Plants 9 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
L'avena
Oats
buah
fruit
Xylem
up
el porque
park
la enredadera
vine
pistil
female part
meristems
growth regions
rhiz- root
...
south pole
polo sur
Hepaticophyta
Phylum of Liverworts.
Taxus X media
Yew
seedless vascular plants
ferns
Hamemalidaceae: Liquidambar styraciflua
Sweetgum
Epidermis
the outermost layer
blueberry
Vaccinium spp.
 
Ericaceae
conifer
cone-bearing plants or trees
seed dispersal
water, wind, animals
Ginkgos
Gymnosperm
-present day ginkgos represented by a single species, ginkgo biloba
-trees are either male or female
-female trees bear foul-smelling, fleshy seeds
vascular tissue
xylem and phloem
Arecaceae
ca3co3a3gsup3fusedcarpels. drupe but nutlike. tepal form a hypanthium.
dicot
two cotyledons
circular vascular bundles
netlike leaf veins
floral parts in 4s or 5s
taproots
most flowering plants, most trees
gametophore
gamete producing structure of moss
filament
the stalk of a stamen
Petals
often bright to atract pollinators
ferns
seedless vascular plants, swimming sperm, sporophyte.
auxins
plant hormones that control growth
2 types of Angiosperms
Monocots, Dicots
Rhizoid
Threadlike structures that anchor nonvascular plants to the ground.
vascular cambium
makes new vascular tissues
egg cell fate
determined by auxin
tropism
plant response to external stimuli
fleshy
having much flesh; plump; fat.
Buds
Undifferentiated bundles of cells that can become a leaf, flower, or stem they are covered by scales
Bryophyta
a division of nonflowering plants characterized by rhizoids rather than true roots and having little or no organized vascular tissue and showing alternation of generations between gamete-bearing forms and spore-bearing forms
deciduous
loses all leaves at one time
angiosperm
vascular, flower producing plants whos seeds are enclosed in fruit
stroma
part of chloroplast with liquid protein; where dark reaction occurs
flower
the major reproductive adaptation of the angiosperm. consists of four organs: sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels
stamen
male reproductive organ of a flower
vegetative propagation
various forms of asexual reproduction
spongy mesophyll
contains vascular bundles/ veins; contains lots of air space- absorbs air
photosynthesis
light energy converted into chemical energy
which plants dont have vascular tissue?
bryophtes
turgor
The normal distension or rigidity of plant cells, resulting from the pressure exerted from within against cell walls by the cell contents
Sepals
are small green leaves under the petals. They cover and protect the flower bud.
phloem
The vascular tissue through which food moves in some plants (tubes that take food down)
root hairs
Extensions of root epidermal cells that increase the root's surface area and enable it to take in more material
vacuole
Most plant cells have a large, membrane-bound structure called the central __________ that takes up most of the space inside of the cell.
fruit
Angiosperms all make some kind of ______ because they have a blossom
Bryophyte
evolved partial solutions to living on land; includes mosses, liverworts, and hornworts; must grow in wet places; only a few centimeters tall
monocot
an angiosperm with one cotyledon in each seed
Alpine Herbfield
Snow Daisies, snow grasses, billy buttons
Thuja occidentalis - American Arborvites
100% flat needles,
Phyllotaxis
arrangement of leaves on a stem
result of preventing self shading
Alternate: One leaf per node
Spiral or helical arrangement or
opposite- two leaves per node
two ranks alternating each side
whorled-three or more leaves per node
Rare
cuticle
the waxy, waterproof layer that covers the leaves and stems of some plants
flowers
they produce seeds which form new plants
gemmae
vegetative buds that grow (clone) by fragmentation
Monocots vs Dicots
monocot:
-vascular tissue in a ring
-fibrous roots (shallower roots--not a great anchor)
-parallel veins in leaves
-flowers in groups of 3
-1 cotyledon
dicot:
-vascular tissue scattered
-taproot (deeper roots--better anchor)
-branched veins in leaves
-flowers in groups of 4 or 5
-2 cotyledons
Photoperiodism
A plant's response to seasonal changes in length of night and day.
