PMP Exam Prep 9 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Is conflict bad?
PERT formulas
Standard Deviation = (P-O)/6
Variance = SD^2

For Project SD = SUM(Vs)^1/2
PERT formulas
P = Pesimistic
M = Most Likely
O = Optimistic
Integration Management
Included unification, consolidation, articulation, and integration actions that are crucial for managing expectations, meeting customer and other stakeholder requirements and ultimate successful project completion
Project Environments
Social, Cultural, International, Political and Physical.
Negotiation tactics
Personal Insults
Good Guy/Bad Guy
Limited Authority
Missing Man
Fair and Reasonable
Extreme Demands
Fait Accompli
Anything that interferes with or disrupts the message
Social Needs
Love, affection, approval, friends, association
Document that provides initial requirements that satisfy the stakeholders' needs and expectations
Project Charter
Technique to collect requirements that is a formal direct talk usually one-on-one to discover information from stakeholders.
Organization type where the Project Manager is responsible of managing people.
Main process group where risk identification and response plan processes are focused on
Contracting organization that provides major benefits for contract manager and provides standard practices across the company and different projects
Centralized Contracting
What artifact does Stakeholders classification is documented in?
Stakeholder register
Maslow's Hierarchy
AKA Pyramid of Needs


Self Actualization

Risk Response Audits
Evaluating and documenting the effectiveness of implemented risk responses and identifying alternative risk responses, as necessary
Scope Management
Includes processes required to endure that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully
Schedule compression option that could reduce costs and time.
Scope reduction
Develop Project Charter is done during Process Group...
What is Kai zen?
Continuous Improvements
to reduce costs and
ensure consistency of performance of products or services.
Org type where conflict has higher potential
Conflict resolution technique related to withdrawal or postponing a decision.
Withdrawal or Avoidance.
Most often used Interpersonal skills in Manage Project Team
Decision Making
Conflict Resolution Techniques
- Confronting (Problem Solving): solving the real problem so that it goes away (usually BEST but it depends on context)
- Compromising: finding solution that bring some degree of satisfaction to both parties
- Withdrawal (Avoidance): both parties retreat and ignore the situation (not usually a good answer in PM questions)
- Smoothing (Accomodating): emphasizes agreement than difference in opinion
- Collaborating: incorporate multiple viewpoints to lead to a consensus
- Forcing: pushing forth a decision on everyone (usually WORST but it depends on context)
Critical Chain Method
Used in What-If Scenarios...
network diagram is used and each activity on the critical path is measured based it on its latest starting date and this late date is used as a time reserve (esp. helpful in risk response planning) so these reserves are used to help manage the project
Result from Close Procurements
Closed Procurements (written notice)
Updates to OPAs
Document used to Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis that is updated as a result of this process
Risk Register
Aside of Communication, what skills are required to Manage Stakeholder expectations
Interpersonal and
what's the result of Planning Process
Project Management Plan
Scope Creep
A symptom of poor project management, it is never the clients fault. It is almost always the project team.
Secondary Risks
Generated from the selection of the risk responses
Perform Quality Assurance
the application of planned, systematic quality activities to ensure that they project will employ all processes needed to meet requirements
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
A deliverable-oriented grouping of project elements that organizes and defines the total scope of the project. As with the scope statement, it is often used to develop or confirm a common understanding of the project scope among the stakeholders. Work not identified in it is outside the scope of the project. It is a hierarchal, logical breakdown of the project work elements, where each descending level represents an increasingly detailed definition of the project elements.
application areas
These are the areas of business, industry, and trade about which the project manager may need special knowledge. Common application areas include legal issues, technical issues, engineering information, and manufacturing information.
How much float there is in critical path?
Actions involved in Monitoring
Collect performance data, produce performance measures, compare to baselines and generate forecasts
Quality must be ....not...
Planned In, not Inspected In
Tools and techniques to Define Scope
Expert Judgement
Product Analysis
Alternatives identification for ways to do the work
Facilitated workshops
Transfers between project and operations at several points of product life cycle.
Resources, deliverables and knowledge.
What process generate Project Staff Assignments
Acquire Project Team
Disadvantages of Analogous estimating.
Less Accurate;
Estimate prepared with limited amount of detailed information;
Requires considerable experience to do well (Expert Judgement);
Infighting to gain the biggest piece of the budget;
Extremely difficult for projects with uncertainty.
Requires Historical Information
Expectancy theory
Employees who expect to be rewarded tend to perform better
Other than scope baseline, what scope element is used to Plan Procurements
Requirements documentation
Fixed amounts that both sides agree are sufficient to cover financial losses resulting from late completion of the project or failure of the project to perform as specified. Not a penalty.
Liquidated Damages
Technique to Plan Risk Management
Planning Meetings and Analysis
Three roles of a PMOp23
- providing the policies, methodologies, and templates for managing projects within the organization.- providing support and guidance to others in the organization on how to manage projects, training others in project management or project management software, and assisting with specific project management tools.- providing project managers for different projects, and being responsible for the results of those projects (All projects, or projects of a certain size, type or influence, are managed by this office).p17,32
Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)
Method of constructing a project network diagram using nodes to represent the activities and connecting them with arrows to show their dependencies.

