Political Science 16 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
WWII Begins
limited national gov
Third World
Less developed countries.
Who runs corporations?
Corporate elites
_________________________refers to a particular view of how we ought to organize and live our collective lives.
Social order
United Nations
An international governmental organization representing almost all of the world's states.
A ___________________ would advocate:- Support of traditional values and lifestyles- Cautious toward change- Economic self determination
representatives act as trustee or delegate depending on the issue
The 14th amendment establishes _________.
due process
Negative Relationship
X&Y move in opposite directions
Situation in which bureaucrats create policy that does not match the policy preferences of congress or the president
Nationalist Outbidding
State becomes democratic after previously being autocratic and leader does and says whatever possible to keep in power.
Characteristics of a Model Bureaucracy
-Hierarchy-Specialization-Explicit Rules-Merit
empirical research
research based on objective observation of phenomena to achieve knowledge
Henry Kissinger
former National Security Advisor to Pres Nixon who later became Nixon's secretary of state
material benefits
tangible rewards that people gain through membership of an interest group
If all government employees are included, more than ______ of all civilian employment is accounted for by government.
16 percent
_________ led a rebellion of farmers and those in debt but was defeated.
______________ is the learning process by which most people get their political attitudes, opinions, beliefs and knowledge
Political socialization
Soverign Immunity
legal doctrine protecting states from lawsuits filed under national legislation
Party Discipline
The expectation that legislators will vote in accordance with the position that party has adopted in caucus.
The quality or state of being legitimate. Having full filial rights and obligations by birth
Popular Sovereignty?
the principles that all political power derives from the people
mitigating circumstances
the factors which the defense introduces in a capital case which would give the jury reason to deny a death penalty punishment
Progressive Tax
Tax structured so that higher-income people pay a higher percentage of their income in taxes, while lower-income people pay a lower percentage
Tax expenditure
refers to exemptions exclusions or deductions which permit taxpayers to keep more of their income and therefore amount to revenue losses for the federal government.
Candidate committees
Organizations that candidate form to support their individual election. 
Compared to other industrialized nations, the United States ranks __________________ in voter participation.
near the bottom
Mapp v. Ohio
exclusionary rule; evidence tainted by an illegal search
A court that hears a broad, non-restricted range of cases is known as a court of ___________.
general jurisdiction.
The relationship between Ann Coulter and John Edwards is a _____________ relationship.
symbiotic and adversarial
It must be possible, in principle, to collect and evaluate evidence that permits us to demonstrate that the hypothesis is not consistent with the evidence.
Cabinet Secrecy
The convention that the Cabinet meets behind closed doors, Cabinet documents normally remain secret for a lengthy period of time, and the advice given to the Cabinet is not usually released publicly.
Political Elites
activists and office holders who are deeply interested in a knowlegdable about politics
George Washington
-Started the two term session for presidents
-confirmed nominees for the senate's job
-Established the practice of shifting power
The agents of socialization
The Family, Religion, Education, Economic systems, Legal systems, Penal systems
people who flee for safety to another country because of a well-founded fear of persecution
freedom of information act
1966, congresssional law requiring federal agencies to provide citizens access to public records on request
Tax burden
Total level at which Americans are taxed
A system of governing in which the central government grants some legislative (law-making) powers as well as administrative responsibilities to one or more regional bodies.
Ideologies: Explanation
Ideology offers an explanation of why social, political, and economic conditions are as they are.
Digital divide
The inequality of access to computers and internet connections.
The largest factor in determining how one votes after they are politically socialized is ____________.
Party Identification
open shop
workers are not required to join the union, free riders, less effective in getting good wages, benefits, etc.
An issue that the court believes should be decided by the executive or legislative branch is called ___________.
a political question.
Legislative Branch- Continental Congress
State Delegates- No elections:
apptd by leg.,
each state 1 vote
laws req. 2/3 maj.- 9 states
Const. Amends.-Unanimous-13 for
Export-Led Industrialization
A model of economic development with a capitalist system in which government and the biggest businesses work very closely together to develop export industries. Government influences investments, provides incentives for exports, and can decide whether firms are allowed to export products.
