Plants 26 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
grapes
uvas
endosperm
cotyledon
style
...
petals
attracts pollinators
le lierre
ivy
Redwood
Sequoia sempervirens
Lonicera involucrata
Twinberry
Dracaena marginata
mock orange
philadelphus lewisii
geotropism
growth toward ground
Pinus bungeana
Lacebark pine
ovary
becomes the fruit
Crataegus monogyna
Common hawthorn
secar
to dry up
Chinese Wisteria
Wisteria sinensis
loam
best type of soil
white blood cells
fight germs
sporophyte
a diploid adult plant
cambium
makes xylem and phloem
Northern Red Oak
Quercus rubra
Mitochondrion
where cellular respiration takes place
Palisade Parenchyma
Upper region of mesophyll
chlorophyll
gives leaves their green coloring
vernalization
low temperature stimulation of flowering
Gymnosperms
-non flowering seed plants
-first fully terrestrial plants to evolve
-includes ginkgos, cycads, gentophytes, and conifers
(ex. pines)
Blade
main part of a leaf
sporophytes (2n)
zygotes (2n) develop into
PLANT CELL - label parts
...
Dwarf Burford
Ilex cornuta 'Dwarf Burford'
Cytokinin
synthesized in actively growing tissue (plant)
Embryo
A tiny plant inside a seed.
pollen
dust like package that carries sperm
guard cells
open and close the stomata
Stoma
A very small epidermal pore, surrounded by two guard cells, through which gases diffuse in and out of a leaf.
Xylem
The tube-shaped, nonliving portion of the vascular system in plants that carries water and minerals from the roots to the rest of the plant.
pistils
A flower's female reproductive parts are called ____________
seedcoat
outercovering for a seed which protects it
mesophyll
specialized ground tissue; makes up bulk of leaf, performs photosynthesis
Vascular
Having tube-like structures inside the plant to carry food, water, and minerals
stomata
the small openingings on the undersides of most leaves through which oxegyn and carbon dioxide can move
bryophytes
primitive plants, lack vascular tissue xylem or roots (ex: moss)
Hormone
substance produced to affect another part of the person
dicots
two seeds
vascular bundles are ring shaped
leaf venation is net like
floral parts are usually 4s to 5s
roots are taproots
roots
collect water and nutrients from ground
Roots
sinks because they are respiring constantly - are reproductive organs - are growing rapidly
apical meristems
increases length of plant (primary growth)
Gametophytes
Where gametes are contained; a plant's haploid generation. Male: Pollen Grain; Female: Embryo Sac
Stamen
The male reproductive part of the flower
disperse
to cause something to scatter in different ways
Root hairs
These increase the surface area, allowing the plant to absorb more water:
micropyle
outside part Tiny hole where pollen enters the ovule to form a seed
potometer
A simple instrument used to measure transpiration rate
moss
Bryophyte with a stalked body that usually grows upright
Nitrogen deficiency
limits plants growth; however plants have no means of N-fixation
Transpiration
the process by which plants release water vapor into the air through stomata; also the release of water vapor into the air by other organisms
cortex
where starch grains are stored in root
collenchyma cells
unevenly thickened cell walls that support growing plant tissue
3 Types of Pteridophytes
Horestails, Ferns, Club mosses
phloem
vascular tissue that forms tubes that transport dissolved sugar throughout a plant
FRUIT
the ripened reproductive body of a seed plant
TYPES OF LEAVES
simple leaf and compound leaf
mineral
A nutrient that xylem transports to the leave in a vascular plant.
thylakoid
saclike body in chloroplasts made of photosynthetic membranes that contain photosystems
dormancy
is the period during which an organism's growth an
seed dispersal
scattering of seeds from the parent plant. they can be scattered by wind, water, or animals including humans
Flowers
are the seed bearing structure of the angiosperms
Filament
the stalk of a stamen, supports the anther
cell membrane
A plant cell has a __________ __________, which allows substances to enter into and exit the cell.
pistil
the center part of a flower which makes seeds
seed coat
is the structure that surrounds and protects the young plant
photosynthesis
The main function of leaves is to carry out the food making process of _________________
nucleus
contains the DNA and controls all of the cell's acitivities
female reproductive cycle
female gametophyte (haploid) is an embryo sac. diploid cell in ovule undergoes meiosis and produces 4 haploid spores. three spores degenerate and surviving spore undergoes series of mitotic divisions to produce the embryo sac. series of mitotic division creates multiple haploid cells. one haploid cell becomes the egg and others are endosperm and two of haploid cells' nuclei fuse together an are the main source of nutrition
Tap roots
one larger main root with smaller roots attached EX: carrot
How many Earths can fit inside Jupiter
300 Earths
gibberellins
The five types of plant hormones that have been discovered are ethylene, auxins, __________, cytokinins, and abscisic acid.
