Physiology Exam 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Protein synthesis
1.             In Grave’s disease, antibodies act as TSH agonists.  What does that mean and how would it affect thyroid secretion?
regulates hormones
H.P Axis
Hypothalmus--> pituitary-->thyroid gland-->thyroid hormone
hypothalmus-->(stimulating hormones)--> pituitary--> "trophic hormones"-->enodcirne gland
1.             In general, what is the major difference in the effect of a lipophilic versus a lipophobic hormone on proteins in the target cell?
conn's syndrome
hypersecretion of aldosterone
Sympatholytic agent, decreases sympathetic system treats Hypertension by Beta blockers
carries blood to systemic
Excitatory neurotransmitters of the CNS usually act by opening __________ channels.
Secrete - EdocrineTransportation - bloodtarget cell must be receptor specific
where is aldosterone made?
adrenal cortex
An oxygen requiring process.Occuring in or requiring molecular process.
Examples of neuromodulators:
serotonin, acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine
Depolarization demonstrates a ____ feedback loop during an action potential.
Endothelial cells of peritubular capillaries secrete - in response to hypoxia.
the preganglionic neuron synapsing with postganglionic neuron is called?
collateral ganglion
In resistance exercise, such as strength training, muscles rely heavily on __________ energy production.
What is meant by the threshold
Growth Factors
are proteins that stimulate proliferation and fifferentiantion of cells
Association areas
integrate sensory information into perception
Perception is the Brain's responce to stimuli
What molecule is used to (approximately) measure renal blood flow?
supporting cells that nourish neurons, don't actually have electrical impulses in them
a cellular organelle of eukaryotes that is essential to cell functions (as reproduction and protein synthesis), is composed of nuclear sap and a nucleoprotein-rich network from which chromosomes and nucleoli arise, and is enclosed in a definite membrane.
what increases excitability of muscles/nerves?
less acidic
neurons to skeletal muscles
Somatic motor division
adrenal glands
- important for metabolizing nutrients, adapting to stress, maintaining salt balance- there are two adrenal glands which are imbedded in a capsule of fat on top of each kidney
Reticular formation?
Sleep, consciousness, pain modulation, cardiovascular control, habituation
\"grand central station\" of sensory synapses in the brain (sensory info relayed here first). contains integrating centers for most of the sensory inputs that are sent to the cerebral cortex
Slow fatigue-resistant motor units are the smallest and are recruited _______________
pertaining to the semiconscious state prior to complete wakefulness
T/F smooth muscle can be self stimulating?
Red blood cell production is regulated by the hormone
B cells - sectete antibodies
T cells - sectret cytokines that support mmune response of other cells
secrete factors that kill infected or tumor cells
Muscular movement of contents of the GI tract
Cell in nervous system specialized to initiate, integrate and conduct electrical signals
Practical Intelligence
Often requires for everyday tasks, which are frequently ill-defined, with multiple solutions
mnemonic devices
techniques for using associations to memorize information
Membrane permeability is altered in the short term (seconds) by changes in the ________ of ion channels. 227) _____ A) formation B) cleavage C) degradation D) gating E) production
D) gating
nicotinic 1 (NM)
(excitatory for muscle and autonomic)
at motor end plate of muscle voluntary control of muscle
anesthesiologists play with this
Extrinsic control - hormones (ADH)
– Causes vasoconstriction
The concentration of a solution in terms of osmoles of solutes per liter of solution.
Metabotropic Receptor
binding site for neurotransmitter but lacks own pore through which ions can flow. NO PORE
carbohydate funtions
redox reactions- glucose molecules are broken and release energy that is used to form ATP; When ATP supplies areadequate glucose is stored as glycogen and fat (some CHO are structural like in DNA, in RNA and sugars in cell membranes)
Pressure triggers
Mechanoreceptors by Merkel discs and ruffini endings
What is anuria?
little urine, low to low
internal environment
the fluid constituting the immediate environment of most of the body's cells
Describe cotransport
-Moves more then one solute-All solutes move in SAME direction
What is a common sign of prolactinoma?
It is ________ to assess bioelectrical impedance analysis in someone who has just completed a bout of exercise.
Insulin is produced and secreted by the
pertaining to the blood in the pulmonary vein, having been oxygenated during its passage through the lungs and being normally bright red
hyperkalemia can lead to?
cardiac arrythmias or sudden death
Facilitated Diffusion
the movement of a substance that requires a helper or carrier protein.
