Earth Science 6 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
insulator
poor conductor
Ep
potential energy (stored)
exothermic
heat is released
ood conductors
copper, silver, iron
poor conductors
wood, styrofoam, air
melting
solid to liquid-heat gained
precision
small range- close to trials
energy
the ability to do work
condensation
gas to liquid- heat lost
freezing
liquid to solid- heat lost
gas
particles are separated by large distances and travel at high speeds, randomly (very loose). They have no definite shape or volume.
core
the central part of the Earth
empty space
what is in molecular bonds/atoms?
density
the relationship between mass and volumw- how much matter can be squeezed into a given amount of space- a ratio
chemical weathering
weathering that changes the mineral composition of rocks
observation
the act of noticing or paying attention
luster
the visual property of something that shines with reflected light in a rock
solid
have a definite size and shape; particles are packed together tightly and are in a regular pattern
hot to cold
which direction does heat flow?
100 degrees celcius
what temp. does vaporization occur?
evaporation,melting,sublimation
which parts of waters phase changes are endothermic?
chemical energy
stored in chemical bonds- includes food, plants, and batteries
convection
the process by which hot materials rise, move laterally, cool, and descend in a cycle.
ring of fire
volcanoes line the coast line
lithosphere
consits of crust and matel- tectonic and oceanic plates
mechanical energy
the energy associated with the motion and position of everyday objects
melting point
the temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid
inorganic
not formed from living things or the remains of living things
evaporation
the change of a substance from a liquid to a gas
geosphere
The mostly soild, rocky part of the earth; extends from the center of the core to the surfaceof the crust.
liquids
have a definite size and volume, but no definite shape; particles are more active and farther apart
condensations,freezing, deposition
which parts of water's phase changes are exothermic?
water
changes from one state of matter to another at the temp. and pressure of earth
convergent plate boundary
A tectonic plate boundary where two plates collide, come together, or crash into each other.
latent heat
heat absorbed or given off during a change of phase at a constant temperature
relative humidity
the ratio of the air's water vapor content to its capacity at the same temperature is the masure of the air's____?
second law of entropy
measure of disorder when energy does change it goes from an organzied to a less organized to a less organized form (from concentrated to more dispersed)
the mass and potential heat energy
What does heat depend on?
kinetic theory of matter
the idea that all matter is made up of tiny particles in constant motion
the # of protons and electrions, the compacting of molecules
what causes differences in density at the microscopic level?
erosion
movement
B horizon
subsoil
igneus rock
volcanic rock
rainbow
show a continuous spectrum
globe
familiar model of earth
cementation
process that forms sedimentary rock
may break windows, cause small/unstable objects to fall
4-4.9
precipitation
rain falling from the ground
Mafic
More dense, poor in silica
astronomy
study of objects beyond Earth's atmosphere
magnetic reversals
changes in earth's magnetic field
lateral moraine
at side of a glacier
liquefaction
occurs in saturated soils, shaking causes water to push particles apart which makes the soil flow like a liquid. sand boils can occur.
Magma
hot, melted rock material beneath Earth's surface
a large depression in a volcano
caldera
solar
A(n) ____________ eclipse occurs when the Moon casts its shadow on Earth.
T/F
Metamorphic rocks can be formed from other metamorphic rocks
True
Infiltration capacity controls
-Intensity and duration of precipitation
-Soil saturation level prior to precipitation
-Soil texture
-Slope of the land (e.g., flat vs. steep)
-Vegetation type and extent
what agent of metamorphism can cause overall composition to change?
pressure
Subduction-4
The process by which oveanic crust sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle at a convergent plate boundary.
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
Most polymers contain _____________, _______________, and ______________.
Floodplain
A wide, flat area of small-grained sediments found on either side of a river is called a __________.
conveg oc-oc
creates subduction zone deep trench and island arc
blueshift
waves have lower frequency as an object moves closer
hypothesis
a tenative explanation that is then tested to determine if it is valid
cross-bedding
formed as inclined layers of sediment move forward across a horizontal surface
subduction
the process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle at a convergent plate boundary
Artesion wells require slope and a _________ rock layer in order to function.
permeable
What is an area called that tey protect from developing?