Vascular Plants
A plant that has true vascular tissue
hyphae
one or more cells surrounded by a tubular cell wall
Flower
The part of a plant where reproduction occurs and seeds are produced.
Struchures of a plant cell include:
cell wall,cell membrane,vacuole,chloroplasts,nucleus
Germination
When something begins to grow, as when a seed sprouts into a new plant.
Ovule
A small body that contains the female germ cell that develops into a seed after fertilization. two
meristemic cells
plants cant grow unless they are in the presence of this
upper epidermis
This is the leaf layer that is responsible for making the waxy cuticle.
History of seed plants
first seed plants = carboniferous (paleozoic); present in paleozoid, increase dominance in mesozoic; progymnosperms, seed ferns, various plants with wood and seed experimentations; warmer, drier climate favors seed plants>>> mesozoic = age of gymnosperms
Primary growth
Growth of the shoot and root via apical meristems
Water Molecules
in soil are weakly bound to clay particles, root hairs-epidermis-cortex-periycle-endodermis-xylem-up the stem-leaves
How long will the Sun last
5 billion more years
Fertilization
the joining of a sperm cell and an egg
energy pyramaid
a diagram that compares the amount of energy available at each level in the feeding order
Define a filament?
a long thin structure that supports the anther.
Root Pressure
Water moves from the soil into the roots and up the plant because of osmotic pressure
Describe the main characteristics of plants
multicelluar, eukaryotes, cell walls made of cellulose, do photosynthesis using chlorophyll
What are the advantages of plants on land?
Sunlight, carbon dioxide
biological species concept
defines a species as a population or group of populations whose members have the ability to breed with one another in nature and produce fertile offspring
how is fruit made?
ovule becomes fertilized and grows to become a seed that turns into a fruit
What aspects of light can plants detect?
Presence, direction, intensity, wave length.
What methods may help farmers produce more crops?
In laboratories, scientists are developing plants that are more resistant to insects, disease,and drought. They are also developing plants that produce more food per plant. On farms, new, efficient, "high-tech" farming practices.
Parenchyma cells (ground cell type)
play a role in storage, secretion, and phtosynthesis in cells
Outline the metabolic processes during germination of a starchy seed
The first stage in germination is the absorption of water to rehydrate the living cells in the seed. Then a hormone called gibberellin will be produced by the cotyledons of the seed and it while cause starch to be converted to maltose in the food storage areas. This maltose will be transported to the growth regions, embryo root and embryo shoot, which will either convert to glucose to use as energy for aerobic respiration or use it to synthesize cellulose and other substances needed for growth. Once the plant has reached a light source it no longer needs to produce maltose.
carnation
light
petal
il petalo
la flor
flower
Nightshade
Alkaloids
Solanine, Solanidine
Atropine like
GI, CNS, Resp, Cardiac
toxic if green
(leaves=nitrates)
Monosaccaharides
Simple Sugars
dicot
2 cotyledon
plant life cycles
annuals
biennials
perennials
halophytes
salt tolerant plants
phototropism
growth towards light
Lactuca serriola
Prickly lettuce
snake plant
Sansevieria trifasciata
leaves
make most plants food
Cones
reproductive structures of gymnosperms. These are covered in scales. Pine trees have these
monocot
floral parts in 3s
coast live oak
Quercus agrifolia
false
t/f roots produce spores
abscisic acid
A growth-inhibiting hormone.
cotyledon
embryonic leaf in seed-bearing plants
Epidermal tissue
Covers and protects plants
antheridium
structure that produces sperm, develops on the gametophyte
how seeds travel
wind, water, animals
Umbrella tree
Acid
Insoluble Ca oxalate
Irritation of oral mucosa, tongue, and throat
bryophyta
mosses, don't have vascular tissues,cannot grow tall
zygote
th fertilized egg or seed.
