Earth Science 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
inner core is
4500Km 2000 degrees celcius
Cloud associated with Thunderstorms
used to measure seismic energy
convergent boundary
boundary where plates collide
Upward-faulted blocks produced by pairs or groups of faults; characteristic of the mountain ranges of the interior of the western United States.
Radioactive decay
The disintegration of unstable radioactive atoms into stable substances.
one lithospheric plate goes below another; results in cone-shaped volcanoes
The Mid-Oceanic Ridge is composed mainly of
How Earth's atmosphere is heated
Heat Transfer
Glacier Surge
The rapid, lurching, unexpected forward movement of a glacier.
General descriptive term for clay, silt, sand, gravel, or other unconsolidated rock, and mineral fragments transported by running water and deposited as sorted or semisorted sediment on a floodplain, delta, or stream bed.
Exogenic System
Earth's external surface system, powered by insolation, which energizes air, water, and ice and sets them in motion, under the influence of gravity.
Rock Cycle
A model representing the interrelationship among the three rock-forming processes; igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic; shows how each can be transformed into another rock type.
Mechanical wearing and erosion of bedrock accomplished by the rolling and grinding of particles and rocks carried in a stream, removed by wind in a 'sandblasting' action, or imbedded in glacial ice.
A pedogenic process operating in well-drained soils that occur in warm and humid regions; typical of Oxisols. Plentiful precepitation leaches soluable minerals and soil constituents. Resulting soils usually are reddish or yellowish.
destructive forces
slowly wear away mountains and, eventually, every other feature on the surface
plane of failure along which movement occurs
the volcanic eruptions on the island of Hawaii may be described as relatively quiet when compared to eruptions such as occured at Mount St HelensT or F
igneous rock; fine texture; used for sculpting
point deep in Earth's crust where first major movement along the fault occurs
The catchment area of a drainage basin; delimited by divides.
Litteral Zone
A specific coastal enviornment; that region between the high water line during a storm and a depth at which storm waves are unable to move sea-floor sediments.
The science of water, its global circulation, distribution, and properties, specifically water at and below Earth's surface.
An area within the planet representing about 80% of Earth's total volume, with densities increasing with depth and averaging 4.5g/cm3; occurs between the core and the crust; is rich in iron and magnesium oxides and silicates.
Explosive Eruption
A violent and unpredictable volcanic eruption, the result of magma that is thicker (more viscous), stickier, and higher in gas and silica content than that of an effusive eruption; tends to form blockages within a volcano; produces composite volcanic landforms.
The removal of finer particles and minerals from the upper horizons of soil; an erosional process within a soil body.
A sinuously curving, narrow deposit of coarse gravel that forms along a meltwater stream channel, developing a tunnel beneath a glacier.
Upfolded rock strata, in which layers slope downward from the axis of the fold, or central ridge.
Continental Landmasses
The broadest category of landform, including those masses of crust that reside above or near sea level and the adjoining undersea continental shelves along the coastline; sometimes synonymous with continental platforms.
outer core
layer of molten metal that surrounds the inner core-liquid
outer core is (2)
1. Iron and Nickel
2. liquid
molten rocks ejected by a volcano up to 2 miles from the vent
the main island of hawaii is the youngest of the hawaiian islands t or f
phase just before or after a full Moon
sea-floor spreading
process where magma pushes up through cracks in sea floor that cools to form new sea floor
Hurricane Damage
Storm Surge (Large swarm of water) sweeps across coast during landfall, High Waves, Heavy Wind, Severe flooding
Richter Scale
An open ended, logarithmic scale that estimates earthquakes magnitude now replaced by the moment magnitude scale.
Snow of a granular texture that is transitional in the slow transformation from snow to glacial ice; snow that has persisted through a summer season in the zone of accumulation.
Graded Stream
An idealized condition in which a stream's load and the landscape mutually adjust. This forms a dynamic equilibrium among erosion, transported load, deposition, and the stream's capacity.
Alpine Glacier
A glacier confined in a mountain valley or walled basin, consisting of three subtypes: valley glacier (within a valley), piedmont glacier (coalesced at the base of a mountain, spreading freely over nearby lowlands), and outlet glacier (flowing outward from a continental glacier).
Geomorphic Threshold
The threshold up to which landforms changed before lurching to a new set of relationships, with rapid realignments of landscape materials and slopes.