Head of State
A largely ceremonial position as the official representative of the state. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is not usually involved in making governing decisions, but has the responsibility to ensure that a legitimate government is in place.
Mass Public
ordinary people for whom politics is a peripherial concern
Traits of Public Opinion
-Salience: Issue importance to a person or public in general
-Stability: likelihood that public opinion will change, speed of which it will change, and how long it will last
-Direction: Tendency for or against some phenomenon
Intensity: Strength of public opinion
how bill becomes law:
house and senate chamber vote
-no amendments allowed
-passage requires majority in both chambers
Weak State Trap
- Resource and identity needed to build nation- 2 strategies1. Coercive expansion (not allowed)2. Domestic extraction (authoritarian rule- bureaucracies and army- often insufficient).- cannot get out of being a weak state very easily.
collateral evidence
illegal evidence that can be used if police can show that they would have found it anyway.
Negative effects to political parties
-Capturing govt. power and dictating-Confusing responsibility-Suppressing the issues-Dividing society-Recruiting candidates for the wrong reasons-Oversimplifying electoral system
National Security council
links the President's key foreign and military policy advisors
Penny press
Newspapers that sold for a penny in the 1830s.
Adam Arthur Radford
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs, urged US military involvement in Vietnam
The number of persons held in jail or prison for every 100,000 persons in a particular population group is (are) known as the
incarceration rate.
A powerful way Bill Clinton would display emotion publicly is when he would ___________.
bite his lower lip
What seminal work did Montesquieu have?
The spirit of the laws
Congressional policy toward Native Americans has historically varied between ______________________________________________.
European style culture and encouraging self governance
Single Transferable Vote System
An electoral system in which voters mark their preferences for candidates in a multimember constituency. Candidates receiving a certain proportion of the vote are declared elected. The second preferences of voters that are surplus to what the winning candidates need are then transferred to candidates who have not reached the quota. The process is continued until all seats in the constituency are filled.
The Pew Research Center shows that Young people get their information primarily from ________________.
the internet and television
Part of the reason for the increased intensity of campaigns in the last decade is that they are now centered on the
candidate, not the party
An example of the agent of political socialization of _________________ would be a high school diploma.
School and Educational Attainment
The Federal Bureaucracy is organized into 4 areas of specialization:
1. Cabinet Depts (Defense, Agri, Education)
2. Independent Agencies (CIA, FBI, NASA)
-like the cabinet but less responsibilities
3. Government Corps. (Amtrak, postal service)
-like private corps (charge money) but differ (get federal money)
4. Regulatory commissions (Fed. Reserve Board)
-have legislative, executive, and judicial authority
Three eras of bureaucracy in the US
-Gov. by gentlemen (1787-1829)-Spoils System (1829-1883)-The Civil Service System (1883-present) -Now based on WHAT you know, not WHO you know.
The main prohibition outlined in the Hatch Act was ___________.
that civil service employees cannot take an active part in political campaigns.
Problems with the Article of Confederation
1st problem
-No coherent way to deal with foreign countries
-States made their own arrangements with foreign countries
-Congress would have no way to enforce international treaties even if it was able to be negotiated
-Politicians, merchants, and creditors were shaken by domestic upheaval
-during the revolutionary war, political and economic leaders had used the rallying cry of democracy to mobilize opposition to Britain
-Caused Shay's rebellion which many people were kicked off their land due to lack of paying taxes in Massachusetts
Our tax code is progressive
which means the wealthy pay a higher percentage of their income in taxes than do the poor
Two inventions that led to the development of mass-readership newspapers were ___________.
The high-speed rotary press and the telegraph.
Congress as the chief policy making body (founder's plan)
Original founders did not intend to have political parties. Wanted Congress for checks and balances.
The term "convention bump" refers to ________________.
the opinion poll spike that most candidates enjoy immediately after the convention
Qualifications for US House Members
At least 25 yrs old; 7 years as a citizen; and a resident of the state.
Education Funding at state and federal level
91% of funding at state level, 9% at federal level
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