increased wbc- hyperglycemia (islets, increase glucose, decreased insulin)- increased bilirubin (if block duct)
Describe 3 parts of cerebellum and their functions
Cerebrocerebellum - planning, initiation, assesment/correction, motor memorySpinocerebellum - medial body posture, modulates reticulospinal pathwaysVestibulocerebellum - eye movements, body equilibrium, modulates vestibulospinal pathways
Tonic smooth muscle contraction- characteristic and where
continuous production of force in presence of falling [Ca2+] that remain above basal levels. crossbridge cycling continues at low level.*airways, blood vessels, GI
what is the location description of skeletal muscle?
attached to bones (connective tissue)
Describe a reversible reaction:
It is when both the forward and backward reactions are catalyzed by the same enzyme.  The direction of the reversible reaction depends, in part, on the relative concentrations of molecules to the left and right of the arrows in the equation. ex. If CO2 is very concentrated (as in tissues) the reaction would be driven to the right.  If the concentration of CO2 is low (as in lungs) it would be driven to the left. ex.
H2CO3---> H20 + CO2 and
H2O + CO2---> H2CO3 =
H2O + CO2<---> H2CO3
The metabolic adjustments that occur as the body switches between the postabsorptive and absorptive states are largely triggered by changes in the
plasma concentration of insulin, a peptide hormone secreted by beta cells located in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans
What are the hormones of the thyroid gland?
T3, T4, and Calcitonin
Which of the following statements about sodium is FALSE? 216) _____ A) There is a chemical force driving sodium ions into the cell. B) At the resting membrane potential, there is an electrical force driving sodium ions into the cell. C) At the potassium e
C) At the potassium equilibrium potential, there is an electrical force driving sodium ions out of the cell.
localized cooling also works to decrease pain...why?
b/c A.P. move slower when cooled
what's the driving force of breathing?
the difference between the alveolar and atmospheric pressure
2 lobes of the pituitary gland
- neurohypophysis (aka posterior lobe) which is composed of nervous tissue- adenohypophysis (aka anterior lobe) which is glandular tissue- STUDY FIGURE ON PAGES 8,9, AND 10
What's the difference between IPSP and EPSP?
Inhibitory Post Synaptic Potentials and Excitatory Post Synaptic Potentials
At the base of the lung, there is greater ventilation, perfusion, or both?
Both are greater
Characteristics of Zone II?
P(a) > P(A) > PvFlow is determined by P(a) - P(A)Blood flow may be decreased during exhalation and positive pressure mechanical ventilation
What pressure grandient drives air out of the alveoli
Palveoli becomes positive, compared to Patmosphere
pressure is higher in the alveoli
Cognition is a general term referring to awareness and thinking as well as to specific mental acts such as perceiving, interpreting, remembering, believing, and anticipating.
Cognition is a general term referring to awareness and thinking as well as to specific mental acts such as perceiving, interpreting, remembering, believing, and anticipating.
A drop in body temperature below the set point triggers
decreased sweat production
which reduces evaporative heat loss

decreased blood flow to skin
which reduces conductive and radiative heat loss

which inceases heat production

The combined effect of these effector responses acts to raise body temperature back toward the set point
What is the fate of a neurotransmitter?