Distinguish between voltage-regulated and ligand-regulated ion channles:
Voltage-regulated channels are found primarily in the axons and open in response to depolarization
Ligand-regulated channels are found in the post-synaptic membrane and open in response to the binding of postsynaptic receptor proteins to their neurotransmitter ligands.
Personality-Related Position Requirements Form (PPRF)
developed by Raymark, Schmit, and Guion to identify the personality types needed to perform job-related tasks consists os 107 items tappign 12 personality dimensions that fall under the Big 5 personality dimensions very reliable and shows promsie
group of many nerve fibers (axon of fibers) traveling together in PNS
Receptor/Graded potential
A graded potential produced at the peripheral endings on afferent neurons in response to a stimulus.
how much fluid will pass through; if you increase the diameter of the tube you increase the _____ by the power of 4
What transporter in the proximal tubule reabsorbs phosphate?
sodium-phosphate contransporter (resorbs 80%)
cochlear implant
a device for converting sounds into electronical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea.
WBC that gets to infection site first; phagocytes, but not very hearty; make up 60-70% of WBC
-The load which a muscle lifts, called this because its magnitude and presence are not apparent to the muscle until after it has begun to shorten
During quiet normal breathing (expiration), describe intrapleural and intra-alveolar pressures
Intrapleural: lower than intra-alveolarIntra-alveolar: slightly higher than atmosphereic and higher than intra-pleural
Type of contraction in which the force of contraction increases as the muscle shortens?
bicuspid valve
separates the left atrium from the left ventricle
eitology of PUD
- Helicobacter pylori infection (main cause of both types of ulcers; can be treated with antibiotics)- chronic NSAIDS, ASA (more gastric ulcers than duodenal; no tx)
extracellular matrix
contains a dense meshwork of proteins and other large molecules
Nitric Oxide
-NO- Acts as a neurotransmitter in both CNS and PNS-In CNS, may be involved in learning and memory- In PNS, causes smooth muscle relaxation in target organs:blood vessels, gastrointestinal tract, penis, respiratory tract
During which period is O2 consumption by the heart the highest?
isovolumetric contraction
Oxygen consumption is equal to energy demand during the _________ phase of exercise.
steady state
the concentration of the solute in a solution
_____ percent of nerve fibers in the vagus nerves are ____?
80, afferent
Explain excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscles:
1) ACh released by somatic motor neurons binds to nicotinic ACh receptors in the sarcolemma, causing a depolarization that stimulates 2) voltage-gated channels, producing action potentials. 3) The conduction of action potentials along with the transverse tubules stimulates the opening of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. 4) The channels in the transverse tubules are mechanically coupled to Ca2+ channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, causing them to open. Ca2+ then diffuses out of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, so that it can bind to troponin and stimulate muscle contraction.
What is synapsin? What is its role in the release of neurotransmitters
Pleural Effusion:Hemothorax
The presence of blood in the pleural cavityCauses: - Chest injury- Complication of chest surgery- Malignancies- Rupture of a great vessel such as an aortic aneurysm
Wernicke's area
One of the speech centers of the brain
% of blood consisted in cells in men it is 42% and in women it is 38%
Heart sounds produced by:
1st sound- mitral valve closing2nd sound- aortic valve closing
25.    Which statement regarding parathyroid hormone (PTH) is incorrect?(a)    “Parathyroid hormone” is the same thing as “parathormone.”(b)    All cases of hyperparathyroidism are due to tumors or adenomas of the parathyroid.(c)    Hi
(b)    All cases of hyperparathyroidism are due to tumors or adenomas of the parathyroid.
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning:
• CO competes with oxygen for the binding sites on the Hb• Binds 240 times more strongly to the Hb then oxygen• When it binds it forms carboxy Hb• Cells become started for oxygen and death can occur in minutes• CO found in incomplete burning of natural gas, wood and tobacco.
even though active tension decreases with the length of the muscle, why does the total tension increase?
total tension=passive tension+active tension
even though active tension is decreasing with length, passive tension is increasing exponentially. Adding passive tension to active tension creates a total tension that actually increases with muscle length.
Increase in size of a cell, body part, or organism
comprehension vocabulary
the words that are understood by an infant or child
heme of hb
- 4 Fe-containing, non protein groups- each Fe atom bound to one globin polypeptide and can combine w one molecule of O2 gas- molecule is bright red when combine w O2 (this is why blood is red)
 motor units
The combination of a motor neuron and all the muscle cells the neuron stimulates; can be large (powerful muscles, such as the gastrocnemius) or small (precise muscles, such as extraocular muscles)
What is the compensation?
