Plants 58 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
nation
nacion
Myrtle
Apocynaceae
aquaporin
facilitates osmosis
internode
between nodes
cycads
leaves arelikepalms
xylem
moves water
leaves
make food
Spongy mesophyll
Gas exchange
Fern Classification
Phylum Pterophyta
Cissus rhombifolia
grave ivy
Sporophyll
leaf containing sporangia
ovules
integument and megasporangia
Ranunculus repens
Creeping buttercup
Septum
Partition separating locules
to pick flowers
recoger flores
monocot
seeds with one cotyledon
Carpinus betulus
Columnar european hornbeam
stamen
The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an anther and a filament.
Shrubby Cinquefoil
Dasiphora fruticosa ROSACEAE
Auxins
phototropisms, enhance apical dominance, stimulate stem elongation, (IAA)
Arthrophyta
horsetails
hollow jointed stems
some have large deposits of silica
coleoptile
protective structure around grass seedlings
Monocots
__________ have vascular bundles scattered throughout the stem.
MOA of thiaminase
destroy thiamine (neurotoxic)
rhizomes
Underground, horizontal stems, often serving to store food
phototropism
plant growth towards the sun
Thigmotropism
response to grow around things
dioecious
Are ginkgoes monoecious or dioecious?
Palisade Layer
contains chloroplasts for photosynthesis;long and tightly packed
transports water and dissolved minerals upward from roots to shoots
xylem
Angiosperm with: -two cotyledons inside its seed,
Dicot
stomata
openings across the cuticle and epidermis; allow gases in and out; have guard cells on either side to help open/close
ovary
where fertilization takes place, where fertizilation takes place
What produces dramatic increases in size, particularly in stems and fruits?
gibberellins
lateral maristem
increase in width, secondary growth
green algae
what all plants evolved from
sucrose
A disaccharide, also called cane sugar
seeds
after photosynthesis food is stored here and used when they become new plants
Flower
A reproductive structure that produces pollen and seeds
scavenger
someone who collects leftover or unwanted objects
Leaflet
one segment of a compound leaf
hornworts
Examples of nonvascular plants are mosses, liverworts, and __________.
Angiosperms
vascular plants that produce seeds surrounded by fruits or flowers
dull colours, small/light pollen, feathery stigma, large amounts of pollen
wind pollinated
vascular tissue
cells organized into tube-like structures that transport water, minerals, and food throughout a plant
ground tissue
three basic types parenchyma collenchyma, sclerenchyma
Bradycardia, hypotension, GI, CNS changes
"Toxic honey"
angiosperm
A flowering plant that produces seeds enclosed in a protective structure.
Phloem
The vascular tissue through which food moves
Seed coat
The outer covering of a seed
Tracheids
Long, cylindrical plant cell in which water passes from cell to cell through pitted ends
apoplast
the network of cell walls and intracellular spaces within a plant body that permits extensive extracellular movement of water within a plant
xerophyte
plant that lives in the desert biome
Pistil
the female ovule-bearing part of a flower composed of ovary and style and stigma
*4 Phyla of Gymnosperms:
Ginkgophyta(Mesazoic Eracalled "Maiden Hair Tree"), Gnetophyta(Mormon Tea- the shrub of the desert), Pinophyta/Coniferophyta(Cone bearing plants/confiers included&Economicaly important), Cyadophyta(Cyads&Sago Palms included, fernlikeplants with large frond leaves, MOST primitive living seed plant)
thylakoid
a flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy
conifers
The four main groups of gymnosperms include __________, cycads, ginkgoes, and gnetophytes.
Toti-potency:
A cell that has already differentiated but could totally go back and create a new organism
Sori
what the leaves of a fern produce
cellulose
chemical compound plants can make out of sugar
pollination
when pollen transfers from the stamen to the pistil
epidermis
the outermost surface of many plants and animals, made of flattened cells that protect the organism
Gymnosperm
vascular plant that produce seeds not protected by fruit
Xerophytes
plants that grow in very dry conditions
gametocyte
A cell that produces gametes.male female shape like a 3
auxillary buds
where leaves meet stem; have the potential to form lateral shoots/branches
composite
a flower cluster that appears as one flower (such as a dandelion) in which many tiny florets are clustered on a receptacle.
day-neutral plants
plants that don't flower in response to daylight changes
photoperiodism
the response of a plant to the relative lengths of daylight and darkness
vascular
Plants that have tubes in their roots, stems, and leaves.
petal
A modified leaf of a flowering plant. Petals are the often colorful parts of a flower that advertise it to insects and other pollinators.
gravitropism
plant growth towards up; plants have a sense of up and down
annuals
anthophyte that lives for one year or less
zone of differentiation
cells in this zone undergo specialization into three primary meristems: epidermis, ground tissue, xylem/phloem
Collenchyma
part of the ground tissue that are strong and flexible cells for support
Chloroplasts
part of a plant cell used in photosynthesis
Biennial
A plant that needs two years to complete its life cycle. The first year it grows leaves, sleeps over the winter as a plant, and the second year comes up, grows, flowers, makes seeds, and dies.
Pollen Tube
slender tubular outgrown from a pollen grain that penetrates the ovule and releases male gametes
genet
starts from a seed, is a genetic individual
WHO HAS:The process by which pollen is transferred from the stamen to the pistil
I HAVE:Spores
Guard Cell
In a plant leaf, cells that surrond the stomata to open and close them.
Stigma
sticky portion at the top of the style where pollen grains frequently land
tracheid cells
long thin cells of the xylem that overlap and are tapered at the ends, water passes from one cell to another through pits, areas with no secondary cell wall
Light Dependent Reaction
Occurs in the thylakoid membrane with the reactants H₂O, NADP+, ADP and the products ATP, NADPH, and O₂. The energy inputs are light energy.
SPREADING A PLANT'S SEEDS TO AREAS WHERE THEY CAN GROW.
define seed dispersal
Medical uses
Prairie coneflower is the basis for a variety of herbal medicines. Taxol is treatment of choice for some cancers
upper epidermis
This is the leaf layer that is responsible for making the waxy cuticle.
Parts of a plant
roots like a straw,stem plumbing system,
Seed plants - photosynthesis layers
epidermis, palisade layer, spongy layer
micro-
small; too small to be seen with the naked eye
two important layers of mesophyll
palisade mesophyll and the spongy mesophyll
Fibrous Roots
These branch to such an extent that no single root grows larger than the rest.
adulterated - adjective
made impure or spoiled by the addition of inferior materials (e.g. The Federal Drug Administration (F.D.A.) tries to investigate and protect us from foods that may be adulterated.)
leaf abscission
A change in the balance of auxin and ethylene controls leaf abscission, the process that occurs in autumn when a leaf falls
sexual
life cycle of humans (and many other animals)
-the
gametes are the direct products of meiosis-in
the haploid phase of the life cycle, there is not an intervening multicellular stage in humans, as there is in plants
Koelreuteria paniculata - panicled golden rain tree
lantern fruit, ring around leaf scar, yellow flowers
What is gravitropism?
the tendency of a plant to grow in the opposite direction of gravity
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the parasitic reduction syndrome?

a) Small overall size of plant
b) Fast rate of gene/DNA evolution
c) Loss of chlorophyll and other photosynthetic pigments
d) Loss of roots
e) Reduction in floral di
e) Reduction in floral display
advantage over seed bearing instead of spores
they do not need water to reproduce, the seeds contain their own suply of food, the embryo is protected, the young plants do not need to compete with the parents about
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