Plants 29 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
area
área
vascular
f
dormant
inactive
tuber
underground stem
le cypress
cypress
brambles
ostružiní, ostružiny
...
Pacific water-parsley
Philodendron Cordatum
Calladium
Insoluble Calcium Oxalate
Japanese Loquat
Eriobotrya japonica
monocot leaves
parallel veins
Stamen - Male
filament
anther
Ribes divaricatum
Wild gooseberry
xylem
water-conducting plant tissue
rhizoid
anchros bryophtes to ground
flowers
reproductive structures of angiosperms
Stamen
The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an anther and a filament. User-contributed
Dictots
paraphyletic grade
Southern temperate
Old
100 species
Which stage is diploid?
Sporophyte
Tracheophytes
have vascular tissues
** sporophytes
canna lily
canna x generalis
Petals
Plants dependent on nocturnal pollinators typically have flowers that have what adaptation?
Ginkophyta
-vascular, -seed bearing, -unique fan-shaped leaves, -tolerant to a wide variety of climates, -good urban trees, and - One species - Ginkgo biloba.
biennials
life cycle in two years
leaves
The plant structures largely responsible for capturing light energy for the plant's use
Phloem
Relatively soft-walled cells transport organic nutrients in a kind of tissue called _________.
Psilophyta
wisk ferns (photosynthesize in stem)
cortex
in roots, the ground tissue
Rhizome
underground stem of a fern
Fragmentation
- spores
o specialized reproductive cells
o doesnt need to fertilize
o good for rapid reproduction
o no diversity
• low survival rate
Angiosperms
"Flowering Plants." Seeds located within a fruit or nut.
sperm nuclei
divides from microspore (pollen grain); joins with egg nucleus and polar nuclei in double fertilization
rhizomes
creeping or underground stems of ferns
Growth Retardants
Chemicals that prevent plant growth
Conifer
any gymnospermous tree or shrub bearing cones
Charophyceans
multicellular green algae, closest to plants, found in shallow water
lycophyta
descendants of oldest vascular plants, like mosses, sporophyte dominant, seedless vascular
gymnosperm
a plant with a naked seed
auxins
stimulate cell elongation and the growth of new roots
Vacuole
storage structures for food, water, minerals, waste
anther
pollen producing structure located at the tip of a flower's stamen
vascular tissue that carries water upward from the roots to every part of a plant
xylem
ferns
Underground stems; leaves are called fronds; fronds grow up from stem and roots grow down from stem
endosperm
triploid cell, nutrient rich tissue that nourishes the growing embryo
Turgor
pressure potential of the cellsOnly in cells with rigid cell wallsPrimary means of physical supprt in herbaceous plants
hypocotyl
part below the cotyledons which is present in early seedling development and becomes the roots
root
gets water minerals from soil, keeps plant in place
root hair
tiny projection from the outer surface, or epidermis, of a root
veins
a tube like structure that carries water and other substances throuhg leaves
Rhizoids
thread like structures that anchor non vascular plants to the ground (mosses and liverworts)
water potential
the physical property predicting the direction in which water will flow, governed by solute concentration and applied pressure.
CO2
lack of this substance causes stomates to open
angiosperm
a plant that produces seeds in flowers
Are vascular plants bigger or smaller than nonvascular?
bigger
stoma
opening on underside of leaf; allows O2 & CO2 to diffuse in & out
Beauty
2,000 years old Lotus flower. Grown from a seed found in the sediments of buried Neolithic canoe in Japan. Seed remained alive all of those years
where would you find spirogyra?
swampy/ pond water
Style or stalk
tube connecting stigma to ovary
embryo
young plant that develops from the zygote/fertilized egg
Sepals
enclose flower before it opens (calyx is complete circle)
PARTS OF A SEED
seed coat
young plant
stored food
Sori
clusters of reproductive cells on the underside of a frond; site of spore production
dispersal
what is the evolutionary importance of a seed?