Pinus contorta var. contorta
Shore pine
Horsetails SV
jointed stems; needlelike branches
chambered
divided into compartments, often with hollow spaces, by transverse partitions; said of pith
cuticle
a layer which covers the epidermis
geotropisms
an orienting response to gravity; gravitropisms
adhesion
in plants, attraction between unlike molecules
Photoreceptors
1. Blue- short wavelength
Stomate opening
Orient to light during growth
2. Phytochromes- long wavelength
Two forms: isomeric forms
Red and far red phytochrome
Balance of the two tells light situation
inhibits growth, closes stomates
abscisic acid (ABA)
glucose
what do plats eat to reproduce?
Pteridophyta
a phylum of seedless vascular plants
ex. fern
rhizobium
symbiotic bacterium living in the nodules of legume roots
fixes nitrogen gas into a form of nitrogen the plant requires
atheridium
male reproductive structure in some algae and plants
spines
modified leaves that function for protection
Co-evolution
Plants and their pollinators evolve in response to each other's change in a process called _______?
The ovary
Which plant part produces the fruit?
perennial
flowering plant that lives for more than two years
leaf
the main organ of photosynthesis and transpiration in higher plants
Pollination
Transfer of pollen from anther to stigma.
life cycle
the different stages of development that make up and organism's life
archegonium
a female sex organ occurring in mosses, ferns, and most gymnosperms
Mycology
Much more closely related to animals than plants
Animals and fungi split 1bya
gravitropism
the response of plant to gravity; plants grow up (negative because against force of gravity) and roots grow down (positive). occurs in all plants at some point in life
cork cambium
tough, waterproof overing of the bark
carbon dioxide
the odorless, colorless gas that plants breathe in
oldest lineage
What does the Amborella trichopoda mean to the angiosperms?
stem
a slender part supporting a plant, leaf or flower
Importance of seedless plants (2)
2. soil conditioner
buttress roots
support tall trunks of tropical trees
BIG ROOTS
After fertilization
fertilized egg divides MITOTICALLY to produce embryo
prokaryotic
any cellular organism that has no nuclear membrane, no organelles in the cytoplasm except ribosomes, and has its genetic material in the form of single continuous strands forming coils or loops, characteristic of all organisms in the kingdom Monera, as th
pith
the inner layers of ground tissues in a stem
What is an example of a gymnosperm?
pine trees
what part of the plant takes in water
roots
Aggregate fruit
Raspberry
From one or more separate carpels on one flower
Removed as one unit
seeds develop in a cone in most species
gymnosperms
over 500
how many species of conifers are there?
stigma
Small opening in the top of the pistil. It is sticky to help the flower collect pollen.
Vascular Bundles
strands of vascular tissue that run the length of the stem containing xylem and phloem
biosphere
a planet or a place where life exists
frond
leaflike organ of a fern that grows upward from the rhizome
The process by which a seed sprouts is called...
germination
sperm cell, egg cell
A process of reproduction that requires a _____ ____ (in pollen) and an ____ ____ (in the ovule) to combine to produce a new organism.
Seeds are produced from this***
shoot apical meristem
produces new cells that elongate and increase stem length; protected by terminal bud; in tip of root and top of stem
water-soluble vitamins
not stored in the body, must be replaced each day
How old is the oldest plant?
420 million years old
Pioneer Species
The first organisms of plants to grow in a disturbed or new environment. Break down and build soil
mosses, fungi, and algea
non-seed plants without roots, stems and leaves
apical dominance
the terminal bud of a plant secretes auxins that move downward and suppress the growthof lateral buds
Target cells
cells in an organism affected by a certain hormone
a ___________ is the leaf of a fern plant
frond
How and when did the change from hunting and gathering to agriculture happen?
9-10,000 years ago
chloroplasts
part of the cell in the leaf that does photosynthesis
sieve plate
end walls of st members w pores that facilitate movement`
Ramus of Mandible
branch of madible that turns upward to joint of the jaw
Contributions to our atmosphere and lithosphere
Stromatolites - The backbone of ancient mountains. Organ sedimentary strucutures produces by sediment trapping, binding, and/or precipitation as a result of growth and metabolic activity of orgainsims, primarily blue-green algae.
zone of maturation or differentiation
section fo root past the zone of elongation where cells change into final form or tissue
1. cutting down trees 2. burning forests 3. burning fossil fuels
What three things contribute to the production and buildup of greenhouse gases?
What are the male parts of a flower?
Stamen made of the filament & anther that produces pollen
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