Neurotransmitters effect for a short time since they are either destructed in the cleft or reabsorbed by the presynaptic part
timeline of events in a cardiac cycle
(see slide 4 of cardiovascular physiology)
1: late diastole; all chambers relaxed, ventricles passively filling
2: atrial systole; overlapping with ventrical diastole. AV valves open , Atrial contraction force small amount of additional blood into ventricles
3: End diastolic volume; max amount of blood in ventricles
4: isovolumic ventricular contraction; beginning contraction pushes AV valves closed to prevent backflow (however, not enough pressure to open the semilunar valves)
5: ventricular ejection; ventricular pressure rises, exceeds that of arteriole pressure, semilunar valves open, blood is ejected
6: end systolic volume is reached; This is the minimum amount of blood in ventricles
7: isovolumic ventricular relaxation; ventricles relax causing ventricle pressure to decrease. Blood flows back towards semilunar valves and snaps them closed
(back to diastole of both ventricles and atria) 
intermediary metabolic effects of GH
- mobilizes fat stores as a major energy source- increases [blood glucose] levels by decreasing glucose uptake by muscles- conserves glucose for glucose-dependent tissues (such as brain)- important for maintaing body during prolonged fasting or times when body's energy needs exceed glucose stores- promotes growth in both soft tissues and skeleton
Give examples of how coronary blood flow is regulated
1. The sympathetic nervous systema. alpha receptors stimulate vasoconstriction at rest
b. beta receptors stimulate vasodilation in flight or flight
2. Intrinsic regulators:
a. increased metabolism of the myocardium causes increased carbon dioxide and potassium ion, and decreased oxygen
b. these cause vascular smooth muscle to relax
a change in the Vm in which it becomes more NEGATIVE than the resting Vm.
what shape and where are columnar cells?
well theyre column shaped, good joband theyre found in the digestive tract, uterine lining, and respiratory passageways
How does DNA direct the synthesis of RNA in genetic transcription?
The enzyme RNA polymerase causes separation of the two strands of DNA along the region of the DNA that constitutes a gene.  One of the two strands of DNA serves as a template for the production of RNA.  This occurs by complimentary base pairing between the DNA and ribonucleic bases.
What effect does fibrosis have have on the pressure-volume loop of the chest wall-lung system?
Decreased slope and a lower FRC.
To correctly measure the BMR the following conditions must be adhered to:
i. Fast for up to 12 hoursii. Body temperature must be normaliii. Person must be resting and awakeiv. No exercisev. Room temperature must be controlled.
What is Orthostatic hypotension ?
the influx of blood flow to the brain when standing, drop in blood pressure
What active molecule is testosterone converted to? What converts it? What Drug inhibits it's conversion?
Testosterone is converted to DHT bu 5 alpha reductase which is inhibited by finasteride
what is the shape and location of cuboidal cells?
obviously theyre cubesin ducts and the pancreas
what is a graded potential?
what type of conduction is this?
it is a failed attempt at an action potential.
when this happens there is a small influx of Na+ but not enough to create and AP so the little graded potential moves along the axon but while it does so it gets smaller and smaller and eventually fades out.
decremental conduction
after a heart gets either a psd or sd input what is the regulatory mechanism of heart rate? or how do sympathetic and parasypathetic divisions regulate heart rate?
1. Chronotropic Effect
a.) neg: big increase in PSD  input to SA node by ACh to M2 receptors. message goes then to Gprot which delays inactivation of K+ channels. causes prolonged hyperpolarizations and thus an interval twix contractions. also a little decrease in sypathetic input.
b.) posi: decrease in psd input to SA node and increase in sd input. NE/E to beta1 receptors to gprots inacativate k+ gates more quickly and plateau potentials become more frequent
How does the Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum transport molecules?
- A piece pinches off to form a transport vesicle- Travels to Golgi complex
The direction of change in membrane potential, in response to a stimulus that initiates a graded potential, is dependent upon ________. 234) _____ A) that membrane's threshold potential B) the ion channels that are opened or closed C) the gating of sodium
B) the ion channels that are opened or closed
What is the Nerst equation and what is it used for?
It is used to estimate the equilibrium potential
Equil. Pot.=-60log(ion conc inside/ion conc ouside)
adrenocorticotrophic Hormone
axon terminal
presynaptic terminal
Amplitude or loudness
Selective diffusion
(cleanse the blood)
Outer ear
includes: auditory canal
coccygeal nerve does what
Excessive bicarbonate (HCO3-) buffering of hydrogen ions (H+) during high-intensity exercise ___________ the volume of carbon dioxide expired and the respiratory exchange ratio (RER).
