Plant families Flashcards

Asteraceae
Terms Definitions
Liliaceae
Lily family
Musaceae
Banana family
Hydraphyllaceae
Waterlily family
Fabaceae
Bean family
Polemoniaceae
Phlox family
Scrophulariaceae
Figwort family
Saxifragaceae
Saxifrage family
Primulaceae
Primrose family
Ranunculaceae
Buttercup family
Caryophyllaceae
Pink family
Iridaceae
Iris family
Brassicaceae
Cabbage family
Apocynaceae
Periwinkle family
Gesneriaceae
African violet family
Typhaceae (7)
-Large herbs
-Monoecious
-Simple, usually basal, linear, long, slender leaves
-Staminate spikes above pistillate spikes
-1 to 6 stamens, 2 fused carpels each with 1 ovule,
-Superior ovary
-Achene or follicle
-Cattails
Cactaceae (7)
-Succulent stems
-Areoles
-Flowers showy, parts numerous
-Inferior ovary
-Parietal placentation
-Glochidia
-Hypanthium (fused portion of flower)
Scrophulariaceae (5)
-Herbs
-Flowers zygomorphic, sympetalous, bilabiate
-Didynamous stamens usually present
-Ovary superior, 2 fused carpels, ovules numerous
-Capsule or berry
Magnoliaceae (4)
-Woody
-Flowers large and showy
-Spiral arrangement of many laminar stamens on lower part
-Elongated receptical
-Many carpels on upper part
Apiaceae (6)
-Mostly perennial herbs
-Leaves compound, dissected with sheathing base
-Umbels
-2 fused carpels
-Inferior ovary
-Schizocarp
Malvaceae (5)
-Herbs or shrubs
-Leaves simple, commonly palmately lobed
-Stellate hairs common
-Monadelphous stamens (fused into a bundle) or 5 basally fused
-Fruit schizocarpous capsules
Caprifoliaceae (8)
-Herbs, shrubs, small trees, lianas
-Leaves opposite, simple
-Flowers zygomorphic
-5 petals connate with 2 upper 3 lower lobes (4 upper 1 lower)
-2 to 5 fused carpels
-Inferior ovary, elongate style, capitate stigma
-Nectar producing glandular hairs on inside of corolla tube
-Berry, capsule, drupe
Hamamelidaceae (11)
-Trees or shrubs
-Leaves simple, alternate, entire or serrate
-Flowers actinomorphic, bisexual or unisexual
-Flower parts in 4's or 5's (petals sometimes lacking)
-2 partially fused carpels
-Inferior ovary
-Stipules
-Fruit: woody capsule
-Stellate hairs
-4 or 5 stamens alternating with staminodes
-Anthers opening by 2 flaps
Geraniaceae (5)
-Herbs
-Leaves usually palmate, simple to compound
-Flowers usually actinomorphic and in parts of 5 (including fused carpels)
-Ovary superior, elongating after pollination
-Schizocarp of 5 segments
Lauraceae (8)
-Trees and shrubs
-Leave simple, alternate, entire, pinnate
-Flowers actinomophic and in parts of 3's
-1 carpel with 1 ovule
-Superior ovary
-Valvate anthers opening by 2-4 flaps
-Etherial oils
-Drupe
Berberidaceae (7)
-Perennial herbs or shrubs
-Leaves simple or pinnately compound
-6 tepals
-Valvate anthers
-Fused carpels
-Basal placentation
-Fruit berry
Betulaceae (7)
-Trees or shrubs
-Leaves simple, alternate, pinnate, doubly serrate
-Monoecious, unisexual plants
-Flowers catkins subtended by bracts that completely covers fruit
-Inferior ovary
-Fruit nut, samara
-2 fused carpels
Ericaceae (5)
-Trees or shrubs
-Leaves opposite or alternate, entire
-Corollas usually sympetalous, flowers usually urn-shaped
-10 stamens (rarely 5)
-Anthers with terminal pores and often appendages
-Example: Rhododendrons
Solanaceae (7)
-Herbs, shrubs, or vines
-Plants often densely pubescent
-Leaves simple, alternate, commonly lobed
-Flowers actinomorphic (occasionally zygomorphic), sympetalous
-2 carpels with capitate stigma
-Occasionally exserted stamens
-Superior ovary
-Potato, tomato, chili pepper
Arecaceae (6)
-Trees and shrubs with unbranched stems
-Leaves crowded at stem tip to form crown, alternate, pinnately or palmately compound
-Flowers actinomorphic, bisexual or unisexual
-Sepals 3, petals 3, stamens 3 or 6, 3 carpels
-Superior ovary
-3 parted drupe
Malvaceae