ecoligy
the study of the relationship among liviong and nonliving parts of anarea
tracheids, seeds, and carpels
adaptations
to prevent desiccation in the dry terrestrial environment
ovule
the inner part of an ovary that contains an egg
Blade
Broad, flat portion of a leaf where photosynthesis occurs
epicotyl
tip of a seedling; becomes the stems and leaves
Root
Part of the plant that normally grows into the ground, anchors the plant, and absorbs and conducts water and minerals to various parts on the plant
tissues, root, stem, leaves
Nonvascular plants lack specialized _________ for transporting water, minerals, and organic nutrients; they lack true ______, ______, and ________, although they have root-like, stem-like, or leaf-like structures
transpiration
the emission of water vapor from the leaves of plants
phyla of fungi
Zygomycota (zygote fungi ex. bread mold), Ascomycota (sac fungi ex. yeast), Basidiomycota (club fungi ex. mushrooms)
pressure-flow hypothesis
considers plants in terms of where they produce and use materials from photosynthesis
biennal
a plant that completes its life cycle in two years
traits - noun
characteristics (e.g. When you and your spouse have a child, it will be interesting to see what combination of traits your child will have.)
undulipodium
a "flagella" that uses dynein hooks to produce movement, found in eukaryotes
taproot
system that consists of a long, thick main root and thin branching roots that grow off the main root
Orhidaceae: defining characteristics
1. alkaloids present, 2. mychorrizal roots, pollinia, fruit capsule resupinate
Seeds
Can grow into new plants. Every seed has a tiny new plant inside.
heartwood
darker and stronger part of older wood that can no longer conduct water/solutes because clogged with metabolic wastes
Plants make theri own food in the process called _______________.
Photosynthesis
Where is the chlorophyll kept in a cell?
Chloroplast
alternation of generation
the alternation between the haploid gametophyte and the diploid sporophyte in a plant's life cycle
1 sperm nucleus fuses with egg forms a
embryo
Xylem Tissue
Transports H20 + minerals only in an upward direction, functions only when dead, It uses trachied and vessels, materials move through it through Cohesion- Tension theory
sporophyte
Stage in a plant life cycle in which the plant produces spores for reproduction
cellular respiration
the cells of all living things must use this process to obtain energy from glucose
epidermal cell
any of the cells making up the epidermis
fibrous root
many roots spread out from base of stem
why is asexual reproduction inferior to sexual reproduction?
Stifles potential for change
Legume
the fruit or seed of any of various bean or pea plants consisting of a two-valved case that splits along both sides when ripe and having the seeds attached to one edge of the valves e.g. Peanut
Mesophyll vs. Bundle sheath
granum are extremely well developed in mesophyll - less well developed in bundle sheath but more stroma
osmosis and diffusion
Substances move from cell to cell in nonvascular plants
develop roots and support structures, had to conserve water, pollen containing sperm to aid in delivery of sperm to egg
adaptions to live on land
Pollen Grains and Eggs
In seed plants, spores divide by meiosis to produce
visible spectrum
the colors of light that make up white light r referred to as the
tiny hairlike parts
roots have what to help them take in nutrients
What are defining characteristics of polygonaceae-
ocrea, triangular nutlets, and swollen nodes
Bryophytes or seedless nonvascular plants
Which group of plants does NOT contain true roots, stems, or leaves?
GYMNOSPERMS HAVE NO FRUIT TO HOLD THEIR SEEDS; ANGIOSPERMS PRODUCE FRUIT TO HOLD THEIR SEEDS, AND CAN HAVE ELABORATE FLOWERS TO ATTRACT POLLINATORS
What is the primary difference between gymnosperms and angiosperms
new cells are produced at the tips and roots in the end of the plant
where primary growth occurs in a stem
Leaves
Gravity
Gravitropism
lilac
sirel
grapefruit
toronja, pomelo
Boxelder
Acer negundo
Orchid
La Orquídea
Angiosperms
Flowering plants
Privet
ligustrum sinense
anther
pollen producing sac
Style
tube of pistil
Magnolia stellata
Star magnolia
apoplast
thru cell walls
la margarita
the daisy
Atropa belladonna
Conium maculatum
Cambium
froms xylem and pholem
germination
when a plant sprouts
pollen
tiny particles(male gametophytes) produced by seed plants that contain the cells that later become sperm cells
Roots
function:
-water and nutrient absorption from soil
-anchorage (anchors plant to the ground)
*Root hairs are 1 cell thick small fuzzy hairs on the root of a plant that increase the surface area of the root, to allow more water and mineral absorption in the soil.