A drop in CO2 by hyperventilation
In an electrocardiogram (ECG), the QRS complex is indicative of ___________________
ventricular depolarization (activation)
Which way does nitric oxide shift the curve?
To the left.
Give an example of how a negative feedback loop involving the endocrine system can help to maintain homeostasis after fasting:
Fasting->lowers blood glucose->pancreatic islets(of Langerhans) act as sensor, integrating center and effector; detect decreased blood glucose-> stimulation of pancreatic islets decrease insulin-> triggers glucagon production->decreased cellular uptake of glucose->liver secretes glucose
->increased blood glucose
Four factors that influence the rate of passive diffusion
Concentration, Temperature (increased is faster), Mass (larger is slower), surface area (increased is faster), Medium (gas is faster than liquid)
Imaginative Thinking Skills
Provide the ability to see things in new ways, to recognize patterns, to make connections.
What occurs during inspiration?
The muscles of the diaphragm contract and volume of the thorax increases. Intrapleural and thus alveolar pressure decrease; the pressure gradient causes air to flow into the lung.
Secretion of hormones from the anterior pituitary is stimulated by ________ released from the ________. 165) _____ A) oxytocin : hypothalamus B) inhibiting hormones : posterior pituitary C) antidiuretic hormone : hypothalamus D) stimulating hormones : pos
E) releasing hormones : hypothalamus
Colostrum what is it
: initial human milk- rich in antibody proteins - released around childbirth and before the onset of milk formation- no fat and little water- intestine can absorb immunoglobins- passive immunity
What do the expiratory neurons control?
-During active expiration, the expiratory neurons from the Ventral Respiratory Group VRG activate the internal intercostals muscles and abdominal muscles. Inspiratory neurons are inhibited during this time.
What is done by stimulating or opening Potassium channels causing water to leave the cell and decrease the number of particles in the cytosol?
Regulatory Volume Decrease
role of hyperthyroidism in goiters
- grave's disease- thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI)- continuously stimulating thyroid gland therefore growth occurs and it is not controlled by the Ab- TSI binds with TSH receptors causing this continual stimulation
What is the name given to an uninsulated gap between schwann cells?
nodes of ranvier
The inner part of a band w/no action , where you just see myocin
H band
Where are the peripheral ventilation receptors located?
carotid artery & aortic arch
Cellular mechanism of action of single unit smooth muscle once calcium increase occurs
four calciums bind to calmodulin
activates MLCK

leads to phosphorylation of myosin light chain
this will cause it to form cross bridge with actin → contraction
it could be attacked by myosin phophotase, removing the phosphate, leading to latch bridge (tonic tension)
Identify the hormones of the adrenal medulla:
Epinephrine (80%) and norepinephrine (20%). The effects of these catecholamine hormones are similar to those caused by the stimulation of the sympathetic nervouse system, except the hormonal effects last about 10 times longer.
What two types of synapses are there?
electrical synpases and chemical synapses
What is the driving force for diffusion of a gas across a membrane?
Partial pressure difference (NOT concentration)
1. What is the precursor to dopamine that can cross the BBB2. What is a disease in which dopamine does not cross the BBB
1. L-DOPA2. Parkinson's Disease
Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV1.0) After 1 second
• Volume of air that is expired during the first second of expiration
RER is found in cells involved in protein synthesis
–Secretory cells–Liver –Active immune system cells
how does bile emulsify fat
- fat globules broken into smaller droplets- increases surface area, facilitates enzymatic attack- pancreatic lipase anchored to fat droplets by polypeptide colipase (colipase is necessary)
Skin has _ nervous activity only
Sympathetic - increase sweat gland activity + hair smooth muscle contraction
In the heat balance equation, if the skin temperature is greater than the ambient temperature, then the radiant, conductive, and convective components will be negative. By contrast, if the skin temperature is less than the ambient temperature, then the _
radiant, conductive, and convective
Describe structure of micille and functional significance of the structure
round polar heads contact water on inside and outside

long hydrophobic tails form the inner portion of the membrane

sets up a barrier to polar compounds and ions
allow for different concentrations of ions across the membrane
small uncharged water solubule molecules can pass (ex: urea)
How do absolute refractory periods affect the frequency of action potential production?