Gemination=
development of an embryo into a seedlling
stomata
Pores that permit plants to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide.
secondary roots
smaller roots which branch out from the taproot
What is another name for a fertilized ovule
pistil
hebaceous stem
soft stem, die back each growing season
fibre root
A shallow system of simalar sized roots that can quickly soak up moisture
Pinnate
Having parts arranged on both sides of the common axis
Dracaena deremensis 'Janet Craig Compacta'
dwarf Janet Craig dracaena
blade
thin, flattened part on a leaf to collect sunlight
tropism
growth of plant toward or away from stimulus
cuticle
waxy layer to keep water in or out
nonvascular plant
type of plant that lacks vascular tissues, moves substances slowly from cell to cell by osmosis and diffusion, and grows only in a damp environment. they need water to reproduce because their gametes swim. they are usually very small in size.
heterosporous
The seed plants are ____; meaning they produce two types of spores.
Spore
Tiny cells, smaller than seeds, that a new plant can grow from
Germination
an early stage of plant growth where roots grow down and the stem and leaves grow up
4 divisionis of gymnosperms
Conifers, cycads, ginkgoes, and gnetophytes
This is the support system for the plant?
Stem
Incomplete flower=
Ex.
One or more parts missing
Ex. flowers of most grasses (missing developed petals and sepals)
proximal
situated toward the point of origin or attachment, as of a limb or bone.
Monocots and Dicots
Names for number of cotyledon (seed leave) found on embryo, monocots have one cotyledon
spongy layer
This is the leaf layer where the vascular bundles can be found.
Pilsil (female)
stigma to get pollen, style to take pollen to ovary, ovary to produce eggs in ovules
filament
The part of the stamen that holds the anther up so it can touch the animals + other pollinators entering the plant.
transpiration
loss of water from a plant through its leaves
internal fertilization
sperm nuclei join with the egg and form the seed
Stem
The part of a plant that supports the leaves and flowers and carries water and minerals to these parts of the plant
Petiole
The part that joins the leaf of a plant to the main stem
seedling
when you can see the plants leaves it is called a _____
long-day plants
a plant that flowers only when the light period is longer than a critical length
Genetically Modified Organism
An organism that has acquired one or more genes by artificial means; aka transgenic organism. It is engineered to express a gene from another species. (Ex: Golden rice)
fibrous root
part of a root system in which roots branch to such an extent that no single root grows larger than the rest
zone of elongation
sectoin up along the root; absorbs H20 increases length make plant taller
short day plant
..., A plant that needs long periods of darkness before it can bloom
xylem, phloem, and cambrium
what are the three types of vascular tissue
Producing photosynthesis
O2 gas passes out of the plant and is realesed in the atmosphere, sugar- high energy molecules are produced and used to carry out the plants functions
What family is the poppy in and what are two important sources that come from this plant
papaveraceae, opium and morphine
Where does light dependent reactions take place?
mesophyll cells of leaves - not in epidermal cells
duri
thorn
Iris
.
Seed Example
Lily
fruit
ripe/swollen ovary
Bud
el botón
germinate
to sprout
seedless vascular plants
ferns
Pinus sylvestris
Scothch pine
Gnetophyta
gnetae, 2 leaves
root hairs
surface area
frond
a fern leaf
sweet birch
betula lenta
Cotyldeon
food for the embryo
branch
větev; rameno vodního toku
source
where sugars are PRODUCED
Positive Tropism
toward the stimulus
Bearded Iris
Iris x germanica
chloroplasts
plants make food in this
cells on outside
secondary phloem cells
Linnaeus
three kingdoms: minerals, animals, plants
meristems
areas of unspecialized, frequently, dividing cells, where plant growth originates, generates new dermal, vascular, & ground tissue
western sycamore
large maple leaf shape
bud scale
small leaf outside bud
Aphakia
absense of lens of eye
Autotroph
organism that makes its own food
contrast
to show how things are different
multicellular eukaryotes, tissues
plants are ______________ _________________ with well-developed ____________
scattered
structure of vascular bundles in monocots
light
this affects K+ accumulation in stomata
phototropism
Plant growth in response to light
ALGAE phylogeny characterisitcs
Not a monophyletic group
Photosynthetic eukaryotes and cyanobacteria Unicellular (fromer protists) Main photo, primary source of oxygen
monocots
These plants have one cotelydon, parallel venation, scattered vascular bundles, and their flower parts occur in three.
sporopollenium
A watertight material that encases spores and pollen of modern land plants.
coniferous
belonging or pertaining to the conifers.
chlorophyll
helps plant use energy, gives the plant its green color
non-seed plant
a plant that reproduces without forming seeds.