Law of Superposition
In a sedimentary rock, the older layers are farther down than younger ones
An oceanic island
is a submarine volcano that forms above a hot spot or mantle plume.
the cool solid part of the earth that includes part of the mantle
Right Lateral Strike Slip
San Andreas Fault, North Anatolian Fault
Suspended Load
Fine particles held in suspension in a stream. The finest particles are not deposited until the stream velocity nears zero.
Normal Fault
A type of geologic fault in rocks. Tension produces strain that breaks a rock, with one side moving vertically relative to the other side along an inclined fault place.
volcanic gases
CO2, SO2, H2O; from a volcano; CO2 - danger to communities in valleys near a volcano; SO2 - smells like rotten eggs
The region of the crust above the water table that is moist, but unsaturated is
zone of aeration
Deep vs. Shallow Focus Earthquakes
Shallow earthquakes cause more damage than deep focus earthquakes, depth plays a part (not just magnitude and epicenter)
Transform Fault
A type of geologic fault in rocks. An elongated zone along which faulting occurs between mid-ocean ridges; produces a relative horizontal motion with no new crust formed or consumed; strike-slip motion is either left or right lateral.
A magnetometer could be used to
determine the orientation of the Earth's magnetic field at the time the mineral cooled
The earthquakes caused when a subducting plate sinks into the mantle
concentrate along the upper part of the sinking plate.
No S waves pass through the center of the Earth because
the outer core is liquid
once the elastic limit of a rock is surpassed
(all of the above)the rock may rupturethe rock may deform plasticallyan earthquake may occur
slightly oligocene
reflecting telescope
uses mirrors
harry hess's theory
seafloor spreading
1. discomfority
2. angular uncomfority
3. noncomfority
A Greek word meaning "stone."
large mass of moving ice
classification for sedimentary rock, formed from evaporation or other chemical process's
when meteoroids enter Earth's atmosphere, shooting stars
The measurement of an earthquake's strength based on seismic waves and movement along faults.
mountains that project through ice sheets
force of attraction or repulsion associated with magnets
the atmospheric layer between the mesosphere and the exosphere, the uppermost layer of the atmosphere, in which temperature increases as altitude increases
a downfold in the rock layers
Movements that follow a major earthquake often produce smaller earthquakes called_______
permeable rock layers or sediments that transmit groundwater freely
The earth rotates on its ______.
ability of sediment or rock to transmit fluid.
-pores or fractures must be connected and large enough to allow flow.
layer of earth's atmosphere that is closest to the ground and contains 99 percent of the water vapor and 75 percent of the atmospheric gases; where clouds and weather occur
high-pressure system
air sinks, spreads away, clockwise, fair weather
Dripstone Colum's
Stalactite and stalagmite after they join in the middle. This water is going to splash in the opposite direction. This creates a very similar structure in the opposite place.
When preexisting rocks are exposed to increases in temperature and pressure and to hydrothermal solutions.
the imaginary vertical line taht cuts through the center of Earth and around which Earht spins
when objects appear to move because they are viewed from different locations
porphyritic texture
an igneous rock texture characterized by two distictly different crystal sizes.
graded bedding
bedding where the particle sizes become heavier towards the bottom
Original Horizontality
sedimentary and some igneous rocks form in horizontal layers.
S waves
Secondary waves; travel through land only
metamorphic rock
Rock formed when igneous or sedimentary rock id changed by heat and pressure.
the process of changing from a liquid to a gas, usually caused by energy from the sun
Earth materials which do not allow the free movement of groundwater through it
The term (Blank) is used to describe the conversion of a solid directly to a gas, without oassing through a liquid state.
blow cold air away from the poles
Polar Easterlies
a land mass that projects well above its surroundings; form as a result of tectonic plate interactions
solar eclipse
occurs when the Moon passes directly between the Sun and Earth and casts a shadow over part of Earth
Background Noise
All sources of interference in a measurement system independent of the presence of the signal
11.Give the name for the single land mass that included all the continents ecw
Which of the following is NOT a distinctive property of minerals?
A process of removing salt from ocean water
the color of powder a mineral leaves after rubbing on unglazed porcelain
The amount of open space between rock particles.
A map demonstrating the elevation of a certian area of land
Formed when sediments are pressed and cemented together, or when minerals from from solution.
