Plant Diversity I: How Plants Colonized Land 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
gametophore
gamete-producing structure
embryophytes
land plants
rhizoid
long, tubular single cells
peat
Partially decayed organic material from the wetland moss Sphagnum
sporangia
multicellular organs in the sporophyte
archegonia
Female gametangia; a vase-shaped organ that produces a single egg retained at the base of the organ
calyptra
Protective cap of gametophyte tissue in bryophyte capsules
peristome
A ring of interlocking, tooth-like structures on the upper part of a moss capsule (sporangium). Often specialized for gradual spore discharge,
mosses
A small, herbaceous nonvascular plant that is a member of the phylum Bryophyta.
lignin
phenolic polymer that strengthens cell walls
seed
an adaptation of some terrestrial plants consisting of an embryo packaged along with a store of food within a protective coat
Hornworts
(Anthocerophyta)
- name refers to the long, tapered shape of the sporophyte
- unlike a liverwort or moss sporophyte, lacks a seta and consists of only a sporangium, which releases mature spores by splitting open, starting at the tip of the horn
- usually among the first species to colonize open areas with moist soils (because of a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria)
sporangium
A multicellular organ in fungi and plants in which meiosis occurs and haploid cells develop
homosporous
Trait when one type of sporophyll produces on type of spore that develops into a bisexual gametophyte; most dominant
foot
The portion of a bryophyte sporophyte that gathers sugars, amino acids, water, and minerals from the parent gametophyte via transfer cells.
antheridia
The male gametangium. A moist chamber in which gametes develop.
vascular tissue
Plant tissue consisting of cells joined into tubes that transport water and nutrients throughout the plant body
gymnosperms
A vascular plant that bears naked seeds-seeds not enclosed in specialized chambers
gymnosperm
"Naked Seed." plants with seeds that are not enclosed in chambers.
root
an organ in vascular plants that anchors the plant and enables it to absorb water and minerals from the soil
archegonium
(archegonia)
in plants, the female gametangium, a moist chamber in which gametes develop
sporangium
(sporangia)
a multicellular organ in fungi and plants in which meiosis occurs and haploid cells develop
vascular plants
A plant with vascular tissue. Vascular plants include all modern species except the mosses and their relatives.
sporocytes
a diploid cell, also known as a spore mother cell, that undergoes meiosis and generates haploid spores
define and distinguish between the stages of the alternation of generations life cycle
1. gametophyte produces haploid gametes by mitosis
2. two gametes unite (fertilization) and form a diploid zygote
3. the zygote develops into a multicellular diploid sporophyte
4. the sporophyte produces haploid sporesby meiosis
5. spores develop into multicellular haploid gametophytes
alteration of generation
A life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte; characteristic of plants and some algae. Where one generation gives rise to the other.
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