Critical Night Length
Plant requirements when in darkness
pollen grain
structure that contains the male gametophyte in seed plants
pollen tube
Angiosperms: brings sperm to the ovule
Plants with fungi
early plant macrofossils contain endomycorrhizae; fungal hyphae between plant cell membrane and cell wall; increase absorption of minerals and water from soil
Carpel
The female reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of the stigma, style, and ovary.
stigma
sticky tip of style in flower carpel
Endophytes
"inside plants"
Fungus lives inside the leaves of plants
Established from the environment, not started in seed
Those that didn't allow infection, more susceptible to disease and infection
In grasses, the repel herbivores, and help tolerate physical environmental extremes
Unclear mechanisms or causes
chlorophyl
a green pigment found in chloroplasts which is located in the leaves of plants.
gametophyte
the multicellular haploid stage in the life cycle of plants
Pollinators
insects, wind, birds are attracted to flowers because of smell and color
monocot
have only one cotyledon such as corn
abscission
the dropping off of leaves flowers fruits or other plant parts is called
Pigments
chlorophyll a and b and various carotenoids (carotenes and xanothytes)
annual
an angiosperm that lives for 1 growing season
seed coat
protective outer layer of seeds of flowering plants
taproot
main root of a plant growing straight downward from the stem
Epidermis
covers surface of the root, hair for absorption
old man cactus
long white hairlike bristles help reflect sun
Herbaceous
Plants whose stems are smooth and do not produce wood
bark
a sailing ship with 3 (or more) masts
bryophyte life cycle
life cycle
Mature diploid sporophyte releases haploid spores
Spores divide by mitosis become male antheridia and female archegonia
Divide my mitosis to give sperm and egg (n)
Antheridia sperm fertilize archegonia egg
Diploid zygote forms inside archegonium and grows upwards to release spores
The cell walls of plants are composed of long chains of a complex carbohydrate substance called?
cellulose
seed coats
is a layer that protects the seed
STAMENS
thins stalks topped by small knobs are the male reproductive organs
The pollen-producing male reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an anther and filament.
style
the stalk of a fl;ower's carpel, with the ovary at the base and the stigma at the top
dicotyledons
a plant that has two cotyledons also called a dicot
Which of the following families DOES NOT have an inferior ovary:

a) Cyperaceae
b) Orchidaceae
c) Iridaceae
d) Caprifoliaceae
e) Asteraceae
a) Cyperaceae
nonvascular plants
Type of plants must have water for sperm to reach an egg
What is a example of a vascular plant.
grapes, wheat
moss
An example of a plant that lacks true vascular tissue
Shoot
The part of a plant's body that grows mostly upward.
Why do leaves fall?
Too cold (H20 freezes), abscission layer aka leaf scar (leaf dries up),
spongy mesophyll
part of leaf that is loosely packed for photosynthesis and the diffusion of gases in and out of these cells
Earth
3rd from the sun and has water,air and LIFE
parallel
A leaf vein pattern in which the veins are straight lines all running in the same direction.


-Dk. green on top
-Grey-green underside
-Slightly serrate
-Very common
-Hardy hedge
Raphiolepis indicaC: Indian HawthornF: Rosaceae
What is a new plant that has just grown out of the soil called?
a seedling
primary plant body
whole body of herbaceous, new part of woody
Sieve-tube member
one of the component cells of a sieve tube, which is found mainly in flowering plants
tissue culture
chemicals can also be used to speed up growth. the chemicals are put on plant tissues this is called
tissue types of a flowering plant
dermal tissue, vascular tissue, ground tissue, meristematic tissue
Seed structure of a monocot:
What is the cotyledon? The endosperm?
The radicle? The plumule?
Cotyledon- 1st source of nutrition
Endopsperm- 2nd source of nutrition
Radicle- embrionic root, will grow into the root of the plant
Plumule- embrionic leaf, will grow into the leaf of the plant
color that you see on plants...
is reflected light not used by pigment
What happens when the seed matures and enters dormancy?
Low metabolic rate and suspended growth
One challenge for plants living on land was?
They had to take in resources from 2 places at once.
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