Sedimentary Rock
The three main zones of the open ocean are the surface mixed zone, the __________ zone, and the deep zone.
tilt of the earth
Why do we have different seasons?
specific gravity
the density of a substance relative to the density of water
line on a map that runs from North pole to south pole
Seismic waves
The form in whihc stored-up energy is released in an earthquake, travels away from the focus
mid-ocean ridge
A long chain of mountains with a central rift valley
measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched
law of superpostion
a scientific law stating that in layers of undidturbed rock the oldest is on the bottom and the bottom become younger on the top
frame of reference
the reference for studying change are time or space (location)
Pinyon Pine
A type of conifer tree that produces tasty, edible nuts and grows in the hot, dry climate of the Southwestern states
a measure of the size of a body or region in three dimensional space.
ex. or point source
factor pipes leaking land or storage tanks
small as a footprint
Watersheds can be as ...or large enough to encompass all the land that drains water into rivers that drain into Chesapeake Bay, where it enters the Atlantic Ocean.
Sea floor spreading
the theory that states that the sea floor moves apart and then at mid ocean ridges and causes continents to move, is evidence for continental drif
Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis
What does DART stand for?
valley glacier
A river of ice that forms in the cold heights of mountain ranges where snow accumulates, usually in preexisting valleys, and flows down the bedrock valleys.
If you have more protons, that means...
positive net charge or positive ion
Newton's second law of motion
Depends on the mass of the object and size of the force acting upon it
Which of the following energy sources is thought to drive the lateral motions of Earth's lithospheric plates?
export of heat from deep in the mantle to the top of the asthenosphere
radiation/light waves
decayed organic matter
forms from magma cooling
thickest layer of earth
smooth texture, slower surface cooling
mutually beneficial interaction among organisms living in a limited area
Seafloor spreading begins when_____ rises upward toward the lithosphere
Conglomerate and breccia's particle size
flat-lying area surrounding a river channel
magma mixing
one magma body intruding another
The solid iron layer of earth.
Mt. St. Helens is in
the cascades
Is the spontaneous process through which unstable nuclei emit radiation.
Formed due to: burial/cementation of sediments
- sandstone
- shale
- conglomerate
- breccia
most common sedimentary rock;very fine particles usually in call environments; commonly layered and weathers quickly
Largest structural zone in the earth
sharp, angular lava with a high viscosity that allows this type of lava to gain in height. A major difference between this and pahoehoe is pahoehoe has a higher temperature
Turbidity current
a downslope movement of dense, sediment-laden water created when sand and mud on the continental shelf and slope are dislodged and thrown into suspension
An almost motionless mass of permanent snow and ice
Most of the worlds deep ocean treanches are located within the ____ ocean
addresses if we have enough surface water based on estimating ocean circulation and climate
sea mounts
volcanic mountain formed in the ocean
average weather of a particular area over a long period of time
age of intrusion
younger than rock around it
the watery layer of the earth's surface
an area of wave-washed sediment along a coast
Deneb, a star in the constellation ________ the Swan is one of three stars that will serve as the pole star as a result of Earth's woblle on its axis.
plate boundaries
when plates interact with each other
Layer of solid uniform rock found beneath the soil
When a layer of air with temperatures above freezing sits above a layer of subfreezing air near the ground, which type of precipitation is likely to form? A. rain. B. snow. C. sleet. D. hail
subduction boundary eruption
When water released from the subducting plate lowers the melting temperature of the overlying mantle wedge, creating magma. This magma tends to be very viscous due to its high silica content, so often does not reach the surface and cools at depth.
multi path errors
when a building interferes with microwave reception.
97% salt 3% fresh
percentage of water(salt and fresh)
heliocentric model
theory that sun is center of universe
the number of complete waves that pass a given point in a certain amount of time
earth's seasons are caused by the fact that sometimes the Earth is fruther from teh sun than at other times during the year
rock and soil move quickly down a steep slope. The rock and soil look like they are rolling downhill. Can be caused by highways that cut through a hill or mountain.
Using a known mineral to scratch an unknown mineral tests the mineral's
the layer of gases that surrounds the earth and contians the clouds
bed load
it describes sediments that are too heavy or large to be kept in suspension or solution
Heat moves from a high concentration to a low concentration
Zeroth Law
stationary front
weak cold and warm air masses meet, but neither can move the other
principle of superposition
each overlying layer of sediment of rock is younger than the layer below it
the soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats
transform boundary
a plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions
Specific Heat
The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of a substance by one degree
Gully Erosion
Erosion that can develop if a rill channel becomes broader and deeper
chemical weathering
the process in which rock is broken down by changes in its chemical makeup
A warm and moist air mass that moves into the United States is what type?
