Plants 16 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Anthophyta
Angiosperms
oxygen
6co2
mow
niitma
fig tree
higuera
Catalpa
Catalpa bignonioides
carrots
swollen roots
dicots
2 cotyledons
Rosemary
rosmarinus officinalis
gametophyte
produces haploid gametes
MOA of Phytoestrogens
infertility
Quercus imbricaria
Shingle oak
death cap
muchomůrka zelená
Alstroemeri aurantiaca
Peruvian Lily
Heptacodium miconioides
seven-son flower
Lavender Starflower
Grewia occidentalis
viburnum x juddii
Judd Viburnum
Ethylene
Affects Ripening of Fruit
style
narrow stalk of carpel
Fronds
The leaves of ferns
Sapindaceae: Acer saccharinum
Silver Maple
osmosis
how bryophytes get water
endodermis
inner layer of the cortex
Cytokinins
plant hormone; triggers cell division
blade
wide portion of foliage leaf
Cross-pollination
Receive pollination from another plant
Root cap
covers meristem for protection
Ovules
Hollow compartments in the ovary.
nucleus
control center of the cell
cones
in gymnosperms, a seed-bearing structure
Lamium purpureum
Purple or Red dead-nettle
lignin
used for weight bearing support
megaphyll
leaf w/ highly branched vascular system
6co2 + 6H20>>> C6H12O6 + 6O2
photosynthesis
Tuber
Swollen underground stem used for storage (potato & yam)
Liverworts
__________ are rootless plants with flattened, leaf-like bodies called "thallus".
Choanoflagallates
Protists more closely related to animals than other protists
dicotyledon
angiosperms with flowe parts arranged 2,4 or their multiples
Chloroplasts
Organelles that capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis.
positive geotropism
roots grow down toward gravity
xylem
the vascular tissue through which water and nutrients move in some plants
sepal
outermost circle of flower parts; encloses & protects bud
anther
male part (pollen sac& pollen) filament
control treatment
independent variable is either eliminated or set at a standard value, like soybeans in the controls would not receive fertilizer
Buds
Undeveloped shoot covered in bud scales. Give rise to stem leaves and flowers.
Bryophytes
Non-vascular plant( doesnt xylem and phloem.)Requires water for reproduction.


-Brambling hedge
-Retuse apex
-Looks like vomitoria 'Nana'
-Bright red-orange berries look like apples
Pyracantha coccineaC: FirethornF: Rosaceae
Phelloderm
thin layer of parenchyma cells that forms to the interior of the cork cambium
Respiration
The process of releasing energy from food molecules, such as glucose.
air
oxygen needed by living things to survive
petals
Colorful structures in the flower that attracts insects
club mosses
Examples of vascular, seedless plants include ferns, __________ __________, and horsetails.
cotyledon(s)
part of seed used to store food
Aerial
IVY "climbing plants (reach up towards the sun)
Modified Leaves:
-Spines= help protect against moisture and herbivory EX: cactus
-Tendrils= leaves modified for clinging EX: grape vines; morning glories
-Succulents= leaves modified for water storage EX: glass worts, salt warts
-Insectivorous leaves= modified for the capture and digestion of insects EX: sundews, pitcher plants, venus fly trap
where is the vascular tissue located?
the stem
Stomata
gas exchange in plants occur all through the _____
adventitious roots
roots that rise above the ground
monocots
1, 3, or multiples of 3 petals
Carbohydrates
chemicals made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen which include sugars, starch, cellulose and lignin
Sporophyte
diploid (2n) spore forming phase of plant
seed coat
surrounds and protects embryo, keeps contents from drying out, contains food supply
Rhizome, Fiddleheads, Fronds
3 stages of Pteridophyta (ferns)
Liverworts, hornworts, & mosses
All examples of bryophytes
abscisic acid (3)
promotes seed dormancy, inhibits growth, helps plants withstand drought
stamen
male reproductive part of the flower contains the anther filament and pollen
dandelions
name a plant that has a taproot
periderm
The protective coat that replaces the epidermis in plants during secondary growth, formed of the cork and cork cambium.
