Physiology Exam Review I Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Internal Defenses
• phagocytes• macrophages• natural killer cells (lymphocytes – always on alert, can destroy cancer cells as well)• gastric juice (food contains microbes, HCl in stomach -2pH- also kills microbes in food)• in tears and saliva (have lysosomes)• Moderate fever also functions to destroy microbes
Basal Ganglia
control movement
Optic disc?
Blind spot
Transfusion reactions
(means to clump together)
- released from ant. Pituitary- stimulates milk production- suckling is a stimulus for pulsatile prolactin release- stimulation of nipple tactile receptors-hypothalamus- reduced levels of release inhibiting hormone/increase in hypothalamic release hormone for prolactin- increase in prolactin release by post. Pit.
Intercalated Disks
Strong connections between cells.
Desmosomes for strength.
Gap junctions for electrical activation spread.
Vocal cords of birds
Is intrapulmonary pressure (pressure within alveoli) constant?
large, unmyelinated nerve fibers bundle in CNS
T/F  “Injections of epinephrine would be a good treatment for hypoglycemia.”True
arrangement of trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and lobes
CNS/Brain stem, emotions, sleep, vommiting
Parasympathetic pathway uses what NT?
hormone of sympathetic nervous system.released from adrenal medulla
All preganglionic neurons in both sympathetic and parasympathetic are ?
Physical/environmental threats
nervous, endocrine and musculoskeletal systems
Emotional Intelligence
Emotional inhibition refers to the suppression of emotional expressions, and often thought of as a trait, e.g., some people chronically suppress their emotions.
simple diffusion
Diffusion across the phospholipid bilayer of a cell
as a rule only steroids, lipids and small lipophillic mollecules can diffuse accross the membrane through simple diffusion.
What is tetanus (tetanic contraction)?
maintained contraction
Liquid Phases During Digestion in Small Bowel
Components of the “Oil” Phase
fat soluble vitamins
other very lipophilic compounds
Less than 50 beats/ min 
-Involves the rapid transmission of action potentials, often over long distances, and the release of a neurotransmitter at a synapse
most are organic (contain C,H,O)4 major classes: carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids & nucleotides
XII. Hypoglossal
efferent, innervates skeletal muscles of the tongue
esophageal tears
- malory-weiss syndrome- often associated with alcoholism
Set point is a _
Reference temperature
If afterload is decreased, what happens to stroke volume?
Calcium release from the ______ increases the amount of calcium binding to troponin, which in turn, causes tropomyosin to move, thereby exposing myosin binding sites on actin.
where the exchange of materials between blood and teh interstitial fluid take place
swallowing has what 3 stages?
1.voluntary stage
2.pharyngeal stage
3. esophageal stage 
defend the body against pathogens and abnormal cells
White blood cells, thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, tonsiles, adenoides
Negative Feedback
reverses a change in controlled condition- Ex: Blood Pressure
The random movement of molecules due to their kinetic energy.
Action potential
electrical signal propagated by nerve and muscle cells
Brain portion between brain stem and cerebrum, consisting of thalamus and hypothalamus
Paroxysmal Tachycardia
events that appear quickly and disappear quickly and can be more dangerous than PVC
Androgens are precursor molecules for the synthesis of ________. 118) _____ A) aldosterone B) estradiol C) cholesterol D) cortisol E) progesterone
B) estradiol
what happens at P?
depolarization of both atria
blood type and Rh factor are genetically determined
The dissolution of fibrin by plasmin is known as fibrinolysis. As the damaged vessel wall slowly repairs itself, fibrinolysis helps remove the clot.
Taste Transduction
Ligands activate the taste cell, Multiple intracellular pathways are activated, Ca2+ signal in the cytoplasm and triggers exocytosis, neurotransmitter and primary sensory neuron fires, action porentials sent to the brain.
process in which living cells break down into simpler substances
AV node
electrical relay system between atria and ventricles
alcohol metabolism
- OH dehydrogenase (ADH): cytoplasm- microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system (MEOS, member of the CYP450 system): ER- catalase: peroxisomes- end products: acetaldehyde, free radicals responsible for alterations that cause liver injury
decomposition reaction
reactions in which molecules are broken down (degradation reaction) digesting a protein that will break sown aa's during digestion
Each myofibril is composed of thin and thick filaments arranged in ___________.
Components of filtration barrier?