Wilderness
Truncated Spur
The top point of the triangular facet
Red
Which of the following colors has the longest wavelength?
Photosynthesis
The process that plants use to make food, using light energy, carbon dioxide and water.
What is used to determine the location of an earthquake's epicenter?
Triangulation
primary waves
fastest seismic waves, cause rocks to compress and then spread apart (stretching and letting go of a slinky); can travel through both solids and liquids
half life
the time required for something to fall to half its initial value (in particular, the time for half the atoms in a radioactive substance to disintegrate)
nonrenewable resources
a resource that cannot be replaced within a short period of time or at all
Mid-Ocean Ridge
An underwater moutain chain where new ocean floor is formed
Atmosphere
a mixture of gases that surrounds a planet or moon
List the 5 characteristics that a material has to be in order to be a mineral.
-occures naturally
-inorganic
-solid
-definate chemical composition
-atoms aranged in a pattern
bed load
The material a stream carries along its bed by sliding and rolling.
Weathering
A gradual wearing away or changing of rock and soil caused by water, ice, temperature, changes wind, chemicals or living things
Barometer
The instrument used to measure air is called a ________.
carrying capacity
largest number of individuals of a particular species that an organism can support over time
Astronomical Unit (AU)
______ ______ is the average distance from Earth to the sun - about 150 million kilometers.
energy level
represents the area in an atom where an electron is found
The factors about Earth has that make it able to support life.
oxygen, water
Richter scale
a scale that rates seismic waves as measured by a particular type of mechanical seismograph
warm front
the front edge of advancing warm air mass that replaces colder air with warmer air
Pangea
Theory that all of the land on Earth was joined together in one supercontinent.
Rock Cycle
a series of processes on the surface and inside Earth that slowly changes rocks from one kind to another
stages of small star dying
giant, planetary nebula, white dwarf
transform faults
a fault that runs across a mid-ocean ridge
the process of using one or more of your senses to gather information
observing
Head Waters
If you were to examine the profile of a typical river, you would probably find that the gradient is (Blank).
Venus and Earth
Two planets with similar mass and size are
spring tide
the type of tide tha thas the greatest difference between hight and lowest tides; happens during the new and fullmoons
crater lake type
Collapse of the summit of a large composite volcano following an explosive eruption of a silica rich pumice and ash fragments
what causes different temps on earth?
-angle of isolation
ex. 90 degree angle=most concentrated energy=most heat
What is an artesian well?
Well water forced upward by artesian formation
Compounds form when atoms are less stable in a combined form.
Which of the following statements about the chemical combination of atoms to form compounds is NOT true?
the oceans to bulge out in the direction of the Moon.
The gravitational attraction of the Moon causes... Another bulge happens on the opposite side of the Earth. Since the Earth is rotating, two tides happen everyday.
How is an observation different from a inference?
You need an observation to make an inference
gradient
Continent
a large landmass
tillite
Ancient lithified till.
cretaceous
65 million years ago
oxidation
the process of oxidizing
Continent to ocean
Chain of volcanoes
waves used in TVs
radio waves
radioactive isotopes
isotopes with unstable nuclei
high pressure is more _____(temperature) than low pressure
cool
Wave length
Distance between 2 consectutive crests
another word for intrusive rock
plutonic rock
...
Draw and label the rock cycle.
Earth revolves around the sun
365 days
micro waves
second shortest wavelength, very useful, CBR
fuel
type of matter whose chemical potential energy can changed into other forms of energy
time till sun dies
3 billion years
Process that forms sedimentary rocks when layers of sediments are compressed by the weight of the layers above them.