AKA Activity-on-node (AON)
Method to determine the shortest time to complete the project by using the longest durations
Critical Path Method
Things assumed to be true but may not be
What is T Q M?
Total Quality Management, philosophy that encourages people to focus on finding ways to improve the quality of their business practices and products.
Input from Direct and Manage Project Execution to Control Scope.
Work Performance Information
Theory that explains that people are willing to work without supervision, want to achieve and can direct their efforts.
McGregor's Theory Y.
Advantages of Analogous Estimating.
Activities don't need to be identified,
Less costly to create,
Gives the project an idea of the level of management's expectations,
Overall project costs will be capped.
Cost of Quality
looking to the costs of conformance (making improvements to quality) vs costs of non-conformance (saying, eh forget about it) in regards to assuring quality... if costs of conformance are less, its OBVIOUS to do it since not doing anything will cost u more
Project Float
amount of time project can be delayed before the project should be delivered to the sponsor or customer (ex. customer says they need it by 12/1 but you can finish by 11/15, means you have 2 weeks of this type of float)
What happens to unresolved claims after contract closure?
Usually litigation in courts.
Strategies designed to use only if certain events occur.
Contingent Response Strategies.
Process Group where most money can be saved by avoiding waste of resources by determining what processes will be applied and defining if the project charter can be done or not.
Planning Process Group
Contingent Response Strategy
Defining action steps if a risk event occurs
How can the Schedule Baseline change?
Only by formally approved changes.
Items that get changed as result of Perform Integrated Change Control Process
PM plan,
Project Documents and
Does Control Scope manage changes?
Yes, integrated with other control processes.
Concept of locating the offices for the project team in the same room.
Tight Matrix or Co-location
Project Scope Process where stakeholders are involved.
Collect Requirements as source of wants, needs and expectations.
Define Scope as Experts
Scope Verification as Customer or Sponsor signing off deliverable acceptance.
Advantages of Bottom up Estimating.
More Accurate;
Gains buy-in from the team;
Based on detailed analysis of the project;
Provides basis for better monitoring and controlling,
performance measurement and management.
Steps for doing Changes
1. Evaluate the impact across all constraints
2. Research options to pursue as an alternate to the change
3. Get internal sign-off on the change
4. Present to customer and get their sign-off (if required for particular project)
Topics on Contributing to PM Knowledge base
Share lessons learned
Write articles
Support education, coach and mentoring
Perform research to discover best practices and share results with others
Perform research on projects done within the company for the purpose of calculating performance metrics
Definition of uncertainty
Lack of knowledge about an event that reduces confidence in conclusions drawn from data.
2 Major outputs of the Initiating Process Group
Project Charter and Preliminary Project Scope
Project Manager's Role in Procurement Management
-Identifying risks associated with the potential contract

-Incorporate risk mitigation and contingency strategies into the control

-Tailor the contract to suit the specific needs of the project

-Plan and schedule the procurement process into the overall project schedule

-Be involved with the contract negotiations

-Protect the integrity of the project

-Protect the integrity of the buyers organization

-Protect the relationship of the seller
Characteristic of Project Management Plan
*B*ought into - Agreed to by everyone
Formally *A*pproved
What approvals are done by the Sponsor?
Final Project Management Plan,
Changes to Project Charter,
Changes submitted through Change Control Board and
Formal Acceptance of deliverables (if Sponsor is Customer).
Techniques used to control costs and schedule which compare costs and EVM measurements, variations and indexes to determine corrective actions
Performance Reviews and Variance analysis
McGregor's Theory of X and Y
(also refer to graphic from screenshot)
Theory X: employees need to be watched every minute to do well
Theory Y: employees work well when left on their own
Type of contract statement of work that conveys what the final product should be able to accomplish rather than how to build it.
Performance contract statement of work
Risk definition and elements
event that has a positive or negative impact on at least one project objective if it happens.
Event, probability or uncertainty and impact or effect.
The priorities set by management is used throughout the project by project management to...p24
properly plan the project, evaluate the impact of changes and prove successful project completion. change to one component can have effect on other components.p8
Actions to create a BARF Project Management Plan
Hold meetings and presentations with resource managers, stakeholders, team members, sponsor
Negotiate and get agreements and approvals
What about stakeholders is included in the project management plan?
Needs and techniques of communication among them.
+ and > 1 is good.
Cost formula uses A C ;
Schedule formula uses P V
Contract type where changes from seller are more likely
Fixed Price to compensate for under priced offer or avoid losses.
Time management processes done during Planning Process Group
Define Activities
Sequence Activities
Estimate Activity Resources
Estimate Activity Durations
Develop Schedule
Time management processes done during Planning Process Group
Four Activities and one out of two Schedules
Cause and Effect diagram (Fishbone/Ishikawa)
start with cause on the left and end with the root of that cause on the right and referenced on the exam in these phrases:
Creative way to look at the causes of a problem
Stimulates thinking, organizes thoughts, and generates discussion
Explore factors that will result in a desired future outcome
When will you use a network diagram rather than a bar chart?
When you need to show dependencies between activities.
How to reduce risk on non competitive forms of procurement
Buyer needs to investigate and resolve scope, quality, schedule, cost and customer satisfaction topics.
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