Fenestrated capillary endothelium, fused basement membrane with heparin sulfate, epithelial layer
However, when ________ is in the sarcolemma, it can take up glucose from the bloodstream.
oxygen debt
the body's oxygen deficiency resulting from strenuous physical activity
proteins embedded in the cell membrane are called?
intrinsic proteins
Steroid hormones are synthesized in the __________ of the cell.
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Angiotensin II
a hormone the maintains and increases blood pressure
stimulates vasoconstriction of systemic arteries (increase MAP)
stimulates adreanl cortex to secrete aldosterone
stimulates posterior pituitory to secrete ADH
stimulates feelings of thirst in hypothalamus
Brain Barrier Substances Transported
Glucose, water,
selected amino acid
Lipid soluble substances - alcohol, CO2, nicotine, cocaine, anesthetics, L-dopa, Antihistamines, steroids
Absolute refractory period
time during which an excitable membrane cannot generate an action potential in response to any stiumlus (sodium channel is already open or proceeded to inactivated)
pertaining to a process in which the net effect is greater than the sum of the individual effects
Muscle Metabolism and Fiber Types:
Muscle Fatigue:
1. asynchronous recruitment of motor units used to limit muscle fatigue (i.e., fibers "take turns" contracting)
2. fatigue occurs when muscle can no longer respond to stimulation with same degree of contractile activity, probably because of lactic acid accumulation and depletion of energy reserves
Neuromuscular Fatigue:
1. motor neurons cannot make Ach fast enough
Central Fatigue:
1. psychological, not well understood
What region of the adrenal gland secretes epinephrine? 180) _____ A) zona fasciculata B) zonae reticularis, fasciculata, and glomerulosa C) zona reticularis D) medulla E) zona glomerulosa
D) medulla
first degree AV block
prolonged PR interval
slow conduction through AV node or bundle of His
1 P for every QRS
ACTH - adrenocorticotropic hormone(target/action)
adrenal glandsrelease stress hormones (cortisol)
For a reaction to be spontaneous, Δ(G) must be what?
1. Negative
glial cells
cells in teh nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons.
The nervous system has ________ of intelligence and emotion.
emergent properties
prenatal stage
the stage of development before birth; divided into germinal, embryonic and fetal periods
- mostly in bone marrow- only pieces circulate in blood- fragments of megakaryocytes- blood clotting
What are free nerve endings used for?
Pain detection
What is the term used when sensory receptors adapt partially or completely to their stimuli over a perior of time?
Sympathetic control of arterioles
norep alpha causes vasoconstriciton, beta 2 epi causes dilation (mainly cardiac and skelatal )
This tissue helps organisms come out of hibernation, by raising metabolic rate
brown fat
a change in organs, tissues, or cells leading to performance of a function like muscular contraction
What is the normal range and non lethal limits of Oxygen?
10-1000 mmHg 
Men decline reproductively by:
gradual loss in reproductive capacity, ED
job specifications or competencies
these are the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) (such as interest, personality, training) that are necessary to be successful on the job
High Heritability:
There is a great chance that many people have this trait
natural concepts
concepts people form as a result of their experiences in the real world
what does action potential propagaion velocity depend on?
fiber diameter and myelination
what hormones are produced in the adrenal cortex?
aldosterone, androgens, glucocoritcoids
lateral geniculate nucleus
relay senter for vision at the thalamus
Regulation of Gastric Juice Secretion1) Cephalic phase
• Last minutes• Stimulus is the thought of food, taste of food and seeing food.• These can begin the start of secretion of Gastric Juice
What is a condition that does not change with time, has no net gain/loss of a substance, and can refer to a single or several compartments?
Steady State
what are androgens?
- estrogen in females- testosterone in males
Dr. Kincaid was interested in the topic of autistic savants (individuals with limited abilities in many areas, but with an exceptional talent in one specific area). In the initial part of the investigation, Dr. Kincaid observed and kept detailed files on
 case study research.
Distinguish between extracellular and intracellular hormone receptors
Extracellular - peptide hormones, activate 2nd messensger systemIntracellular - cytoplasm, hormone-receptor complex binds to DNA
What triggers its release?
