Plant Structure, and Development 2 Flashcards

cells
Terms Definitions
herbaceous
Nonwoody
Wood consists of
secondary xylem.
Tracheids
A water-conducting and supportive element of xylem composed of long, thin cells with tapered ends and walls hardened with lignin.
peat
Extensive deposits of undecayed organic material formed primarily from the wetland moss Sphagnum.
xylem
Vascular plant tissue consisting mainly of tubular dead cells that conduct most of the water and minerals upward from roots to the rest of the plant.
Derivatives
New cells displaced from the meristem.
Perennials
Long-lived plants such as trees, shrubs, and some grasses
Vessels
Found primarily in angiosperms, they have both pits and perforated end walls for water movement
rhizoid
Fibrous organ that anchors nonvascular plants to the root
vein
A vascular bundle in a leaf.
phragmoplast
An alignment of cytoskeletal elements and Golgi-derived vesicles across the midline of a dividing plant cell.
Long, thin tapered cells with lignified cell walls that function in support and permit water to flow through pits
sclerenchyma
Cells with unevenly thickened primary walls hat support still-elongating parts of the plant
Collenchyma
the photosynthetic cells in the interior of a leaf are what kind of cells:
parenchyma
Suppose Geroge completely removed the bark from around the base of a cherry tree but was stopped by his father before cutting the tree down. Plant lived for several weeks but then died. What tissue was left?
xylem
morphogenesis
Development of body shape and organization
tracheid
A long, tapered water-conducting cell that is dead at maturity and is found in the xylem of all vascular plants.
polarity
A lack of symmetry. Structural differences in opposite ends of an organism or structure, such as the root end and shoot end of a plant.
protonema
A mass of green, branched, one-cell-thick filaments produced by germinating moss spores.
Lateral Meristems
Meristems that contribute to the process of secondary growth
Vascular Cambium
A lateral meristematic tissue that produces vascular tissues and increases the thickness of the stem over time
Pattern Formation
The development of specific structures in specific locations
Parenchyma Cells
A relatively unspecialized plant cell type that carries out most of the metabolism, synthesizes and stores organic products, and develops into a more differentiated cell type.
Phase Changes
The morphological changes that arise from transitions in shoot apical meristems
Spongy Mesophyll
Loose tissue beneath the palisade layer of a leaf that has many air spaces between its cells
Root
An organ that anchors a vascular, absorbs minerals and water, and often stores organ nutrients
ground tissue
Plant tissues that are neither vascular nor dermal, fulfilling a variety of functions, such as storage, photosynthesis and support
stoma
A microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange between the environment and the plant interior
Leaves
The main photosynthetic organs of most plants
positional information
Molecular cues that control pattern formation in an animal or plant embryonic structure by indicating a cell's location relative to the organism's body axes. These cues elicit a response by genes that regulate development
bark
All tissues external to the vascular cambium, consisting mainly of the secondary phloem and layers of periderm.
periderm
The protective coat that replaces the epidermis in plants during secondary growth, formed of the cork and cork cambium.
primary growth
Growth produced by apical meristems, which lengthen stems and roots.
cortex
Ground tissue that is between the vascular tissue and dermal tissue in a root or dicot stem.
organ
A specialized center of body function composed of several different types of tissues.
vascular cylinder
The central cylinder of vascular tissue in a root.
annual
A flowering plant that completes its entire life cycle in a single year or growing season
In leaves, chloroplasts are found in
palisade mesophyll
------ provides cells for primary growth
apical meristems
pericycle
The outermost layer of the vascular cylinder of a root, where lateral roots originate.
vessel element
A short, wide, water-conducting cell found in the xylem of most angiosperms and a few nonflowering vascular plants; Dead at maturity; aligned end to end to form micropipes called vessels
epidermis
The dermal tissue system of nonwoody plants, usually consisting of a single layer of tightly packed cells.
stem
A vascular plant organ consisting of an alternating system of nodes and internodes that support the leaves and reproductive structures.
Root Hair
An extension of a root epidermal cell
Vessel Elements
A short, wide, water conducting cell found in the xylem of most angiosperms and a few nonflowering vascular plants. Dead at maturity, vessel elements are aligned end to form micropipes called vessels.