The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
Splitting of glucose(sugarOccurs in cytoplasmIs split into two pyruvate molecules(2)NAD+ are used - (2)NADH are produced(2)ADP and Pi are used - (2)ATP is produced
is the subliminal advertising effective?
Adenylate cyclase catalyzes the conversion of ATP to ____________?
Ependyml Cells
Produces CSF and movement
Body temperature, hunger, thirst, fatigue, sleep, circadian rhythms, homeostasis
Drug that blocks nerve gas
what is important in maintaining structure of cell membrane?
widening the blood vessel lumen; increase blood flow
The achievement view of intelligence is associated with educational attainment—how much knowledge a person has acquired relative to others in their age cohort.
threshold voltage
Minimum depolarization required to initiate an action potential
Net Flux
difference between 2 unidirectional fluxes (at equilibrium, = 0)
Stretch Reflex
Monosynaptic. Causes muscles to contract when stretched.
Juxtaglomerular Apparatus
• Juxtaglomerular cells on afferent arterioles and macula densa cells on the distal convoluted tubule
Nicotinic receptor blocker, can be used to paralyze the diaphragm,
T/Fthe Nernst equation predicts the equilibrium potential for a single ion
What NT is made from tryptophan?
- chemical change (hydrolysis) of large molecules (e.g. carbs, proteins, fats) into smaller, absorbable subunits (e.g. glucose, aa, lipids)
Parasympathetic Division:

Craniosacral division (cranial nerves 3, 7, 9, 10 and sacral nerves S2-S4).Synapse w/ postganglionic neurons in the target organs or near the target organs in the terminal ganglia.
Preganglionic axons are very long compared to the postganglionic neurons they innervate because the latter are confined to the target organs. Preganglionic neurons release ACh; postganglionic neurons release ACh.
PR segment
conduction delay through AV node
_______________, both the diaphragm and the external intercostals are recruited as inspiratory muscles, whereas both the intercostals and the abdominals are recruited as expiratory muscles.
During exercise
not attracted to water; nonpolar tails
In diffusion motion of particles is called?
Bring oxygen into the body and eliminate cargon dioxide from the body
Lungs, pharynex, trachea, bronchi
How can mitochondia provide a genetic inheritance derived from only the mother?
Passive Immunity
Direct antibody transfer from another person
Low Heritability:
The gene is not passed on
Lymbic system
link between cognitive function and emotional responses.
Amydala and cingulate gyrus: linked to emotion and memory
hippocampus: learning and memory
form of local blood flow control; blood flow remains constant in spite of variable perfusion pressures
What is the structural classification of a neuron composed of a single axon and a number of dendritic projections from the nerve cell body? 206) _____ A) multipolar B) polar C) pseudo-unipolar D) unipolar E) bipolar
A) multipolar
volume loading hypertension
renal failure and primary aldosteronism causes what kind of hypertension
percentage of T cells actually make cut when maturing in thymus gland?
of, relating to, promoted by, or being a substance secreted by a cell and acting on adjacent cells
circulatory hypoxia:
decreased amount of blood delievered to tissues
nervous system
fast-acting control system of the body; responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands
increasing lens curvature results in
seeing near objects
- any substance that increases bile secretion- pancreas
How does a neutrophil kill foreign invaders?
These conn. tissues exerts force on the _______ which pulls on the bone to be moved.
Class of drug that inhibits production of above substances?
Calcium release from the SR increases the amount of calcium binding to troponin, which in turn, causes ________________ to move, thereby exposing myosin binding sites on actin.
to void or expel from an organism
being or occurring on the receiving end of a discharge across the synapse
a twist in intestines that have not turned is called?
Which is a system that influences motor output, according to Larry Swanson?
behavioral state
A molecule that can combine with H+ (protons) in a solution.  A "proton acceptor".
K+ - Potassium
Major intracellular Ion
(inside the cell)
Hyper kalemia - Excess
(can stop the heart)
Edward O. Wilson:
Sociobiologists who said DNA shapes day to day behaviors Believed in a “Short Leach”
Growth hormone (GH)
Regulates growth and energy metabolism in many tissue types
What is the normal value for the respiratory exchange ratio/respiratory quotient?