The structure formed by the adnation of all three outer whorls of flower parts ( sepals, petals, and stamens)
Hypanthium
Deciduous
trees that lose their leaves at the end of the growing season
chlorophyll
helps plants get energy from the sun and gives the plant it's green color
Apical Dominance
Plant grows taller than it does wide
pollination drop
sticky substance to keep male sperm attached to female
guard cells
surround and protect the stomata by regulating the amount of water that leaves the plant
Guard Cell
specialized cell in the epidermis of plants that controls the opening and closing of stomata by responding to changes in water pressure
photosynthesis
the process by which plants and some other organisms capture light energy and use it to make food from carbon dioxide and water
A tropism can be seen as movement caused by change in growth and can be positive or negative.
True or False
True
biennial
a plant having a life cycle that normally takes two seasons from germination to death to complete
photoperiodism
the response of plants to changes in the relative length of daylight and night
Spore
A tiny plant cell that will develope into a new plant
Apical Meristem
at tips of roots/buds, primary growth (length)
Gymnosperms
Known as naked seeds and contain seeds which are not closed or protected. Conifers are an example of gymnosperms.
transportation
The loss of water vapor by plants through the stamata in their leaves is called what
stomata:
valves on bottom of leaf that allow CO2 in and O2 out
Plant Spores
A single plant cell that can develop into a new plant.
What does the ground tissue in dicots and gymnosperms develop into?
cortex, pith
Shoot
The part of the plant above the soil, including all aerial structures such as stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits; gathers carbon dioxide and light energy for photosynthesis, provides surfaces for gas exchange, and contains the plant's reproductive organs.
water
It is easy for algae to absorb water because algae live in ___________
Fraxinus pennsylcanica - green ash
flat leaf scar, stout stem
Filament
in flowers, the part of a stamen that supports the anther
zone of maturation
root past zone of elongation cells differentiate finalized form
nonvascular plant
low growin plant, duxt have roots 2 abosrbe water
which type of cell has two other types of cells called sclereids and fibers?
sclerenchyma
I HAVE:

Seed
WHO HAS:

A plant that does not have tube-like tissue
lower epidermis
waxy skin on the bottom of the leaf keeps it from drying out
Steps of Photosynthesis
1. leaves take in carbon dioxide from the air
2. roots take in water from the soil
3. chlorophyll takes in energy from the sun
4. the plant makes food (sugar)
5. the plant gives off oxygen and water vapor
6. food is carried to all parts of the plant (some of it is used and some is stored)
roots and shoots system
supplies a seed with the things it needs to survive
Roots, Stem, Leaves, and Flower
What are the parts of a Plant?
Pinus nigra - Austrian Pine
2 needles, big hairy white bud, stiff needles
Tell me something about plant physiology:
Plants lose water to open their leaves and let carbon dioxide in. It then humidifies the atmosphere. With all the water moving through them, it transfers nutrients.
dont dwell on it, dont give it another thought (2)
no le des importancia, no te comas el coco
membrane
membrana
clavel
carnation
la orquídea
orchid
Guzmania
guzmania bromeliad
...
Piggyback plant
Aechmea fasciata
Synthesis
Means to make
Chinese Elm
Ulmus parvifolia
Binomial
2 part name
Blechnum spicant
Deer fern
Angiosperms
flowering plants
angiospperms are vascular flowering pants that produce fruit
produce seeds within fruits
flowers help angisperms reproduce
wind/animmals
fruits help ensure survival becuse they move seeds
Gameophyte
gamete-producing plant (haploid phase)
epidermis
outer layer of cells
fruit
increase efficiency of dispersal
Fibrous roots
Long, shallow roots
Reproduction
The making of offspring.
Eukaryotic
cells that have a nucleus
scientists
*people who make observations, predictions, conduct experiments, and record data
Chromalveolata
Protist supergroup characterized by secondary endosymbiosis of red algae
cotyledon
embryonic leaf in seed-bearing plants
cone
in gymnosperms, a seed-bearing structure
What is a vascular plant?
Rose
gravitropism
a plant's response to gravity
Byrophyte
nonvascular plant (mosses and relatives)
sepals
green structures that cover and protect the flower
collenchyma
unevenly thickened primary cell walls but lack secondary walls
monoecious
stamen and pistil on same plant
Abiscisic Acid
stress hormone, inhibitory, initiates seed and bud dormancy, closes stomates
sporangium
structure in ferns where spores form
stigma
sticky portion at top of style
thigmotropism
response of a plant to touch
no water needed for fertilization
flowering plants
angiosperm whose seeds have one cotyledon
monocot
2N Diploid
what sporophyte number count is
Hydrophytes have
sclereids very large air spacesstomata only on upper surface
gymnosperm
vascular plants that do not have flowers
Cell Wall
rigid; sounds cell membrane; supports, protects, and shapes
What can pollinate plants?
