Plants 23 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
city
cuidad
Gamete
...
cranberry
vitaminc
roots
absorb water
D
netlike veins
petals
attract pollinators
Angiosperms
flowering plants
la flor
flower
tropism
response to stimulus
Syringa vulgaris
French lilac
Pyrus calleryana
Flowering pear
Gametophyte
dominant moss generation
photoperiodism
the flowering response
conifer
a cone-bearing tree
Common Heliotrope
Heliotropium arborescens
eukaryotes
plants are multicellular ___________
Meyer Zoysiagrass
Zoysia japonica 'Meyer'
Beet
Acid
Soluble oxalate
HypoCa and renal damage
Ovary
ovules- seeds, ovary- fruit
Vascular plants
have transport tubes
petal
member of flower corolla
Types of root
Tap and Fibrous
meristems
Regions of rapidly dividing cells
stem
supports plant, transports material b/t roots and leaves
HMS Bounty associated with what?
Breadfruit
Key Features of Plants
-Eukaryotic
-Multicellular
-Composed of tissue=3D cells of the same type
-Photosynthetic (most)
-Growth at apical meristem
-Exhibits alternation of generations
-2 types of multicellular bodies
-A diploid generation alternates with a haploid generations
monocots
angiosperms that have scattered vascular bundles in stem, fibrous roots, floral parts in multiples of 3, single cotyledon, and parallel leaf veins
Ferns
More complex land plant
Primarily sporophyte
Categories
Domain, Kingdom, Division (=phylum), Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
TYPES OF ROOTS
fibrous and taproots
inflorescence
arrangement of flowers in bunches
monocot
angiosperm with one cotyledon inside its seed, flower parts arranged in multiples of three, and vascular tissues in bundles scattered throughout the stem
phloem
vascular tissue that transports food molecules to all parts of a plant
Auxin
plant hormone; causes elongation of cells
oxygen
Respiration uses __________ to break down glucose into carbon dioxide, water, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Tracheid
A conductile xylem cell characteristic of gymnosperms. They are longer and thinner than vessel elements, lower on the evolutionary ladder, and not quite as efficient in terms of transport. Water moves through pits.
liverwort
an example of a nonvascular plant
Filament
The anther is attached to this.
Fiddlehead
New leaf growth on a fern
Gametophytes(Haploid)
Plant with half the genetic information
Cotyledon
Provides food for the developing embryo.
carpels
produce eggs, include stigma & ovary
describe the flower of magnoliaceae
perfect, actinomprphic
nitrogen fixation
relationship between roots and bacteria
sporangia
tip of mature sporophyte, where haploid spores are made
gymnosperms
vascular plants that produce seeds that are NOT protected by fruit
stems
carry substances between roots and leaves, provide support for the plant, holds leaves up to sunlight
C4
evolved in hot dry conditionsplants do not use Rubisco but PEP carboxylase - never functions as an oxygenase
Gibberellin
stimulates leaves and stems to grow long
Parts of seeds
Embryo, endosperm(stored food), and seed coat (forms from the ovile wall, oviles are the compartments in the ovary.)
Can plants release water thought their leaves?
yes
carbon dioxide
leaves get this from the air
Umbellularia Californica
California Bay, Avocado Family, Dicot, Simple, Alternate
bolting
rapid growth of a floral stalk; broccoli uses this to shoot tall shoots to ensure fertilization
macronutrient
A mineral required in large amounts for plant growth
sunlight
energy that green plants need for photosynthesis
herbaceus and woody stems
two kinds of stems
most growth happens:
apical and transitional meristems (laterally)
Cereal
any grass that produces grains that can be used for food, such as rice, wheat, corn, oats, or barley
pistil
female plant organ has a sticky landing spot on the top called a stigma which is attached to long stem called style which then attaches to the carpel which is the site of ovaries in the flower and where eggs will be produced
taproot
one large vertical root with many smaller branches
Anther
Tip of the stamen, produces pollen grains containing male gametophytes
vascular cambium
produces secondary xylem and secondary phloem
bryophytes
These plants are pioneer plants. They attach to the soil by rhizoids. They have no vascular tissue. They need water to reproduce sexually because the sperm must swim to the egg.
Endosperm
food rich tissue which nourishes seed as it grows
What is the mutualistic association between roots and fungi called?
c. mycorrhizae
stomata
Tiny openings in a plant's epidermis through which CO2, water vapor, and O2 enter and exit.
