Poetry Exam 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
trochee
-u
Facing it
Yusef
hexameter
6 feet
respite
rest; relief
cinquain
5 line stanza
denotation
a dictionary definition
Connotative Language
Unspoken meanings
Elegy
A poem of mourning.
Man proposes, God disposes
antithesis
stanza
how lines are grouped
septet
a 7 line stanza
allusion
reference to familiar event/person/place/text
4 lines in stanza
quatrain
Symbol
Anything that represents something else.
Ex: A dove is a symbol for peace
assonance
repetition of vowels without repetition of consonants
Alliteration
Repetition of consonants "burning bright" in "The Tiger" is an example
metor
recurring patternsof stressed and unstressed syllables in poetry
Jargon
Laugauge of a technical term
quatrain
a stanza of four lines
Hyperbole
Figure of speech involving exaggeration (e.g. I am so tired I could sleep for a year)
Resolution
Loose ends are tied up
emblem
a concrete object that representes something abstract; unlike a sybmol, it's meaning is constant across contexts
Caesura
See Grammatical Pause and Rhetorical Pause
simile
explicit comparison using "like" or "as"
Metonymy
in which something closely associated with a subject is substituted for it ("silver screen" = motion pictures)
rhyme scheme
pattern of rhymes (ex. aabbab)
Metaphor
an implied comparison between two things essentially unalike.
Four forms
1. Both literal and figurative are named
2. Literal is named and figurative is implied
3. Literal implied and figurative named
4. Both literal and figurative implied
syntax
ordering of words into meaningful verbal patterns
personification
representing an abstract quality or idea as a person or creature
rhyme
the repetition of concluding syllable sounds in different words
Half Rhyme (Slant Rhyme)
Imperfect, approximate rhyme
Imagery
Language that appeals to the senses
Meter
Measured pattern of rhythmic accents in poems
tone
attitude toward the subject or topic
symbolism
The use of images to represent internal realities.
onomatopoeia
using words that imitate the sound they denote
Enjambment
the continuation of the sense and therefore the grammatical construction beyond the end of a line verse or the end of a couplet.
refrain
a repeated word, phrase, line, or group of lines
iamb
a meterical foot consisting of one short (or unstressed) syllable followed by one long (or stressed) syllable
Allusions
reference to a well known person, place, thing
end rhyme
when last words of lines rhyme
antithesis
to err is human, to forgive, divine
onomatopoia
word that when pronounced, like a sound.... buz, zoom, vroom
rhythm
the pattern of stresses and unstressed syllables in words in a line of poetry; may be regular or irregular
lyric
a highly musical poem that expresses the observations and feelings of a single speaker.
enjambent
a run-on line without a grammatical break
Ballad
a narrative song with a recurrent refrain
Consonance
Repetition of consonant sounds at the end of word without repeating vowel sounds.
Henry Wordsworth Longfellow
second wife died in fire
haiku
a Japanese poem composed of three unrhhymed lines of 5,7,and 5 syllables. Often reflects nature
Rondell
Variation of the rondeau with rhyme scheme of ABba abAB abbaA
ambiguity
unclearness by virtue of having more than one meaning
Satire
witty language used to convey insults or scorn
cynical
distrust of the basic kindness in humankind
strongly negative
Verbal Irony
occurs when what is said contradicts what is meant or thought
Literal Language
language that means exactly what it says- the objective meaning; the surface meaning; what is actually happening- a paraphrase takes only the literal meaning into account.
internal rhyme
rhymes in the middle of a line
Oxymoron
a condensed form of paradox in which two contradictory words are used together (sweet sorrow)
Mood
the feeling you are left with after reading something
blank verse
consists of unrhymed lines of iambic pentameter
poem
a form of writing often with strong rhyme and or rhyme that tells a story or relates an experiance
free verse
does not conform to the traditional rules that govern metrical verse; there is no regular meter or rhyme. such poets as use free verse demanded that their reader attended to other aspects of the text such as cadence and imagery
foot
A unit consisting of at least one stressed syllable and usually one or more unstressed syllables.