Compaction
Pyroclastic
An igneous rock texture resulting from the consolidation of individual rock fragments that are ejected during a violent eruption
hardness
physical property of a mineral to resist being scratched
delta
a somewhat triangular deposit at the mouth of a river formed where a stream flowing into a body of water slowed and lost it sediment-carrying ability
What happens to air temperature and pressure with increasing altitude
decrease
esker
winding ridge of sediment where river once flowed under a glacier
coal depositing
carbon county's name comes from __________
shield volcanoes
volcanoes from mafic eruptions (large but smooth and very flat - like Hawaii)
radar
A method of detecting distant objects and recording their features and properties by electromagnetic waves reflected from their surfaces
hydrothermal metamorphism
chemical alterations that occur as hot, iron rich water circulates through fractures in a rock
Retrofitting
the process of making older structures more earthquake resistant
nitrification
the oxidation of ammonium compounds in dead organic material into nitrates and nitrites by soil bacteria (making nitrogen available to plants)
The leaf pigments that are responible for the yellow and orange colors are the
carotenoids
air pressure
is greatest at the surface and decreases with altitude.
Atomic Number
the number of protons in an atom
dam
a structure built across a river to control its flow
mouth (stream)
end of the stream, leading into another body of water
Ozone Layer
This layer protects us from Sun's harmful rays
stream channels
removes material in areas of high velocity flow
silicates
any one of numerous minerals that have the oxygen and silicon tetrahedron as their basic structure
Harry Hess
credited with the theory of plate tectonics
Big Bang Theory
(cosmology) the theory that the universe originated 20 billion years ago from the cataclysmic explosion of a small mass of matter at extremely high density and temperature
a homogeanous mixture of 2 or more substances that are uniformly dispersed throughout the mixture
solution
sunspots
the cooler arreas in the sun's outter lair
Covalent Bonding
1) The sharing of electrons
2) Shared electrons count for both atoms
Trees that lose their leaves in the fall
Deciduous
four sciences of earth science
geology, oceanogrophy, astronomy, and meterology
mass
a measure of the amount of matter in an object
shooting stars
are small objects from space that burn up when they enter the earths atmosphere
time zone
15º wide bands that are an hour apart, there are 24 around earth
bisphere
a group pf parts that work together as a whole
Slump
A mass movement in which a block of land tilts and moves downhill along a surface that curves into the slope.
Nodules
A lump of minerals that is made of oxides of copper, manganese, iron, or nickel and that is found in scattered groups on the ocean floor
semidiurnal tidal pattern
a tidal pattern exhibiting 2 high tides and 2 low tides per tidal day with small inequalities between successive highs and successive lows; a semi-daily tide
is the outer core a solid or a liquid?
solid
the breaking down or wearing away of land and land
destructive force
Conic projection
a map projection of the globe onto a cone with its point over one of the earth's poles
absolute stability
air that with a lapse rate less than the wet adiabatic rate
index fossil
a fossil that occured for a short time in history
Describe the jobs of scientists in each branch
Geologist-find new oil sourcesAstronomer-study radiations sent to spaceMeteorologist-study effects of air pollutionOceanographer-study icebergs
It affects wind speed and direction
What influense does the pressure gradient force have on wind?
Efflusive eruption vs explosive eruption
gentle, slow flow of lava (shield volcano) vs a sudden, violent flow; subduction zone, mountains are small(composite volcano)
What is an "elevation"?
The height above sea level of a point on Earth's surface.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is important because..
it has the ability to absorb heat radiated by Earth and thus helps keep the atmosphere warm.
What will happen to our sun when it burns through all of its primary fuel? (hydrogen)
It will go into giant phase, which means it will have a low temperature, and will burn heavier elements. Then, it will eventually become a white dwarf, and then a black dwarf, which no longer emits EM radiation
Viscosity
Resistance to flow.
oblate spheroid
flattened sphere
nekton
free swimming ocean animals
another term for brightness
magnitude
based on location,weather patterns ____ all over the world
vary
Moist
air cools as it rises
flower
plant part that grows seeds
a preliminarty untested explanation that tries to explain how or why things happen in the manner observed is a scientific ____?
hypothesis
spreading centers
diversion boundaries. plates are moving apart. Ex. mid-ocean ridges, ridges/rift valleys form, bubbling hot springs, mountains become volcanoes, new sea floor is made
Time Zones: The Earth has ----------time zones.