A molecule that is similar in structure to a ligand (messenger) and binds with that ligand's receptor to stimulate a response from the target cell is called a(n) ________. 129) _____ A) blocker B) synergist C) agonist D) antagonist E) protagonist
C) agonist
cardiac cycle 4
ventricular diastole stage 1
isovolumetric relaxaton phase
both valves closed
ventricular pressure declines, no chance in volume
Fe3+ plus erythropoietin + Vit B12 + globin makes
Water is a great ______ beacuse it dissolves ionic compounds and polar organic compounds.
oldest part and central core of the brain. brainstem responsible for automatic survival functions
Steroid and some amine hormones are ________, can pass into cell, bind cytoplasmic or nuclear receptors, and interact with hormone response elements. Transcribe DNA message (___) for protein synthesis. Some interact with membrane-bound receptors for fas
lipophilic, mRNA,
What type of diabetes causes very excessive urination?
Diabetes Insipidus
what does secretion by the large intestine include?
- mucus
Which type of lymphocytes begin patrol upon immediate release from the bone marrow?
B lymphocytes
Nerve to muscle synapse between motor nerve and muscle
Neuromuscular junction
Through what does sensory information enter the cord?
Posterior root (dorsal)
What organelle has Ca+ pumps at membrane and actively pump Ca+ into the Lumen or center of organelle.
Sarcoplamic Reticulum
the period of life just prior to sexual maturation
slow cycling of cross bridges and low energy requirement and slowness of contraction and relaxation is what type of muscle?
smooth muscle
What happens during exhalation
contraction of the thoracic cavity reduces the size of the lungs, and makes the alveoli smaller
Alternative Splicing
enzyme clip segments out of the middle or off the ends of the mRNA strands
Benefits of Excercise (5)
Reduces fat- builds muscle, boosts immune system, cardiovascular benefits, mental health benefits, longer life
Short loop negative feedback
prevents the buildup of excess anterior pituitary tropic hormone
Explain the differences between the parasympathetic and sympathetic autonomic nervous systems in terms of location of cholinergic and adrenergic fibers
Parasympathetic and Sympathetic nervous systems both have cholinergic fibers pre-ganglion
Parasympathetic NS also have cholinergiv fibers post ganglion
Sympathetic  NS has sdrenergic fibers post ganglion
What two things do parietal cells secrete?
HCl, intrinsic factor
How does Hyperthyroidism effect BMR
Increases BMR
Feel - hot, irritable; thinner
White Blood Cells (WBC)
Also called Leukocytes, 2 types:1) Granulocytes2) Agranulocytes
steps of respiratory cycle
1. diaphragm contraction
2. air is drawn into system
3. increase in pleural cavity volume
4. decrease in intrapleural pressure
5. increase alveoli volume
6. interalveolar pressure decreases
Imbedded in the bilayer are...
cholesterol, glycolipids, proteins and glycoproteins
postabsorptive state
- nutrients are not being absorbed at this time (bt meals)- metabolic fuels are mobilized during this state- stored molecules are catabolized to maintain glucose concetration and for E production
complications of acute pancreatitis
- acute respiratory distress syndrom- acute tubular necrosis (kidney disfx)- hypocalcemia
Describe tectospinal tract
From corpus quadragenium of tectum of midbrain (superior + inferior colliculus)Mediate reflexes - head, neck , upper trunk movements in response to visual and auditory stimuli
V/Q = infinity implies ______
Blood flow obstruction (physiological dead space)
What area of the brain also plays a role in ventilation?
where are beta 2 receptors found?