synecdoche
taking a part of something and making it whole
I have 5 mouths to feed.
satiric poetry
blends criticism with humor to convey a point often ridiculing a person, group or aspect of human behavior
literary ballad
written by a poet in a conscious imitation of the folk ballad
Iambic pentameter
A poetic rhythm with five strong and five weak beats to the line: di Dum/di Dum/di Dum/di Dum/di Dum
Epic poem
A long narrative poem telling of a hero's deeds
Onomatopeia
a word that sounds like what it means- sounds like the word
ex: the bee with bzzz
figurative language
Writing or speech that is used to create vivid impressions by setting up comparisons between dissimilar things, [examples are metaphor, simile, and personification.
slant rhyme
rhyme in which the vowel sounds are nearly, but not exactly the same (i.e. the words "stress" and "kiss"); sometimes called half-rhyme, near rhyme, or partial rhyme
Italian (Petrachan) sonnet
a sonnet consisting of an octave riming abbaabba and of a sestet using any arrangement of two or three additional rimes, such as cdcdcd or cdecde
couplet
pair of lines that are the same length and rhyme
figure of speech
word or phrase that describes one thing in terms of another and is not meant literally
Iambic Foot
A two syllable foot with the stress on the second syllable; the most common foot of the English language
concrete poem
a poem with a shape that suggests its subject
pantoum
a poem in which the 2nd and 4th lines of a stanza become the 1st & 3rd lines of the next stanza & lace together as the poem form proceeds
edmund spenser
one day i wrote her name upon a strand
English Sonnets are often resolved with wit through
a flash of insight or irony
What are the 3 most common sources for literary allusions?
the Bible, mythology, Shakespeare's plays
pentameter
five feet
monometer
one foot
Trimeter
3 feet
Diction
word choice
derelict
abandoned ship
acquiesco, acquiescere, acquievi
rest
anapestic
stressed, unstressed, unstressed, IUI
rhythm
curdled
thickened ,clotted up ,
euphony
a pleasant sounding word
conceit
expanded metaphor; comparison between two startlingly different things
Slant
Choice of facts or language
Iamb (iambic)
an unstressed stressed foot.
The Road Not Taken
Robert Frost
The Good, Great Man
Samuel Coleridge
Denotative
dictionary meaning of a word
Connotation
Unspoken or unwritten meanings associated with a constcaint sound assocated with a word beyond it diet
understatement
opposite of hyperbole; figure of speech that says less than intended
Narrative
A poem that tells a story
sonnet
14 lines, rhymed, iambic pentameter, lyrical
Anapest
two unstressed syllables followed by one stressed syllable, as in un-der-stand, tem-per-ate
Poetry
A kind of rhythmic, compressed language that uses figures of speech and imagery designed to appeal to our emotions and imagination.
sound
what the ear hears, rhyme, alliteration, assonance, consonance
Irony
the contrast between actual meaning and the suggestion of another meaning
lyric poetry
expresses a speaker's personal thoughts and feelings
analogy
a comparison of a similar objects.
Shakespearean Sonnet
three quatriains and a couplet
colon
connects two like thoughts. statement >example or list
Parallelism
lines arranged according to similar structureThose breasts are flat and fallen nowThose veins must soon be dry
lyric poem
short poems about a personal experience or feelings
Perfect Rhyme
the repetition of accented vowel sounds and all succeeding sounds of important words
spondee
a metrical foot represented by two stressed syllables
versification
in regard to meter and rhyme, versification is the art of writing verses
rhythem
comes from the repetition of sounds, can be created with meter
Moniza Alvi
Born in Pakistan, Pakistan father, English mother
prose
written or spoken language in its ordinary form, without metrical structure
Heroic couplet
Two rhymed lines that contain an independent and complete thought or statement and are written in rhymed iambic pentameter.
narrative poetry
poetry that tells a story (with characters, conflict, setting, etc.)