One of three major flowering plant groups; include
magnoliid
sexual reproduction
two cells from different parents unite to produce the first cell of the new organism
African violets
This plant can produce plants from leaves placed on the top of soil.
nonvascular
The two major groups of plants are __________ plants and vascular plants.
sepal
are modified leaves in a flower that protect the bud
Self pollination
Transfer of pollen from anther to stigma of the same flower.
Hippophae rhamnoides - common seabuckthorn
narrow leaf, very pointy
Chlorophyll
The green chemical in the leaf that allows the plant to trap the sun's energy
Transpiration
Water evaporating from the inside of a leaf to the outside
What is woody growth?
Cells from vascular cambium meristem
Compound Leaf
a leave with more than one blade
embryo
an animal organism in the early stages of growth and differentiation that in higher forms merge into fetal stages but in lower forms terminate in commencement of larval life
sporophyte
the part of a plant's lifecycle that produces spores
anjiosperms G (gymnosperms)
vascular plants that flower and produce seeds surrounded by fruit (either monocots or dicots)
pollen falls on stigma, pollen germinates, pollen tube grows, two sperm enter ovule, egg is fertilized and becomes embryo, polar bodiesare ferilized and become endosperm, the entire ovule becomes a seed and the ovary becomes a fruit
plant reproduction steps
thigmatropism
A plants ability to change its growth in response to touch.
apical meristem
when a plant bursts through the seed coat and the growth is concentrated in the actively dividing cells of this...
lower epidermis
This is the leaf layer where stomata can be found that open and close to let in raw materials for the plant and to get rid of waste products.
Cellular Respiration
the process of breaking down food to yield energy
Petiole
stalk that connects a leaf to a plant stem
nonvascular plant
a plant that lacks vascular tissue and true roots, stems, and leaves
What is turgor?
Positive pressure in plant cells that pushes "out"---keeping plant wall healthy
stigma
at the top of the pistil collects the pollen
gymnosperms: gnetopytes
live in hot deserts and tropical rain forests; can be a vine, tree or shrub
stamen
the male part of the flower that holds pollen
What are the two kinds of roots?
Taproot and Fribrous root
Conifers cycads gingkoes gnetophytes
What are the 4 divisions of gymnosperms? (alphabetical order)
cuticle, upper epidermis, palisade mesophyll, veins (bundle sheath), spongy mesophyll (air space), lower epidermis, cuticle (stomata)
order of parts within a leaf
what do sieve tube elements lack?
nucleus, vacuole, cytoskeleton, and ribosomes
What is vascular tissue?
a network of thick walled cells joined by narrow tubes that extend throughout the plants body
Importance of seedless plants (1)
1. FUEL -decaying seedless plants are compressed into peat and eventually COAL
Would insects be attracted to black flowers? Why or Why not?
Insects wouldn't because insects are attracted to bright colors such as pink, purple, orange, yellow blue, etc. Livley colors attract bugs better than dark dull colors.
what does adventitious mean and how does it relate to fibrous roots?
adventitous is a term describing a plant organ growing in a unusual location; fibrous roots grow off of the stem
botany
botánica
Cogliere
Pick, gather
archegonia
female gametophyte
Plant Organs
Root
Stem
Leaf
Catawba Rhododendron
Ericaceae
Coniferphyta
*Seed Plant
*Gymnosperm
Pines
Spruce
Cetar
Redwood
Larch
Juniper
Fir
Cyprus
Yew
plants are multicellular....
eukaryotes
herbaceous stems
plant stems
Philodendron 'Hope'
hope philodendron
Butomus umbellatus
Flowering rush
Oxalis oregana
Wood sorrel
xylem
water carrying tissue
non vascular
have true stems
Euonymus fortunei var. radicans
Wintercreeper
tap roots
grow straight down
Stinging Nettle
Urtica dioica URTICACEAE
where is clorophyll found
chloroplast
megaspores
-spore produced my meiosis-give
rise via mitosis to multicellular female gametophytes, which then give rise to the female gametes -ex. eggs
zone of cell division
apical meristem
needle
Club mosses have __________-like leaves.
Auxins
enhance apical dominance, stimulate stem elongation
using spores
how do mosses reproduce
no
do plants eats other plants?
what parts make the stamen
anther-
filament-
fruit
ripened ovary and other structures that include one or more seeds
Seed Coat
Protective coat surrounding plant embryo
Ovule
structure that contains an egg cell
gibberellins
"grow," stem elongation, induce the growth of dormant seeds, buds, and flowers
glucose
what do plats eat to reproduce?
chloroplast
The pigmented organelles in which photosynthesis occurs
needs of plants
soil, water, air, sun
Euonymus fortunei 'Emerald Gaiety'
Emerald Gaiety euonymous
Photosynthesis
Process to make glucose.