vasculture smooth muscle and bronchiole smooth muscle
What are microbiological threats
bacteria, viruses, worms - our immune system and integumentary system help protect us against these
What other processes are affected by Ca++ pathway
inflammation, metbolism pathways, memory, immune response
Luteinizing homrone (LH) and Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
regulate various aspects of reproductive system, in both males and females

Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells):
(Fig. 15.2)
1. 99% of cells in blood are erythrocytes
2. Packed cell volume after centrifugation is composed almost entirely of erythrocytes; packed cell volume called hematocrit
3. Hematocrit levels average 42% for females, 45% for men
4. Cream colored layer on top of erythrocytes called Buffy Layer, is composed of white blood cells and platelets
comparison of chemically regulated gates and voltage-regulated gates in
terms of what makes them open:neurotransmitter vs. voltage change; where they are located: cell body and dendrites vs. axon; and the result of their opening: EPSPs/IPSPs vs. action potentials. events in neuron transmission (see handout)
1 pathway (shoot) in back of nerve by nerve root
dorsal ramus
what is the relative glycogen content of the three muscle fiber types?
I: low
II: medium
IIb: high
similar in function to schwann cells in that they form myelin.....purpose of myelin.
oligodendrocytes; insulation and support
what 3 general digestive fxs fall under skeletal control
- chewing- swallowing- excretion
How do NTs function?
1) Action potential causes release of NT from the terminal
2) these bind to receptors located on target cells
3) binding causes flow of ions across the membrane of the postsynaptic cell
4) temporary redistribution of ionic charge can lead to the generation of action potential 
What are the targets of androgens
skin prostate, seminal vescles, epididymis, liver, muscle, brain
5 different types of taste neurons
sweet, salty, sour, bitter, umami
what happens in aerobic respiration?
pyruvate to acetyl coa co2 is released
Where does reabsorption occur
along the tubules, is the movement of water or solute from the lumen of the tubules into the peritubular capillaries
Voluntary control of skeletal muslce movements
Planning of movement in frontal lobe
Initiation of movement by primary motor neuron in frontal lobe
Relay to secondary motor neuron in anterior portion of spinal gray matter
Secondary motor neuron innervates skeletal muscle, to cause contraction
Proprioception, cerebellum, sub-cortical nuclei and thalamus all participate in adjustments to the movement

Mechanical Events in the Cardiac Cycle:
P wave and PQ interval: Late ventricle diastole...
1. SA node reaches threshold and fires
2. Atrial depolarization occurs
3. Atria contract = atrial systole
4. Atrial pressure > ventricular pressure = AV valves open
5. Blood squeezed by atrial contraction from atria into ventricles
**Pressure in aorta is still higher than in the ventricle
in an experiment, dogs in one group are given compound x, and dogs in another group compound y.  after 1 week, dogs give x have lower metabolism and a larger thyroid gland than those given y.  identify compounds x and y.        compound x - compou
    placebo - t4
Helper T cells aid in which two types of immunity
cell-mediated and Ab-mediated
The branch of ANS that is primarily excitatory. What is the nickname.
Sympathetic; fright or flight
spontaneous bacterial peritonitis
- seen in persons w both cirrhosis and ascites- peritoneal cavity infected w bacteria from blood, lymph, or through bowel wall- serious infection; high mortality even w antibiotics
Describe ligand gated channels
Opened by ligands - any chemical that binds to channel (hormone, NT)Functions - neural decision making (EPSP, IPSP), intracellular signaling (control of intracellular pH, Ca)
the cell body does what?
carries out functions such as protein synthesis, etc.
False! The absolute refactory period is the interval during which a second action potential absolutely cannot be initiated, no matter how large a stimulus is applied. The relative refactory period is when membrane potential is hyperpolaized because potass
T/F: The absolute refactory period is when membrane potential is hyperpolarized because potassium channels are open.
Describe the different types of hormone interactions (synergistic):
Synergistic- When two or more hormones work together to produce a particular result. May be complimentary or additive. ex. additive: epinephrine and norepinephrine seperately produces an increase in heart rate, when acting together in same concentrations stimulates an even greater cardiac rate. ex. complimentary: estrogen, cortisol, prolactin and oxytocin work together to enable the mammary gland to secrete milk.
