Plants 25 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
mandarin
mandarina
style
stalk
gymnosperm
...
Absent
Plant Movement
secondary growth
wood
micopyle
absorbs water
Pollen
male gamete
Palisade Layer
photosynthesis
plantae
autotrophs, multicellular, chlorophyll, non-motile, cell walls
pterophyta
ferns, vascular seedless
Rhamnus cathartica
Common buckthorn
bryophyte
nonvascular seedless plant
Dicentra formosa
Bleeding heart
cuticle
prevent water loss
Freeway Daisy
Osteospermum fruticosum
hygroscopic
microscopic film for water
grow
another word for germination
Rhubarb
Acid
Soluble oxalate
HypoCa and renal damage
Sepals
green, protect petals (buds)
flowers
reproductive part of plant
European Hornbeam
carpinus betulus 'Fastigiata'
Stamen
The pollen-producing reproductive male organ of a flower, consisting of an anther and a filament!
vascular cambium
Concentration of undifferentiated cells which become xylem, then phloem
cambrium
makes the xylem and phloem
Soil texture
--Coarse sand: LARGEST particles...Create a lot of air spaces between the particles but does not retain water very well
--Sand
--Silt
--Clay: Smallest particles....Fit together tightly so it retains water well but does not provide many air spaces
--Loams: most fertile soil types; consist of a mixture of sand (40%), silt (40%) and clay (20%)
-Clay, being the smallest particles, also represents the greatest amount of surface area and the particles are negatively charged
-The negatively charged clay particles bind tightly to positively charged nutrient mineral ions (Fe 2+, Mg 2+, Cu 2+, Ca 2+, Na 2+) and prevent them from leaching out of the soil during heavy rainfall
-Negatively charged ion nutrients tend to leach out of soil more quickly EX: NO-2, NO-3, and PO4
-The tightly bound cations are made available to plants through the process of cation exchange in which root hairs secrete acids and exchange hydrogen cations (H+) for other nutrient cations
Bryophytes
mosses=moss phylum
also liverworts and hornworts
most primitive of land plants
lack true roots, stems, or leaves
have rhizoids, rootlike anchoring structures
small
most are restricted to moist habitats for reproduction
dominant gametophyte generation
sporophyte dominant plants
pteridophyta, gymnosperms, angiosperms
Seeds
Ovule becomes seed
Embryo
Endosperm
Seed coat forms
Transpiration
When plants give off water.
Stigma
sticky tip of the style
Savannah Holly
Ilex x attenuata 'Savannah'
phloem
vascular tissue responsible for the transport of nutrients and the carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis
Fruits
develop from ovary, help disperse seeds
horsetails
Examples of vascular seedless plants include ferns, club mosses, and __________.
Haploid
Having only one set of chromosomes.
Evergreen
trees that keep their leaves year-round
Food importance
cereal, roots, legumes, fruit, veggies, nuts, spices, herbs and flavoring
Conifers
The most common group of gymnosperms
fruit
wall of tissue surrounding an angiosperm seed
modified leaves
function in protection or climbing
Ground Tissue
between dermal and vascular systems
petals
colorful structures that can both attract pollinators and provide them with a landing platform
Confiers
reproduce by male and female cones
xylem
vascular tissue through which water and minerals travel from the roots to the other plant parts
Origin of Eukaryotic cells
Endosymbioticphotosynthetic or aerobic prokaryotes englufed by phagocytosis and persists as endosymbionts
Close
Stomates ______ when: guard cells lose water, plants dehydrate, temperatures are high, abscisic acid increases
Dicot
2 Seed Leaves, Branched leaf veins, Vascular tissue in rings, Leaves in multiples of 4 or 5, Taproot system.
chlorophyll
green pigment in plants that absorbs light energy used to carry out photosynthesis
plants....
moss, ferns, spanish moss, maples, and roses
vascular tissue
continuous throughout the plant and transports btwn the roots and shoots
asexual reproduction
examples in plants are grafting, cuttings, bulbs, and runners
symplast
The continuum of cytoplasm through a plant that results from the cytoplasm in different cells being connected by plasmodesmata
damp
nonvascular plants are grown in ____ environments
Xylem Tissues
xylem consists of Tracheid which consists of vessel members
Venation
the arrangement of veins in a leaf
dicot stem
vascular bundles arranged in a ring
pollination
pollen grains carried by animals or wind land on the stigma
Lignin
Chemical that hardens the plants' cell walls, keeps the plant upright; adaptation of land plants
NEGATIVE GRAVITROPISM
stems - grow against gravity (upward)
sepal
outermost circle of flower parts that encloses a bud before it opens and protects the flower while it is developing
species
a group of plants that evolved together and have similar characteristics
Agent (wind, water, an animal) that puts pollen fr
pollinator
stem
it holds the leaves and contains the xylem and phloem which carry water, food and minerals throughout the plant
Angiosperms- Flowering Plants
Flowering plants first evolved during the CretaceousPeriod 135 million years ago.