Scientific law
a rule that describes a pattern in nature
The richter scale best describes the
magnitude os an earthquake.
Non renewable
Once used, cant use again or takes a LONG time to replenish (such as oil, gas, coal)
mixed zone
the area of the surface created by the mixing of water by waves, currents, and tides
How many years old is the Earth?
4.6 billion years old
ice age
period of time when much of the Earth was covered by glaciers
The tidal wave in Glacier bay NP was caused by...
A rock slide
size relationship earth to sun
1 million earths fit in one sun
period of revolution
the time it takes for one body to make one complete orbit, or revolution around antoher body in space
why is color the least useful property for mineral identification
small amounts of differnet elements can give the same mineral different colors
Types of plants that grow in volcanic soils? Why?
sugar and pineapple because of lots of water
Calcite 1
surface currents are driven by?
a quantitative description that includes both a number and a unit
an abundant nonmetallic tetravalent element occurring in three allotropic forms: amorphous carbon and graphite and diamond
Outer Core elements
Iron and Nickel
Most abundant element in the Sun?
a small, self-contained, and fragile planet
being the most concentrated solution possible at a given temperature
location on the Earth's surface directly above the focus where the crust breaks during an earthquake
What is an observation?
Using the senses
involving the chemistry of living things in relationship to the geosphere
the scientific study of the universe
________ generally constitutes the highest percentage of the annual sediment load moved by a stream
Suspended load
the super continent that existed about 200-250 million years ago
A section of the lithosphere that slowly moves over the asthenosphere, carrying pieces of continental and oceanic crust.
rayleigh wave
wave that moves in elptical patterns
plate tectonics
constant movement of the earths surface(plates)
frost wedging
mechanical weathering process in which water freezes in rock cracks and wedges it apart
carrying away, moving of broken down rock (rivers, wind, animals, glaciers)
atoms of the same chemical element with different mass numbers
Global Warming
a rise in average global temperatures
layer of gases that surrounds the earth
78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen
Mass movement-flow
mass movements of material containing a large amount of water (mudflow, earthflow)
soil which consists of all three particles as well as humus and is best suited for plant life.
plants; use sunlight to make food needed;
Stream Load
The materials other than the water that are carried by a stream
rock record
A complete geologic history of the Earth absed on sedimentary rock layers correlated from various locations around the world.
the release of water vapor to the atmosphere by plants
Emission Spectrum
Produced by light passing through hot gas under low pressure.
plate techtonics
theory that crust and upper mantle move on plastic like layer of the mantle.
The preserved remains or traces of an organism that lived in the past
a short channel segment created when a river erodes through the narrow neck of land between meanders
Ionic Bond
The attractive forces between two ions of opposite charges.
wind vane
used to mearsure wind direciton which is shaped like an arrow with a huge tail and is attached to a pole
_______ rock is caused by heat and pressure
Alfred wegener
highluy educated and known for his theory of continental drift
A force that shaped the Earth's surface
Constructive Force
Summer Ice
The dark band in an ogive represents ____
This is the most recent name for the ice age over america...
T or F: the glaciers in Glacier Bay NPP are different form those in many parts of the world because their ice fronts have been advancing down their valleys for at least 200 years
silicate tetrahedrons
what are the basic building blocks of the silicate minerals?
evidence for plate tectonics
rocks, fossils, climate, puzzle fit, glaciers, sea floor spreading
doppler effect
used to determine whether a star in space is moving away or toward earth
topographic map
shows surface features of an area such as mountains, valleys, plains, and plateaus by using contour lines to show changes in elevation pg 33
fresh water
water with little or no taste, color, or smell
Ultramafic Rock
Type of rock, such as dunite, that has a low silica content and very high iron and magnesium content
Five hazards that result from earthquakes
Aftershocks, fires, ground shaking, pancaking, liqufaction
circumpolar stars
stars that can be seen at all times of year and night
Temperature and Variation Factors: When is the Summer Solstice?
June 21st, longest day of the year.
oxygen, nitrogen, water vapor, particles, trace gases
What are 5 common things in our atmosphere?
33 whatwas the purpose or the national farmland protection program?
to protect farmlands from being developed
Which of the following best defines a mineral and a rock
in a mineral the constituent atoms are bonded in a regular, repetitive, internal structure; a rock is a lithified or consolidated aggregate of different mineral grains
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