Sun, water, carbon dioxide.
evergreens
Many gymnosperms are called __________ because they stay green all year.
cortex
in pllants, consists of paranchyma cells that contain many platsids for the storage of starch
dicot
angiosperm with two cotyledomes inside it's seed, flower parts in multiples of 5 or 5, and vascular bundles in rings
pollen
the reproductive spore that contains sperm cells
thigmotropism
the response of plants to touch
herbaceous plants
nonwoody plants=> only primary growth b/c they only live for one season
perennial
flowering plant that lives for more than two years
guard cells
doesnt allow anything in the plant
Mitosis
cellular division to produce non- sex cells
Vascular System
Mechanism of internal water and nutrient transport, made up of the vascular tissues xylem and phloem, that is characteristic of tracheophytes.
Stomates
Openings in leaf tissue that gases normally move into and out of
vein
in plants, a cluster of vascular tissue in leaves
gymnosperm
seed plant that bears its seeds directly on the surface of the cones
Magnolia grandiflora
Rich bottomlands or on gentle, protected slopes in mixture with other hardwood species.
Shelter; peak tree
Coastal plain from North Carolina to Florida; west through Louisiana and Arkansas to eastern Texas.
Used ornamentally; large flowers with waxy leaves lumber
8 plants
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, (My Very Energetic Mother Just Served Us Noodles)
Brachs are what?
Leafs (just a different type)
growth hormone
a chemical that effects plants growth
What does the chloroplast contain that allows the plant to make food?
Chlorophyll
pollination
the transfer of pollen from male reproductive structures to female reproductive structures in plants
C4 plants
have no distinction between palasade and spongy mesophyllhave well developed bundle sheaths with chloroplastsKrantz anatomy - mesophyll is aranged around bundles
foliage
the leaves of a plant, collectively; leafage.
alternate
growing from opposite sides of a stalk at different points along its length (rather than at the same point as in opposite leaves). Not paired
spore
a tiny plants cell that will develop into a new plant
angiosperm
a plant that has flowers and produces seeds enclosed within a carpel; example:shrubs, grasses, and most trees
vascular
a plant that has vascular tissues that pump water through the plant
Success of angiosperms
Self sufficient diploid and reduced monoploid stage
variety
Specialized methods of pollination evolved
shuffles genes
Seed evolved
Food & protection
Ensures survival
No water needed for pollination or fertilization
Expands species range
Plants have highly speciallized tissues like
roots, stems, and leaves
inherited traits
passing traits from parents to their young
environmental stochasticity
variation in vital rates due to environmental factors that affects all individuals in a class or population in roughly the same way ex. desert rainfall
the process of using light energy to combine carbon dioxide and wter to produce glucose
photosynthesis
cork cambium
produces a thick cover for stems and roots, can replace epidermis
Simple Leaf
A single leaf connected to the stem for each petiole.
primary growth
growth occurring at the ends of a plant; length
preservatives - noun
added to oral liquid compounds to prevent microbial contamination (e.g. Milk lasts much longer than it used to because they use preservatives.)
Midrib
the primary rib or central vein of a leaf
Seedless Vplant reproduce
SPORES found on back of their fronds
plumule
the part of a plant embryo that will, when mature, become the leaves
Guard Cell
One of a pair of cells that function in the opening and closing of a plant's stomata by changes in their shape
taste buds - noun
sense receptors in the tongue that respond to sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and perhaps fat (e.g. If we didn't have taste buds, we wouldn't be able to tell the difference between certain foods.)
glucose + oxygen --> water + energy + carbon dioxide
aerobic respiration
Where does photosynthesis take place in the cells of a plant?
in the two middle layers
Hypericum 'hidcote' - Hidcote hypericum
dies back to ground, redish brown twig
Taproots and fibrous roots alike
They both anchor the plant into the ground
Light that plants can use in photosynthetic process
visible light - 400-700 nmleafs reflect GREEN light
Outline how the root system provides a large surface area for mineral ion and water uptake by means of branching and root hairs
Roots absorb minerals and water from the soil and they increase the surface area of absorption by growth of root hairs, and branching roots. The rate of absorption depends on the method of absorption, there are three ways.
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