As stimulus strength is increased, the frequency of action potentials will increase accordingly. As the action potentials are produced with increasing frequency, the time between successive action potentials will decrease- but only up to a minimum time interval. The interval between successive action potentials will never become so short as to allow a new action potential to be produced before the preceeding one has finished. This is because when a voltage-regulated channel is opened for depolarization for a set time, it enters an inactve state, and can't be opened by depolarization.
Three important aspects that can not be used with heritablility?
You can't compare individuals (a person's achievements or flaws at a personal stance), you can't compare two different groups (blacks and whites), and you can't compare the environments (educations in two different environments)

Cardiac Output and its Control:

Control of Stroke Volume...

-Varying length of heart muscle fibers-
1. longer the fiber at start of contraction, the stronger the contraction
2. more blood that is in chamber, the longer the fiber (i.e. they are stretched) so the stronger the contraction
3. Bottom Line: when venous return of blood to heart is increased (by many factors to be discussed later) the blood volume in heart is increased, which increases fiber length, which increases strength of contraction, which allows pumping of larger volume 
Role of Loop of Henle in water reabsorption
- create a hypertonic interstitial fluid in the medulla- collecting ducts pass through this fluid via route to ureter and allow water to be withdrawn by osmosis to the interstitial duct - descending limbs of loop are permeable to both water and sodium
major source of H+ in body?
carbonic acid production from CO2 and H20
what are the characteristics that determine the diff. hepatotropic viruses
- differ in mode of transmission; incubation period; mechanism; degree and chronicity of liver damage; ability to evolve into carrier state
How do you determine net force acting on ion
By combining Vm and Ei
What is obligatory water loss?
minimum amount of urine that needs to be screted even in the most severe dehydrated states
Explain the causes and dangers of atherosclerosis:
It is caused by smoking, hypertension and high plasma concentration. Low density lipoproteins (LDL) which carry cholesterol to the artery wall are oxidized by the endothelium and are a major contributor to atherosclerosis. It begins with injury to the endothelium, the movement of monocytes and lymphocytes in to the tunica interna, and the conversion of monocytes into macrophages that engulf lipids. Smooth muscle cells then proliferate and secrete extracellular matrix. It can occlude blood flow to the heart and brain, and is a causative factor in 50% of deaths in the US, Europe and Japan.
Ion that commonly serves as a second messenger
Calcium- stimulation of cell to increase calcium by receptor activation
In order for a neuron to move from the absolute to the relative refractory period, a majority of that neuron's sodium channels must have their ________. 259) _____ A) inactivation gates closed and activation gates closed B) activation gates closed C) inac
E) inactivation gates open
explain how resting and maximum cardiac output vary between the average person and a runner.
based on this, what would causes the difference, time? or volume?
AT REST: the runners heart rate is lower and stroke volume is higher. at rest, a marathoner and a regular person have about the same CO
MAX: the runner has a lower max heart rate and a much higher stroke volume. As a result the runner's max cardiac output is much greater than the non-runners
stroke volume is the variable that is the most influential
what are 4 causes of high accumulation of bilirubin in the blood
- excessive destruction of rbc's- impaired uptake of bilirubin by liver cells- decreased conjugation of bilirubin- obstructed bile flow within (canliculi of hepatic lobules; intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts)
With regard to ventilation explain the physiological role of Epiglottis:
It covers the trachea when swallowing to prevent aspiration.
At rest, we produce how much carbon dioxide per hour
12 Liters of carbon dioxide
(200 mL per minute)
The hydrolysis of ATP on the Na+/K+ pump results in ________. 56) ______ A) Na+ adhering to its binding site B) a conformational change that moves the Na+ binding site to the outside of the cell C) a conformational change that moves the K+ binding site to
D) a conformational change that moves the Na+ binding site to the inside of the cell
how do you dx diverticular disease
- signs and sxs - history- CT scan- barium enema and x-ray (not if diverticulitis is suspected)
In the arm, the biceps brachii is a flexor whereas triceps brachii is an extensor. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
Theses muscles are an example of antagonistic muscles; The biceps brachii is the primary muscle responsible for movement of the hand and forearm towards the shoulder
what are C cells in the thyroid gland?
- cells that make up the interstitial space bt follicular cells- secrete calcitonin- plays a role in Ca2+ metabolism
Name 2 types of sleep and what each of their EEG waves look like.
REM- when dreaming occurs; waves are similar to awake onesnon-REM- consolidation of short term into long term memory; delta waves
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