Mallow family
Papaveraceae
Poppy family
Geraniaceae
Geranium family
Ericaceae
Heath family
Plumbaginaceae
Leadwort family
Solanaceae
Potato family
Violaceae
Violet family
Rubiaceae
Bedstraw family
Bignoniaceae
Begonia family
Asteraceae
Daisy family
Boraginaceae
Forget-me-not family
Campanulaceae
Bellflower family
Clusiaceae
St John's Wort family
Polemoniaceae (7)
-Usually herbs
-Flowers actinomorphic
-Corolla sympetalous and 5-parted
-Unequal insertion of stamens in corolla
-3 fused carpels
-3 separate stigmas
-superior ovary
Salicaeae (4)
-Trees or shrubs
-Dioecious
-Catkins
-Seeds numerous and hairy
Polygonaceae (5)
-Mostly herbaceous
-Leaves alternate
-Sheathing stipules (ocreas)-
-6 tepals, 6-9 stamens, 3 fused carpels
-Achene (often winged), nutletts
Liliaceae (7)
-Herbs
-Often scapose
-Leaves linear
-Stems often modified as rhizomes, bulbs, or corms
-Flowers actinomorphic
-6 tepals (3 sepals, 3 petals), 6 stamens, 3 carpels
-Capsule or berry
Portulaceae (8)
-Herbs
-2 "sepals" (actually bracts)
-Fleshy (succulents--not all)
-Leaves simple, opposite or alternate
-Basal placentation
-5 to many petals or sepals, 5 stamens
-2 to 3 fused carpels
-Fruit a capsule
Iridaceae (7)
-Herbs
-Flowers actinomorphic or zygomorphic
-Perianth undifferentiated or differentiated
-6 tepals (or 3 sepals, 3 petals), 3 stamens, 3 carpels
-Styles sometimes winged or petalloid
-Ovary inferior
-Capsule
Cyperaceae (7)
-Herbs
-Triangular stems
-Leaves basal or cauline, 3-ranked with closed sheaths
-Spikelet
-2 to 3 stamens, 2 to 3 fused carpels
-Perianth of bristles
-Achene
Boraginaceae (9)
-Herbs
-Plants often hairy
-Leaves alternate
-Cymes
-Flowers actinomorphic and sympetalous
-Gynobasic style or terminal and bifid
-If bifid, stamens usually exserted
-Ovary superior, 4-lobed (when gynobasic) or unilocular
-4 nutlets or capsule
Violaceae (8)
-Herbs or trees
-Zygomorphic
-Heart shaped leaves
-Corolla polypetalous, spurred
-Nectar guides
-Stamens touching but not fused
-3 fused carpels
-Parietal placentation
Araceae (4)
-Herbs
-Watery or milky sap
-Spathe and spadix
-Flowers often with fetid odor
Saxifragaceae (8)
-Herbs
-Leaves often basal, serrate, palmately lobed
-Separate styles
-Many small flowers, 5 parted with 10 stamens
-Hypanthium
-2 partially fused carpels
-Axile placentation
-Inferior Ovary
Rosaceae (6)
-Trees, shrubs, or herbs
-Leaves stipulate (how to distinguish from ranunculaceae), alternate, simple or compound
-Leaflets with serrate margins
-Hypanthium (how to distinguish from ranunculaceae)
-Carpels numerous to 1
-Acintomorphic, parts of 5
Aceraceae (5)
-Trees or shrubs
-Leaves simple, opposite, often palmately lobed
-2 fused carpels
-Superior ovary
-Samaroid schizocarp
Fagaceae (8)
-Trees or shrubs
-Leaves simple, alternate, pinnate
-Monoecious
-Pistillate flowers in leaf axils
-Staminate flowers in catkins
-Ovary inferior
-Nut with involcre of bracts
-3 fused carpels
Oleaceae (6)
-Trees and shrubs
-Leaves opposite, simple or compound, pinnate
-Flowers actinomorphic, bisexual, 4-parted
-2 epipetalous stamens and 2 fused carpels
-Superior ovary
-Capsule, samara, berry, drupe
Fabaceae (6)
-Trees, shrubs, or herbs
-Leaves often compound
-Leaflets with entire margins
-stamens numerous to 10 (9+1), diadelphous in papilionaceous (flag) flowers
-One carpel
-Legume or loment
Euphorbiaceae (7)
-Herbs or shrubs
-Some succulent or cactus-like
-Milky latex
-Leaves alternate, simple, lobed, or compound
-Reduced flowers, actinomorphic, unisexaul, 3 parted
-3 fused carpels
-Schizocarpous capsules forming 3 1-seeded parts
Asteraceae (7)
-Head with phyllaries
-Disk, or disk and ray, or ligulate flowers
-Pappus
-Corolla sympetalous
-Fused anthers
-Inferior ovary
-Achene
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