Increases serum calcium and calcium secretion
Endothelial cells aren't tightly packed at the pituitary gland to allow for...
release of hormones into circulation
what is an agent that can cause flacid paralysis?
botulinal toxin
Describe the relationship between interstitial fluid, plasma and lymph:
The hydrostatic pressure of blood forces plasma fluid out of the capillary walls and into the surrounding tissues, forming interstitial fluid. Some reenters capillaries and some enters into lymphatic vessels, where it is then called lymph.
G-protein linked receptors
the activated G protein binds to an ion channel or an enzyme (the effector). as long as it is bound it will act on the efector. The G protein may either stiulate or inhibit that effector
artificial intelligence (AI)
the creation of a machine that can think like a human
Electrical & Contractile Activity of Heart Cells:
Contractile cell APs...
(Fig. 13.13)
1. AP in contractile cells are quite different than in cardiac autorhythmic cells
2. When an AP reaches a contractile cardiac cell via a gap junctionm Na+ channels open wide and Na+ rushes into the cell.
       a. this results in depolarization of membrane. Na+ channels then close around +30 mv.
3. Depolarization of membrane causes opening of slow Ca++ channels, and Ca++ movels slowly into cell.
       a. In addition, depolarization causes K+ channels to inactivate
4. These two mechanisms work together to create the plateau phase of the AP. (prevents repolarization from happening rapidly)
5. Repolarization eventually occurs as Ca++ channels close, and K+channels open and K+ moves out of cell
When a receptor on postsynaptic membrane binds to the neurotransmitter and opens the ion channels, what else is generated?
an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) (ex: Ach in nicotinic receptors) or inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) (ex: GABA)
reflex involving extension of leg at knee joint - blocked by damage to sensory or motor nerves, may be absent in ppl with diabetes mellitus or neurosyphilis
knee jerk (patellar reflex)
what is the p wave?
p wave represents the depolarization from the SA node throughout the atria
T4 is produced more or less than T3?
far more T4
what is diverticulosis
- condition in which the mucosal layer of colon herniates through muscularis layer- pouch develops bt muscle rings- often asymptomatic and found on x-ray for other purposes
Name the two glial cells of the PNS?
Schwann and Satellite
Metabolic alkalosis
pCO2 increases 0.7 mm Hg per 1 mEq/L HCO3 increase
to move from one region of the body to another, as in embryonic development
The action potential in a cardiac contractile cell causes
opening of L-type calcium channels
Describe renal insufficiency and uremia:
When nephrons are destroyed, or there is loss of a kidney or when kidney function is reduced or damaged, renal insufficiency may develop. This may cause hypertension (due to the retention of Na+ and H2O) and uremia, which is high plasma urea concentration. The inability to excrete urea is accompanied by elevated plasma H+ concentrations, and elevated K+ concentration.
Functions of specific ascending pathways.
Carry single types of stimuli that pass to the brainstem & thalamus then to specific sensory areas of cortex-somatosensory cortex then to the complex integration areas. (Cross to other side of brain)
Thin Filament Structure:
1. Fastens down each end of the tropomyosin molecules, holding them in place over myosin binding sites
Explain the Similarities and Differences
between Simple Diffusion and Osmosis.
Simple Diffusion is the movement of non-polar substances from high to low concentration.
Osmosis is only the diffusion of water, and it must be through a semi-permeable membrane!!
globin (after being released from dying RBC) turns into?
amino acids; reused for protein synthesis
As well as nuclear receptors, T3 and T4 bind receptors on surface of _____ to increase rate of ____________ _______ production. This has increased __________ and the rate of _______.
mitochondria, mitochondrial ATP, metabolic activity, 02 consumpti8n
what are the 3 main constituents of blood
- plasma- cells- platelets
Describe the micturition reflex and the type of nerves/receptors activated
1. Bladder volume increase, detrusor muscle is stretched2. Sensory afferents are activated3. Parasympathetic efferents are activated, detrusor contraction occurs4. Urine forced through internal sphincter and into urethra, 2nd set of sensory afferents activated.5. Tonix activity of somatic motor nerve to external sphincter is inhibited, sphincter is relaxed.6. urine is released
Which factors are most critical to the transport of CO2 from tissues to the lungs?
Hemoglobin shift, Carbonic anhydrase
The six extrensic eye muscles
allow for movement of the eye within orbit
Describe the Adenylate Cyclase-Cyclic AMP second messenger system:
1)The hormone binds to its receptor on the outer surface of the target cell's plasma membrane, because it is water-soluble.