24
Eastern
The Indian Ocean is volcanically active on which side?
frost action
force exerted by water(ice) expanding
coniferous forest
forest populated by cone-bearing evergreen trees; mostly found in northern latitudes
advection
horizontal convective motion, such as wind
Atom
the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element
structure formed when magma hardens in a crack parallel to existing rock layers
sill
Shale
silt and clay size particles. weakly cemented and not well lithified.
earthquake
shaking and vibration at the surface of the earth resulting from underground movement along a fault plane of from volcanic activity
nonclastics
sedimentary rocks made up of dissolved minerals, or the remains of living things
carbonicacid
water and carbon dioxide combine to form ______ which reacts with minerals such as calcite in limestone
Sedimentary
rock formed when layers of sediments were pressed and cemented together
asthenosphere
the rest of the upper mantle
-warm, ductile, flows/deforms under high stress
Radioactive decay
the emission of radioactive particles and the resulting change into other elements over time.
Tree whose needles are short, stiff, and joined individually to the branch
Spruce
isotope
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
dew point temperature
the temperature at which condensation occurs
Isobar
A line that connects places that have the same air pressure.
Fossil
the remains (or an impression) of a plant or animal that existed in a past geological age and that has been excavated from the soil
metals
not as hard as gemstones, can be stretched, flattened and molded
vapor pressure
that part of the total atmospheric pressure attributable to water-vapor content
Shadow Zone
Area where no seismic waves are recieved
white dwarf
when small stars collapse as they die
crevasses
Deep crack in an ice sheet or glacier
porphyroblast
A large crystal surrounded by a much finer grained matrix of other minerals in a metamorphic rock.
What is the outer atmosphere of the sun?
Corona
latitude
distance in degrees north or south of the equator
Chloroplasts
As sunlight enters the leaf, some of its energy is absorbed by tiny packages of chlorophyll called chloroplasts
Fine-grained texture
A texture of igneous rocks in which the crystals are too small for individual minerals to be distinguished with the naked eye
Cenozoic
The era known as the "age of mammals" is the (Blank).
air mass thunderstorm
caused by unequal heating within one air mass
equation for melting or freezing
q=mHf. C=344j/g times degrees celcius
Strike-Slip Fault
break in rock caused by shear forces, where rocks move past each other without much vertical movement
AA
a type of lava flow with jagged rock layer
What human activity releases the most carbon dioxide into the atmosphere?
burning fossil fuels
radiative zone
region surrounding the core of the sun in which energy is transferred in the form of electro magnetic waves
Nuclear Fission
splitting of an atoms nucles into two smaller nuclei
What is a molecule?
two or more atoms chemically combined
Constructive force
A force that builds up features of the Earth's surface
impact crader
a round pit left behind on the surface of a planet or other body in space after a smaller object strikes the surface
ptolemy concluded that
the earth is no longer in the center
Local winds include :
sea and land breezes
valley and mountain breezes chinook and Santa Ana winds (warm, dry winds created when air descends the leeward side of a mountain and warms by compression).
In the electromagnetic spectrum, which waves have the highest frequencies and are the most dangerous.
the waves with the shortest wavelengths, such as gamma rays.
fastest part of stream
inside of cruves when stream is curvy (meandering stream)
What is a water budget?
income and spending of water for a region
The climate of some locality governs
the type of crops that can be cultivated, the fresh water supply, the average heating and cooling requirements for homes.
true (The star's interior is left to condense as a neutron star or produce a black hole.)
T or F - Stars exceeding three solar masses have relatively short life spans and terminate in a brilliant explosion called a supernova.
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