Bryophytes and ferns
o Live primarily in moist environments
o Archegonium - female reproductive structure
o Antheridium - produces sperm, male reproductive structure
o Sori- produce spores
fern
A __________ is a type of vascular plant that produces spores instead of seeds.
ray flowers
the flowers which radiate from the disk flowers of a daisy and other similar flowers
food storage
is often the purpose of the cotyledons
classification of plants
based on presence of vascular tissue
Tap root
A single thick root that grown straight down. It can reach water that is deep in the ground. Store food for the plant.
pistil
multiple carpels. can also be used to refer to the female reproduction parts in general
How do plants obtain moisture?
they form a cuticle
club mosses
Ground pines and spike mosses are groups of plants that often are called __________ __________.
Homolog
A homologous trait is often called a homolog. refers to a homologous protein, and to the gene (DNA sequence) encoding it.
Epicotyl
tip of plant - becomes stems and leaves
Rhizoid NV
rootlike threads that help hold the moss in place and take in the nutrients
stomates
openings on the bottom surface of the leaf through which exchange of gases occur
phototropism
The bending of a plant toward the direction of light.
what are three important plants tissues
ground, vascular and dermal
lower epidermis
What is letter "F" in the leaf structure picture?
Nonvascular plants
plants that do not have well formed vascular tissues. These plants are often short and only grow a few centimeters tall due to minimal support.
Homeotic Genes
Any of the genes that control the overall body plan of animals by controlling the developmental fate of groups of cells.
Clay particles
pack together so tightly; they do not leave room for oxygen that root cells require for aerobic respiration (requiring oxygen) Packing delays penetration of water into the soil.
Pistil and 3 parts
female reproductive structures of the flower, stigma, style, and ovary
What is a ribosome's function in a plant cell?
Protein synthesis
job of a stem
transport nutrients and support the plant
NONVASCULAR PLANT
Plants that use other ways to move water and substances.
germinate
what a flower does when it has the right food, nutrients, and conditions.
fibrous root
part of a root system in which roots branch to such an extent that no single root grows larger than the rest
What is the process of when a seed becomes a plant? Where does it take place?
Germination; Underground
meristematic tissue
plant tissue found only in the tips of shoots and roots; only cell that produces new cells by mitoses
cutting
piece of an old plant that is cut off to make a new plant
transpirational pull cohesion tension theory
for each molecule of water that evaporates from a leaf by transpiration, another molecule of water is drawn in at the root to replace it
A function of the root
To hold the plant in the ground
3.7 Using seed food stores
-In a seedling the foods stores are kept in the 'Cotyletons'
-A seedling requires H2O, O2 and a high temperature
-Food stores are used to promote the growth of the "embryonic root" (radical) and the "embryonic shoot" (plumule)
-Nitrates phosphates and other minerals absorbed through root to promote growth of embryonic plant
-this continues until the plumule breaks through the surface and can start using Photosynthesis
Identify modifications of roots, stems and leaves for different functions: bulbs, stem tubers, storage roots and tendrils.
Bulbs: grown by leaf bases in some monocots as an underground organ for food storage. They can be identified because they have a series of leaf bases growing inside them, with central shoot apical meristem. It develops from an auxillary bud, and stores the food in its fleshy leaves (Example: Onion)
Stem tubers: grown from stems that go downwards in some dicots to form stem tubers. They store food and can be identified as stems, because although they are swollen their vascular bundles are arranged in a ring. (Example: Sweet Potato)
Storage roots: Some roots become swollen with their stores of food but can be identified as roots from their shape and vascular tissue in the centre (Example: Carrot)
Tendrils: Tendrils are outputs of leaves that will rotate upwards until they reach a solid surface, which they will latch onto. This allows the plant to grow upwards (Example: Sweet Pea)
Lily
vegetation
la vegetazione
la hoja
leaf
embryo
fertilized egg
spore case
...
seedling
young plant
zygote
the fertilized egg
Waxy, protective layer
cuticle
Pteridophytes:
Ferns&hosetails; Contain lignin&vascualr tissue; Dominated the Carboniferous Period; Sporophyte Generation=Dominant
Plantago major
Broadleaf plantain
Ficus macrocarpa 'Nitida'
Nitida
Monocotyledonae
Class of the monocots
filament
holds the anther up
pedicel
attaches flower to stem
plant survival
requires obtaining/retaining water,transporting materials, supportive bodies, and reproduction
FERN - label parts
...