What is a neuromuscular junction?
synapse between an axon and a skeletal muscle cell
what types of animals sunbatha dn what are the phases of warming they experience?
snakes and turtles
warming phase, plateau phase, cooling phase
Regulation of pH in the bloodKidneys
• Eliminates H+ from the acids. Done in 2 ways:a) Increasing the secretion of H+b) Increasing the reabsorption of Bicarbonate ions (HCO-3). The HCO-3 will go back into the blood and become part of the buffering system.In plasma there is a ratio of HCO-3 to CO2 = 20 : 1This ratio must be maintained to keep the blood pH level in the normal range. The lungs and the kidneys function together to maintain this ratio.
True or False, active transport does not require the use of metabolic energy.
FALSE, active transport does not happen without ATP
what are the 5 types of wbcs
- lymphocytes (B and T)- monocytes/macrophages- neutrophils- eosinophils- basophils
What is MAP in terms of systolic and diastolic pressures
1/3 systolic +2/3 diastolic
What is an epitope? Where do they bind to?
plasma membrane antigenic determinate-part of a macromolecule that is recognized by the immuse system
Explain the functions of NAD+ and FAD:
NAD+ and FAD are coenzymes that function as hydrogen carriers because they accept hydrogens (becoming reduced) in one reaction and donate hydrogens (becoming oxidized) in another reaction.  Each FAD can accept 2 electrons and bind 2 protons, so the reduced form of FAD is FADH2.  Each NAD+ can also accept 2 electrons, but can only bind 1 proton, so the reduced form of NAD+ is NADH+H.  When the reduced form of these two coenzymes participate in an oxidation-reduction reaction, they transfer 2 H atoms to the oxidizing agent.
What is the primary significance of graded potentials
they determine whether a cell will generate an action potential
) Lipophilic hormones are transported in blood ________ and bind to receptors located ________. 128) _____ A) bound to carrier proteins : inside the target cell B) dissolved in the plasma : on the plasma membrane of the target cell C) dissolved in the pla
A) bound to carrier proteins : inside the target cell
If there is more CO2 present, more H+ present, and a higher temperature, which way does the Hb-Dissociation curve shift?
down and to the right
This is seen with hormones that are NOT water soluble:
Steroid homones and thyroid hormones {lipid soluble (fat)}
interaction between hormone and nuclear receptor-->the two will bind--> migrate to nucleus--> influences gene expression
When norepinehprine binds to its receptors and sodium channels open, what happens to the cell?
It becomes more positive and closer to thresshold.
Heart average values for
 CO, HR, and SV
light exercise
HR = 135 beats per minute
SV = 0.08 liters per beat
CO = 11 liters per minute
Which of the following is an example of spatial summation? 238) _____ A) A neuron sends out information through collaterals to several target cells. B) An action potential occurs at the same time as a graded potential, and they sum. C) Two action potentia
D) Two stimuli from two sources produce graded potentials on the same neuron at the same time such that the two potentials sum.
what are 3 types of receptors in GIT that respond to local chemical or mechanical changes
- chemoreceptors (chemicals in lumen)- mechanoreceptors (stretch or tension w/in wall)- osmoreceptors (osmolarity of luminal contents)
State a location at which ACh has stimulatory effects:
In the smooth muscle cells of the stomach the binding of ACh to its muscarinic receptors can cause a G-protein alpha subunit to dissociate, and bind to K+ channels. This causes the K+ channels to close and results in the outward diffusion of K+ to reduce below resting levels. The reduction of the outward flow of K+ produces a depolarization, producing an EPSP, resulting in contractions of the stomach.
. A group of researchers wants to determine if people are more likely to follow directions if the person giving the directions is in a uniform. Half of the participants are directed to a parking spot by a uniformed security guard, the other half are direc
the number of participants who park in the spot they are directed to.
The amount of O2, that moves into the blood from the air, and the amount of CO2, that moves out of the blood into the air is usually at what concentrations
in the same location in the blood are relatively constant
The partial pressures at a given location are therefore also relatively constant
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