Sclerenchyma Cells
A rigid, supportive plant cell type usually lacking protoplasts and possessing thick secondary walls strengthened by lignin at maturity.
lateral meristem
These results in growth which thickens the shoots and roots
pith
Ground tissue that is internal to the vascular tissue in a stem; in many monocot roots, parenchyma cells that form the central core of the vascular cylinder
sorus
A cluster of sporangia on a fern sporophyll
palisade mesophyll
One or more layers of elongated photosynthetic cells on the upper part of a leaf
cork cambium
A cylinder of meristematic tissue in woody plants that replaces the epidermis with thicker, tougher cork cells
leaf trace
A small vascular bundle that extends from the vascular tissue of the stem through the petiole and into a leaf.
dermal tissue system
The outer protective covering of plants
Vascular plant tissue includes all of the following cell types except
cambium cells
node
Where the leaves are attached to a stem
stele
The vascular tissue of a stem or root.
taproot system
A root system common to eudicots consisting of one large, vertical root (the taproot) that produces many smaller lateral, or branch, roots.
initial
A cell that remain within an apical meristem as a source of new cells.
adventitious
A term describing any plant organ that grows in an atypical location, such as roots growing from stems.
Systems Biology
A field that aims to establish a blueprint for how plants are built by identifying each gens function and tracking every chemical pathway.
Sieve Plate
An end wall in a sieve-tube member, which facilitates the flow of phloem sap in angiosperm sieve tubes.
Secondary Plant Body
The tissues produced by the vascular cambium and cork cambium
Companion cells
A cell type that provides for the molecular needs of the sieve-tube elements
Axillary bud
A structure that has the potential to form a lateral shoot, or branch.
fibrous root system
A root system common to monocots consisting of a mat of thin roots spreading out below the soil surface.
sporocyte
A diploid cell, also known as a spore mother cell, that undergoes meiosis and generates haploid spores.
collenchyma cell
A flexible plant cell type that occurs in strands or cylinders that support young parts of the plant without restraining growth.
lenticel
Small raised area in the bark of stems and roots that enables gas exchange between living cells and the outside air.
petiole
The stalk of a leaf, which joins the leaf to a node of the stem.
Land plants are not composed of what tissue?
mesodermal tissues.
internode
A segment of a plant stem between the points where leaves are attached.
terminal bud
Embryonic tissue at the tip of a shoot, made up of developing leaves and a compact series of nodes and internodes.
sieve-tube member
A living cell that conducts sugars and other organic nutrients in the phloem of angiosperms. They form chains called sieve tubes.
shoot system
The aerial portion of a plant body, consisting of stems, leaves, and (in angiosperms) flowers.
Root System
All of a plant's roots that anchor it in the soil, absorb and transport minerals and water, and store food.
apical meristem
Located at the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots. These are the sites of cell division, allowing the plant to grow in length
meristem identity gene
A plant gene that promotes the switch from vegetative growth to flowering.
What functional plant cells lack a nucleus?
xylem and sieve-tube cells
zone of elongation
The zone of primary growth in roots where new cells elongate, sometimes up to ten times their original length.
Zone of Cell Division
The zone of primary growth in roots consisting of the root apical meristem and its derivatives. New root cells are produced in this region.
Which of the following arises from meristematic activity
Secondary xyelm, leaves, trichomes, and tubers (all of the above)
------ is to xylem as ---- is to phloem.
vessel element; sieve-tube member.
How does the vascular tissue system enable leaves and roots to function together in supporting growth and development of the whole plant?
The vascular tissue system connects leaves and roots, allowing sugars to move from leaves to roots in the phloem and allowing water and minerals to move to the leaves in the xylem.
Shoot elongation in a growing bud is due primarily to..
cell elongation localized in each internod
Describe how roots and shoots differ in branching.
*Lateral roots emerge from the root's interior, pushing through cortical and epidermal cells. * Shoot branches arise on the exterior of a shoot.
Which of the following is true about secondary growth in plants?
Secondary growth is produced by both the vascular cambium and the cork cambium
Contrast primary growth in roots and shoots.
In roots, primary growth occurs in 3 stages:the zones of cell division,elongation, and diferentation. In shoots, it occurs ar the tip of apical buds, with leaf primordial arising along the sides of apical meristems.
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