dramitic monologue
a poem where the speaker addresses someone who doesn't reply
shakespearean/english sonnet
-14 lines
-first three stanzas are quatrains (four lines, 12 lines total)
-forth stanza is a couplet (two lines)
-rhyme scheme: ABAB, CDCD, EFEF, GG
-theme: love, exquisite wording and imagery, showy
-iambic pentameter
-ex. romeo and juliet prologue
feminine rhyme
a single stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable
Paraphrase
use your own words to express what someone else has written
pertrachan sonnet
contains an octave (8 lines) that develop a problem, followed by a sestet (6 lines) that resolves the problem
extended metaphor
is a comparison developed over several line in a poem
William Butler Yeats
Wrote "The Lake Isle of Inisfree"
repetition
repeating a word or words to create emphasis, rhythm, or coherence
mixed metaphor
a combination of two or more metaphors that together produce a ridiculous effect
figures of speech
language that is based on comparisons and is not literally true mataphors, similies, personification
Circle Poem
poem that contains at least 12 words and the last word has to go with the first word
apocopated
when the last syllable of one of the rhyming words is missing
theme
The main idea or meaning of a text. Often, this is an insight about human life
gerund
a word that ends in ing and serves as a noun
external rhyme
when words rhyme at the end of poetry lines
also called end rhyme
William Shakespeare, Sonnet 20
A woman's gentle heart, but not acquainted
Rhymed Verse
Consists of a verse with end rhyme and regular meter
stanzas
think of a stanza like you think of a paragraph keep like information together
Composed upon Westminister Bridge, William Wordworth
A sight so touching in its majesty:
This City now doth, like a garment, wear
George Herbert, Easter Wings
Lord, who createdst man in wealth and store,
Though foolishly he lost the same,
MUCH madness is divinest sense
To a discerning eye;
Much sense the starkest madness.
much madness is divinest sense
woman, imagination is seen as being powerful and free like a bird
Imagination is seen as a ______. What is imagination seen as throughout the poem?
Housman
Homosexual
The Composer
Auden
Heptameter
seven lines
Quintet
5 line stanza
The Colonel
Carolyn Forche
Simon
song "Richard Cory"
sestet
the final six lines
brandished
to shake or wave
quadtrain
four line stanza poetry
triple rhyme
three syllable rhyme
fr. 13
by Archilochus680-640 B.C.Consolation\"the woeful sorrows, - neither will the city: such were the men the wave of the resounding sea washed down\"
Structure
how a poem is organized.
Toomer
Reapers
Portrait in Georgia (hair braided like lyncher's rope)
onomotopia
words that make a sound
lyric poems
express personal thoughtsand feelings
surmise
to infer something without sufficiently conclusive evidence; to make a guess
connotations
associations and implications that go beyond a word's literal meaning
traditional
_____ poetry: epic, ode, ballad, sonnet, haiku, limerick
allegory
a narration or description usually restricted to a single meaning
"Lilac Bush"
Mary Ellen Solt, concrete poem
makes a comparison between unlike things wherein one becomes the other (not literal)
metaphor
off-rhyme
end rhymes that are not exact
Hughes
Dream Deferred, negative similes to when a dream is put off
dipodic
Uncommon Meter: combining two feet into one
scansion
analysis of verse into metrical patterns
voice
dominating tone of the literary work
paradoxical situation
A situation containing apparently but not actually incompatible elements. (15th bday celebration by a 29 year old man born on Feb. 29)
speaker
the narrator, point of view, or persona through whom the poet is speaking.
Narrative Poem
a poem which tells a story
Dactyl
one stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables DUMdada
Cadence
chord progression that comes at the closing of a musical phrase
metophor
the writer compares two unlike things to show sompthing about the first itemme
alter poem
same as carmen figuratum, frequently the shape of an alter or a cross.
