plants part 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
chestnut
castaña
sphenophyta
horseteails
higo
fig
Radicle
Primary root
ather
contains pollen
receptacle
holds flower
Linnaea borealis
Twinflower
Sansevieria trifasciata
phloem transport what?
food
Horse Chestnut
Aesculus hippocastanum
Ericacae examples
blueberries, azealea
Oemleria cerasiformis
Osoberry/Indian plum
Tree Ligustrum
ligustrum lucidum
meristems
unspecialized, actively dividing cells
epidermis
just under the cuticle
Female parts of flower
pistil
cross pollinating
two different plants
leaves: rosaceae
alt stipulate, serrate
not specific to water
diffusion
sclerenchyma cells
gritty texture; sclereids
Primary Growth
Plant grows in length
bud
undevolped shoot of a plant
Spore
a small usually single-celled reproductive body produced by many plants and some protozoans and that develops into a new individual
gymnosperm
vascular, se-producing plants whose seeds are enclosed in a fruit
ovule
a small or immature ovum
Dicots:
embryo with 2 seed leaves
stem
supports plants transports material b/t roos and leaves
sporophyte
The spore-producing individual or phase in the life cycle of a plant having alternation of generations
Floral characteristics
-4-petaled-Borne on 2-4" panicles-Bloom in april as leaves are expanding-Imperfect (unisexual)-Plants dioecious
Roots
underground organs that absorb water and minerals
endodermis
vascular cylinder surrounded by a tightly packed layer of cells called the ___________.
spores
Ferns and mosses produce __________ rather than seeds. __________ hav a hard outer covering and contain a single cell that can grow into a new plant.
importance of angiosperms
provide animals food(fruit)
many major crops are angiosperms
meds,rubber, oils
Pollen
microspores undergo mitosis and form the male gametophyte; in seed plants, a structure consisting of the male gametophyte enclosed within a pollen wall
pollination
transfer of pollen from male reproductive structure to female
algae
example of a nonvascular, nonseed plant
dicots
angiosperms that have two seed leaves
Leaf Adaptations
Plisade cells (verticle orientation. photosynthesis) & stomata (holes in bottom of leaf,guard cells, perform photosynthesis during day, at night they close & H20 goes out of cells)
cotyledon
provides food for the growing seedling
cells
small units that make a plant
sndary cell wall
btwn 1st and membrane
Differentiation
describes the condition whereby cells begin to specialize.
seed bank
ungerminated seeds in the soil
heartwood
the very center of a tree
perennials
plant that continue to grow and reproduce season after season
periderm
The protective coat that replaces the epidermis in plants during secondary growth, formed of the cork and cork cambium.
Hormones
A chemical messenger produced by a living organism in minute quantities to regulate its growth, reproduction, and other important biological functions
Sorus
Cluster of sporangia on the underside of a frond (fern leaf)
cavitation
formation of water vapor pockets that break the chain needed for transpirational tension
gymnosperms
plants that enclose their seeds in cones, ex. conifers
Pteriophyte Life Cycle
Fern Life Cycle
-Sporophyte produces haploid spores within sporongia
-spores germinate into gametophtyes
-Archegonium produces egg
-Anthedium produces sperm
-Sperm swim to egg
-Fertilization occurs to zygote develops into a diploid sporophyte
embryo
organism at its early stage of development
sponge
type of mesophyll with more air spaces
autotroph
an organism that produces it's own food
photosynthesis
how a plant makes its own food
sex organs: urticaceae
superior-inferior ovary,
as many stamen as tepals and opposite them
vascular tissue
the internal transporting tissue in some plants that is made up of tubelike structures
ovary
a flower structure that encloses and protects ovules and seeds as they develop; organ of the female reproductive system in which eggs and estrogen are produced
protoplasts
fall toward gravity inside of cell walls, pull on connective proteins that signal direction of gravity
micropyle
pore in the integuments of the ovule
Sclerenchyma
type of ground-tissue cell with an extremely thick, rigid cell wall that makes ground tissue tough and strong
roots, stem, leaves
three main organs in plants
_________ is compressed layers of dead sphagnum mosses that accumulate in bogs
peat
Mutualistic Relationship (Plants)
Fungus inhabits roots...when fungus absorbs water and minerals, it gets sent up throughout the plant (Increases S.A. of roots) In return, the plant gives the fungus glucoseCalled Mycorrhizae
taproot system
A root system common to eudicots, consisting of one large, vertical root (the taproot) that produces many smaller lateral, or branch, roots.
flytrap
The Venus ____________ is a plant with long bristle leaves. when an insect touches the leaves of this plant, the leaf closes around the insect.
anther
What is letter "C" in the flower structure picture?
Pressure Flow
The mechanism by which sugars are transported through the phloem, from sources to sinks; dependent upon the high turgor pressure of sources and the low turgor pressure of sinks.
germination
the process which the new plant breaks through the shell
Crataegus aestivalis
Hawthorne or May haw. Acid sandy soils. Fruit is food for many small animals like birds and squirrels flowers for butterflies. Eastern coast line up to New York southeastern U.S. Fruit can be used in jellies and jams. Wood is very dense and makes good canes and handles. Leaves are short with a saw like end
photosynthesys
the process by which plants use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide and turn it into sugar and oxygen
erosion
movement of land under the force of wind, running water, and ice.
what color is on this paper
all but blue
guard cells
control the size of the stoma opening
epicotyl
part of seed embryo that becomes the upper part of the stem
Respiration
The process of releasing energy in a usable form.
a. Ex: In plants, oxygen is released as a waste product of photosynthesis.
cambium
between the xylem and phloem, a tissue that produces most of the new xylem and phloem cells
tissue
a group of similar cells that work together (muscular tissue, nervous tissue, stomach tissue)
heterosporous
Referring to a plant species that has two kinds of spores: microspores, which develop into male gametophytes, and megaspores, which develop into female gametophytes.
2
how many leaves do a dicot seed sprout
petiole
thin stalk by which leaf blade is attached to a stem
lipid
any of a group of organic compounds that are greasy, insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol
that was a big help
ha sido una gran ayuda
Dicot Characteristic 3
leaves are usually in 4 or 5s
MOA of Lycorine
Emetic and purgative: bulb is most toxic
root
part of the plant that absorbs water & anchors the plant
Homosporous plants
plants that produce one kind of spore, which grows into a gametophyte containing BOTH types of gametangium. types: MOSS AND FERN.
apical meristems
in tips of roots and in-terminal and axillary buds of shoots, responsible for primary growth
Stigma
sticky portion at the top of the style where pollen grains frequently land
root nodule
lump on a plant root that contains nitrogen-fixing bacteria
cell wall
the definite boundary or wall that is part of the outer structure of certain cells, as a plant cell.
What did plants evolve from?
Plants evolved from filamentous green algae that lived in ancient oceans.
Pinus mugo - Mugo Pine
2 needles, very irregular growth habit, small cones, needles curve towards branch
What is the cohesion-tension theory?
water uptake by roots
water evaporation through stomates on leaves (creates pull or tension)
water molecules are cohesive ("sticky" due to hydrogen bonds) and column of water is pulled up through xylem cells
size, shape, odor, texture, color
what are the 5 flower varieties?
spongy mesophyll
a layer with a lot of air space, more spread out
layers of xylem build up year after year
how wood is formed
What are two ways you can tell plants are living?
They grow and change
Inferior ovaries always have [ blank ] insertion
Epigynous ( on top of ovary)
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