2) G-proteins stimulate the activity of adenylate cyclase on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane (due to the dissociation of the a subunit).
3) This enzyme catalyzes the production of cAMP, which
4) removes the inhibitory subunit from protein kinase.
5) Active protein kinase phosphotylates other enzyme proteins, activating or inactivating specific enzymes and therefore producing the hormonal effects of the target cell.
For a sodium channel to be open what two gates must be open
Activation and inactivation gates
both types of gates open and close in response to changes in the membrane potential
how does net flux change with particle mass, temperature, path length and concentration gradient?
decreases with more mass
increases with more heat
decreases with more length
increases with a greater concentration gradient
Shift to right in the dissociation curve
• The following causes are involved in metabolic activity (exercise) i) Rise in body temperature ii) Drop in pH (because of production of lactic acid iii) Increase in Carbon Dioxide• Less oxyhemoglobin because blood is unloading oxygen which is required for metabolic activity• Bohr Effect – effect of pH on the blood HbO2(unloaded) results in ↑H+ or (↓pH)• Shift to right allows less oxygen to be bound to the Hb
More sodium in produces a : more K+ out or CL in produces a :
EPSP depolarization; IPSP hyperpolarization
what does increased P in portal vein lead to
development of large collateral channels for flow
Force of contraction is proportional to -------.
initial length of cardiac muscle fiber (preload)
What is the function of the gall bladder?
storage and concetration of bile
Identify the myelin sheath, and describe how it is formed in the PNS:
A Schwann cell wraps around the axon, forming several layers, squeezing the cytoplasm to the outside. The outer part is known as the neurilemma, or sheath of Schwann. The many layers of myelin underneath the neurilemma is the myelin sheath. This provides insulation around the axon, exposing the noses of Ranvier.
How are these receptors in the Organ of Corti arranged with respect to pitch?
Lower pitch- vibrations are further down the cochlea. High pitch- vibrations are closer to the oval window.
Which of the following is a correct example of long-loop negative feedback? 171) _____ A) Glucocorticoids inhibit the release of CRH. B) FSH inhibits the release of GnRH. C) TSH inhibits the release of TRH. D) TSH stimulates the release of TRH. E) GH stim
A) Glucocorticoids inhibit the release of CRH
what are the 2 centers in the pons respiratory centers?
pneumotaxic center and apneustic center
What is an integrating center in a negative feedback loop?
it determines the response (the brain)
What is the significance of the amount of saturation at 100mm? At 40mm?
100-saut pt. for systemic arteries-98: 40-sat pt. for systemic veins-75: both are at rest
How is ATP produced in oxidative phosphorylation?
The production of ATP is through the coupling of the electron-transport system and the phosphorylation of ADP (oxidative-phosphorylation). The electron transport system is powered by the transport of electrons, and it pumps protons from the mitochondrial matrix into the space between the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes. The electron transport system is grouped into 3 complexes that serve as proton pumps (the first puoms 4, second 4 and third 2). As a result, there is a higher concentration gradient in the intermembrane space than in the matrix, favoring the diffusion of H+ back into the matrix. The membrane can only permit diffusion of H+ through the respiratory assemblies. There is a stem serving as a channel and a globular subunit protruding into the matrix, containing ATP syntase, which catalyzes the reaction ADP + Pi--> ATP when it is activated by the diffusion of protons through the respiratory assemblies and into the matrix. This way, phosphorylation (addition of phosphate to ADP) is coupled to oxidation (transport of electrons) in oxidative phosphoylation.
The equilibrium potential for a cation is -20 mV. Which of the following statements is true when a cell is at the resting membrane potential (-70 mV)? A) The chemical force is directed into the cell and the electrical force is directed out of the cell. B)
C) The chemical force is directed out of the cell and the electrical force is directed
is the digestive tract autonomic or skeletal control?
- the digestive tract is smooth muscle therefore it maintains low levels of contraction and tone and is autonomic control
What is the function of the SA node?
Pacemaker for the entire heart. Its depolarization generates action potential that leads to depolarization of all other cardiac muscle cells. (Its discharge rate determines heart rate)
1.     What is the role of enzymes in metabolic pathways?
They act as catalyst that make the pathway occur and they speed up the process and control biomedical reactions.
Why does Na+ influx start to decrease at the peak of the AP?
high Na+ on the inside, as a result of the gates opening, causes there to be a decrease of the driving force.
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