Spermatozoa
male reproductive cells (seeds)
you dont mind
no te importa
cytokinins
stimulate cytokinesis and cell division; delay aging by inhibiting protein breakdown;work in concert with auxins
Fishtail palm
Acid
Insoluble Ca oxalate
Irritation of oral mucosa, tongue, and throat
cotyledon
food for the baby plant
archegonium
makes eggs, develops on gametophyte
photosynthesis
how a plant makes food
have cell walls made of ...
cellulose
enviroment
everything both living and nonliving that surronds the animal
Dormant
the resting stage of a seed.
epidermal, absorptive
root hairs: projections from __________ root hair cells; greatly increase ___________ capacity of root
root hairs
Tiny cellular projections that increase surface area for better water absorbtion.
Absorption spectrum
Characteristic pattern of wavelengths, or colors, of light absorbed by a particular pigment.
seed coat
this protects the young seedling
one pollen grain contains
three haploid nuclei
Anthophyta
Flowering Plants - Sporophyte dominant - Angiosperms, vascular tissue
Cone
the reproductive structure of a gymnosperm
Hypericum perforatum (St. Johns wort, goatweed)
Perennial with yellow flowers
TP: primary photodynamic pigment: hypericin - takes a LOT
Lesions: Sunburn in non-pigmented areas
Tx: keep animals out of sun
abscission
the shedding of leaves or flowers
Ferns
They are seedless vascular plants with well developed roots and rigid stems. Many species have leaves called fronds and are most diverse in the tropics.
Waxy Cutical
Any organism periodically exposed to air must develop a means of delaying desiccation
monocot
type of angiosperm, has one embryonic leaf, uses parallel vination
self pollination
fertilize themselves and result in offspring that are the same genetically
leaf
the main organ of photosynthesis and transpiration in higher plants
endosperm
(3n) formed when sperm cell combines with two polar nuclei. eventually forms part of cotyledon
root cap
covers and protects the root tip
guttation
the exudation of water droplets that can be seen in the morning on tips of grass blades or the leaf margins of some small, herbaceous dicots
ground pines, spike mosses, quillworts
The lycophytes include;
vascular system
System of vascular tissues that transport water and other materials in plants
Giberellins
promote stem and leaf elongation and induce boltiing which is the rapid growth of the floral stalk
Seed
The fertilized mature ovula of a flowers plant.
branched veins on leaves (monocot or eudicot?)
Eudicot
Chlorophyll a
red light and blue lightporphyrin ring containing N and Mg and hydrophobic tain
palisade cell
a columnar cell of palisade parenchyma.
calvin cycle reaction
located in the stroma
exzymes that reduce cardon dioxide to carbohydrates
respiration
The release of energy in plants and animals from food
What type of plant cell has thick, rigid walls, supports the plant after growth, and die after maturity?
sclerenchyma
What is the shoot system?
stems, leaves, and flowers
Great Basin Floristic Province
province represented in California primarily in the transmontane deserts north of Owens Lake and Death Valley although some small local areas of Great Basin vegetation occur near Mt. Pinos in the Transverse Range.
ethylene
a hormone that speeds up the ripening of fruit
taproot
A single long root that grows deep into the ground (seen in most trees)
Agriculture
the raising of crops and livestock for food or for other products that are useful to humans
what gas enters the leaf through stomata?
carbon dioxide
increase in width
what does secondary growth do secondary growth
Ovule
A plant structure in seed plants that produces the female gametophyte; contains an egg cell.
Leaf Scars
semi-circular scars on the twig which show where the leaf was attached to the stem
Roles of Stems
circulatory system (xylem) and are support for plant
cotyledon
storage organ of the embryo of an angiosperm (flowering plant)
Arctic, tropics, Antarctic
Mosses are found in the ________ through the _______ to parts of the ____________
bacterium
a member of either of two kingdomes of one-celled living things that have no nucleus, ofr center, in their cell body
xylem tissue
the tissue made of tubes that CARRIES WATER and MINERALS from the SOIL UPWARD
mosses, fungi, and algea
non-seed plants without roots, stems and leaves
ground tissue system
A tissue of mostly parenchyma cells that makes up the bulk of a young plant and is continuous throughout its body; fills the space between the epidermis and the vascular tissue system.
germination
The sprouting of the embryo out of a seed
do you want me to help you
quieres que te ayude
How are organisms classified?
based on physical appearance and the ability to reproduce with members of the same "group"/species
What are the raw materials needed for aerobic respiration
Oxygen and glucose
coniferous
of or relating to or part of trees or shrubs bearing cones and evergreen leaves (dont shed their leaves)
Apical Meristem
Found on the tips of shoots (stems) and roots
spongy and palisade (upright cells)
2 layers of mesophyll (in ground tissue)
What does the root system do?
anchors it in the soil and absorbs/transports minerals/water and stores food
can you tell me a good restaurant
me puedes decir un restaurante que este bien
What do a plant's leaves need to make sugar?
air, water and the energy of sunlight
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