Wind, insects, birds, animals
sunlight
produces the energy needed for photo. to accur
stomatal crypt
large chambers in the mesophyll, covered with epidermis
arbuscular mycorrhizae
microscopic fungal hyphae exten into the root
embryo
Fertilized egg held within a seed- "baby plant"
pollenation
transfer of pollen from the male reproductive structure to the female reproductive structure
seed
an embryo and nutrients surrounded by a protective coat
sticky top of style where pollen germinates
stigma
True
T or F, Mychorrhizae increase the surface area for absorption
defining characterisitcs: ranunuculaceae
fruit: aggregation of achenes, follicles or berries
stamen spirally arranged around receptacle
nectar spurs
cellulose
a chemical compound that plants can make out of sugar
angiosperm
a plant that has flowers and produces
seeds enclosed in fruit
Cortex
spongy layer of ground tissue just inside the epidermis of a root
grains
the main food source for domesticated animals such as cows and chickens eaten by humans
Pistil
Female parts of flower. Consists of stigma, style, and ovary. Stigma captures pollen grains. Style connects stigma to the ovary. Fertilization occurs in the ovary. Ovules are the female sperm cells (megaspores).
Transpiration
Evaporation of water from the leaves through stomata
Crop Rotation
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
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no dudes en llamarme
Petal
part of the flower that produces sweet smelling nectar and attracts pollinators
Auxin
__________ is a type of plant hormone that causes plant stems and leaves to exhibit a positive response to light.
holley leaf cherry
Prunus Ilofolia; Rosaceae; found at canyons, slopes, shrubland, woodlan, bolow 1600 m; coast ranges to baja CA
intermediate-day plants
native to tropical regions, flower if darkness is neither too great or too few
water surrounding plants
always available when plants first evolved
functions of roots
absorb water and minerals; anchor plant to ground; store food; transport water to stem
Pinus elliotii
Moist to wet areas, often replaces long leaf pine
Browse when young habitat and soil stability
Coastal southeast from Mississippi to South Carolina
Fast growing and is used for wood and pulp.
A wetland indicator
haploid cells
cells with half the sperm chromosome number
stoma
What is letter "H" in the leaf structure picture?
fiddlehead
The young, curled up fronds of ferns are called ____.
vascular tissue
System of tubelike structures inside a plant through which water, minerals, and food move
the large sac-like storage area in a cell is a __________
vacuole
cambium
a layer of cells in a plant that produces new phloem and xylem cells
Alternation of Generations
a process in which an organism switches back and forth between diploid (sporophyte) and haploid (gametophyte) forms during its life cycle
Pistils or carpels
Female parts of the flower; produce female gametophytes. Consist of ovary, stigma, and style
sugar
is the food made in the food factory of a plant
ovary
the organ that bears the ovules of a flower
gases
stomata let ___ in and out of the plant
tube nucleus
male cell that develops into a pollen tube
season reaction- what 2 seasons are the reactions highest?
spring and fall
What is a chloroplast?
The tiny body that contains chlorphyll; photosynthesis takes place in this part of the cell; they are also football shaped.
embryonic, seed, diploid sporophyte, gametophyte, sporophytes
In seed plants, after fertilization, the ovule becomes an ______________ plant enclosed within the ovary, which becomes the ______; Both the megagametophytes and microgametophytes are dependent upon the ___________ _____________; the sporophyte can evolve into diverse forms without any corresponding changes in the ____________; among seed plants, seeds disperse the _______________
Caragana arborescens - siberian peashrub
curly-Q capsule, olive green twig, little thorns
plant-like protists developed into plants
1 billion years ago, eukaryotic, multicellular, autotrophic
What is the benefit of thickened cellulose walls
· strength the plant
Horsetails and Club Mosses
contain silica and are hollow, live in wet, marshy places
have vascular systems unlike actual moss
sepals, petals, stamens, carpels
what are the 4 kinds of specialized leaves that compose a flower?
list a few adaptions in xerophytes which reduce transpiration.
small thick leaves reducing surface area, stomata formed in protected areas, CAM, and fleshy water storing stems.
What are at least five adaptations of plants for a terrestrial existence?
1.) Protection from desiccation via waxy cuticles. 2.) Stomata; allows gas and water exchange. 3.) Cellulose for structure. 4.) Tracheids; cells that facilitate the transport of water and minerals. 5.) Leaves to increase photosynthetic surface area.
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