Apostrophe
Addressing something nonhuman as if it were human
Dramatic poetry
poetry that uses elements of drama. one or more characters speak, usually very emotional
Emily Dickinson
Wrote: Hope is a thing with feathers
metric foot
2 syllabals in a line of poetry
Dactyla
metrical foot of 3 syallables in which the first syllable is stressed and the next two are unstressed.
projective verse
poetry composed by listening to one's own breathing
mixed mataphores
the mingling of one mathphroe with another immediatly follong with which the first is incongruous
tactile imagery
words that appeal to the reader's sense of touch
musical quality
use of rhythm and rhyme through repetition
poetry not written in a regular pattern of meter or line
free verse
pastoral
A poem that depicts rural life in a peaceful way
Black Arts movement
ideas rooted in the civil rights struggle, Malcolm X & the Nation ;of Islam and the Black Power Movement
implied metaphor
when only one or neither object being compared is strictly stated
foreshadowing
the use of hints or clues to suggest what action is to come
sonnet sequence
a series or group of sonnets written to one person or on one theme
acrostic poem
name peom where each letter of the word is the beginning letter for the line
rend
v. to split or tear apart or in pieces of violence, to lacerate emotionally or mentally
robert frost-inauguration of john f. kennedy
which author was the first to have their poem read at an inauguration and who's inauguration was it?
pyrrhic foot
uu
gustatory imagery
taste
la taza
cup
Primal
Fundamental, primitive
The Pasture
robert frost
bellicose
adjective
belligerent, warlike, combative
pun
play on words
heifer
(n) a young cow
triplet
3 lines, rhyming consecutively
Onomatopoeia Example
Crack! Snap! Whoosh!
Ruffian
(n) a brutal person; bully
Cullen Poems
"From the Dark Tower"
Cliche
an overused saying or idea
End-Rhyme
Rhyme at the end of lines
octameter
a metric line with 8 feet
duffer
n. an incompetent, ineffectual, or clumsy person, especially a mediocre golfer
countenance
facial appearance that reflects moods, emotion, or character
Terminal Rhyme
Perfect rhyme where the grammatical end of the line or thought coincides with the perfect rhyme.
Limerick
- is a humorous, rhyming five-line poem with a specific meter and rhyme scheme. (aabba
Form
The arrangement, manner or method used to convey the content.
persona
the assumed identity or fictional "I" assumed by a writer
speaker/voice
voice through which the story is told
Dramatic Monologue
like a soliloquy, one speaker addressing a silent audience, traditionally a longer poem
metonomy-
a figure of speech which is characterized by the substitution of a term naming an object closely associated with the word in mind for the word itself-
lyrical poem
expresses a speakers emotions or thoughts; it does not tell a story and most are short; usually convey a single strong emotion
Who was known as a fireside poet?
Henry Longfellow
repitition
repeating a word, phrase, or idea for emphasis or rhythmic effect
paradox
A situation or action or feeling that appears to be contradictory but on inspection turns out to be true or at least to make sense.
closed couplet
two rhymed lines of iambic pentameter with an independent and complete thought or statement. also, heroic couplet.
lyrics poem
short poem expressing the thoughts and feelings of a single speaker. often written in 1st person, traditionally has a song like immediacy and emotional force
anne sexton
wrote "courage". was a suburban home maker. won the pulitzer prize for poetry. wants poetry to "shock the senses".
condescend
v to step down to a lower rank, inferior
censor (v.)
to examine in order to suppress or delete anything thought to be harmful or dangerous
Spenserian stanza
9 lines, the first 8 being iambic pentameter and the last, an iambic hexameter.
" next to of course god america i"
By: Cummings
Tiger Tiger
"What immortal hand or eye could frame thy fearful symmetry?"
cremate
to reduce a dead body to ashes by fire of heat
sojourn
to stay for a time in a place; live temporarily
repetition and paralellism
are also often employed to aid in creating a musical rhythm.
I thought hard for us all—my only swerving—,/
then pushed her over the edge into the river/
traveling through the dark
had a relationship with his half sister
how did Byron commit insest?
"Ghazal for the Girls who Go to Crier Creek"
Erin Gaulke, ghazal, pastoral elegy
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