Water is diffused across the root hair, and is passed from cell to cell until it reaches the xylem. This diffusion is able to occur, because the water naturally wants to move from a high water concentration (in the soil) to a low water concentration (in the plant)
spores
reproductive structures found in seedless plants
Seedless
___________ vascular plants disperse their species by producing windblown spores
anthocerophyta
small, have hornlike saprophytes, water and nutrient in through osmosis, nonvascular
mitochondria
produces energy for the cell
needle
Club mosses have __________-like leaves.
cellulose
glucose in the cell walls
Plant
Any of various photosynthetic, eukaryotic, Multicellular organisms of the kingdom Plantae characteristically producing embryos, containing chloroplasts, having cellulose cell walls, and lacking the power of locomotion.
genus
group of closely related species
brassinosteroids
similar to cholesterol and sex hormones of animals
autotrophs
organisms that make their own food
aerial/prop
anchor climbing stem; prevents roots that are water logged from dying
Functions of leaves
photosynthesis, transpiration, gas exchange
Organic Molecules
Carbon and hydrogen containing molecules
shoot
made up of stem and leaves
stems
"water highway" transports water and minerals
DIcots
o Two cotyledons
o Leaves are netlike
o Usually in 4's and 5's
o Vascular bundles in a ring
Pollination
transfer of pollen from the male reproductive structure to the female reproductive structure
Rhizome
Horizontal stems that run along the surface of the grass
asparagus and celery
two stems we eat are
Chlorophyll
Green pigment in plants that absorbs light energy used to carry out photosynthesis
day
Stomata are usually open during the __________.
Cutin
waxy coating preventing excess loss of water
David Douglas associated with discovery of what?
douglas fir tree
gravitropism
when roots grow downward and stems grow upward
gametophyte
(n) produces gametes by mitosis that fuse during fertilization to yield 2n zygotes. a haploid adult plant
perennial
flowering plants that live more than two years
gibberellins
hormone that promotes stem and leaf elongation, induces bolting
Vascular
have vessels to transport food, roots, stems, and leaves
perennials
flowering plant that lives for more than two years
seed vascular
flowering plants, joint firs, cycads, connifers, and ginkgoes.
transpirtation
the process by which water evaportes from a plants leaves
Male Gametophyte developes inside of a
Pollen Grain
Development of the embryo into a young plant
Germination
geotropism
plants tend to grow in the direction that gravity pulls them (roots of plants grow down into the soil)
seed
embryo of a plant encased in a protective tissue, with a food supply.
cotyledon
part of endosperm in seed until roots take hold
Guard cells
controls the opening and closing of the stomata, responding to changes in water pressure (epidermis)
cells
the basic building blocks of life, all living things are made up of cells
petal
one of modified leaves of second ring of flower (inside sepal)
collenchyma
flexy cell walls for support type of ground tissue
pollinate
to carry pollen to the stemlike part of a flower
first leaf or first pair of leaves produced by the embryo of a seed plant
cotyledon
Turgid
=when plant cells take up water (when cell is filled with water and is pressing against the cell wall)
true
club mosses today r much smaller than their ancestors were
morphology
the branch of biology that deals with the structure of animals and plants; external form
Tissue maps in a plant ovary that becomes a seed;
ovule
Secondary Phloem
new ______ cells formed on the surface of the vascular cambium that faces the outside of the stem.
What tissue is made up mostly of parenchyma cells and is the bulk of the plant body that supports vascular tissue?
ground tissue
Mobile Nutrients
Nutrients that move from the old part of the plant to the new parts. New parts look healthier than old parts (i.e. Potassium)
Berberis thunbergii - japanese barberry
single spine, lots of leaves,
Source
a part of a plant that makes sugars and other organic compounds and from which these compounds are transported to other parts of the plant
describe leaves of iridacae
equitant, and ensiform ( sword shaped)
What holds the other parts of the cell in place?
Cytoplasm
What is the jelly like substance in a plant cell that fills much of the cell?
cytoplasm
What is bark made up of?
cork, cork cambium, and phloem
stores water
What is the main function of a vacuole in plants?
what two gases leave the leaf through the stomata?
oxygen and H20
end of the stem
where the terminal bud of a plant located
water from soil, sunlight
What 2 sources did plants need for transition?
Ailanthus altissima - tree of heaven
stout stem, snake skin bark, somara fruit,
Double fertilization and it produces
One sperm fuses with egg to form a zygote and the other sperm fuses to form a tissue called the endosperm which provides nourishment for the embryo
1.they must have ways to obtain water and other materials.
2.retain water.
3.transport materials through the plant
4.support their bodies
5. reproduce successfully
list 5 things that plants must do to survive on land
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