Earth Science final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
meter
length
Rock Cycle
Equator
0 degrees latitude
intensity
high level or degree
cation
A positively charged ion.
Alluvium
Sediments deposited by streams; generally well-sorted, as the largest particles drop out first.
Tuff
Fine grained pyroclastic igneous rock
Solifluction
Slow, downslope flow of water-saturated materials common to permafrost areas
Wegener's flaws
how the continents moved
Superposition
In any undeformed sequence of sedimentary rocks, each bed is older than the layers above and younger than the layers below
Erosion
Landslides, moving water, wind, and glaciers cause this to happen
luster
how a minerals surface reflects light
microclimate
the climate of a small area
What temperature is it near equator?
24C
dew point
temperature at which water condenses
Atmosphere
a distinctive but intangible quality surrounding a person or thing
Theories for Lunar Origin
Dual Accretion
Earth Fission
Impact of Mars-sized body
Lunar Capture
eccentricity
the measured degree of "ovalness" in an ellipse
Intrusive
igneous rocks, INSIDE THE EARTH, cools slowly to form visible crystals
regolith
the layer of rock and mineral fragments produced by weathering
Convergent boundaries
Two plates colliding and creating either a mountain range (2 continental) or a subduction zone (2 oceanic), or trench (oceanic and continental)
True
Can changes in the Sun's activity effect Earths climate?
Aurora
a bright display of ever changing light caused by solar radiation interacting with the upper atmosphere in the region of the poles
conduit
when lava reaches the surface by traveling through a tube-like structure
How many degrees longitude represent 1 hour?
15
cross bedding
structure in which relatively thin layers are inclined at an angle to the main bedding; formed by currents of wind or water
metamorphism
when a rock changes form while remaining solid
isotherms
lines that connect points that have the same temperature
intrusion
an igneous rock layer formed when magma hardens beneath earth's surface
Rapid surge movements of the Earth's tectonic plates offer a convincing explanation for the advances and retreats of the Pleistocene ice sheets
False
light-year
the distance that light travels in 1 year
weathering
The breaking down of rocks and other materials on the Earth's surface.
elevation
shows how high or low things are(water is 0 degrees sea level, above sea level, or below sea level); vertical distance
Each time zone is how many degrees apart
15
wave height
the vertical distance from the crest of a wave to the trough
divergent boundary
where two plates are moving apart, magma comes up to create new crust (the place of plate spreading)
Transpiration
The process by which plants give off water vapor.
meteor
a meteoroid that burns up in earth's atmosphere
Geyser
A type of hot spring where water shoots into the air.
compression
force that occurs when plates of the Earth's crust are pushed into each other
Deposits
The wind deposits the sediment when it hits an obstacle, such as a boulder.
longitude
imaginary lines that run from pole to pole (meridians)
Volcanic mountains
Mountains that form when magma erupts onto Earth's surface.
ore
deposit in which a mineral exist in large amounts to be mined
Slumps are common after a rainfall because the water reduces ________ between soil greains.
frictional contact
Freezing Rain
forms when snow falling melts in a deep layer of warm air
rift valley
-a region of Earth's crust along which divergence is taking pace
-East African rift
elastic rebound theory
theory that rocks that are strained past a certain point will fracture and spring back to their original shape
Thermal conduction
the transfer of energy as heat through a material
cold front
boundary formed where a cold air mass overtakes and lifts a warm air mass
Hardness
measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched;
scientific method
a method of research in which a problem is identified, relevant data are gathered, a hypothesis is formulated from these data, and the hypothesis is empirically tested.
saturated zone
The level in the groundwater table in which the pores of the soil or rock are completely filled with water.
hubbles law
the further the galaxy was, the faster it would move
A mature ovary and its seeds is called a
fruit
air masses
large bodies of air that take on the characteristics of Earth's surface
igneous rock
a type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface
tropic of cancer
a line of latitude about 23 degrees North of the equator
Storm surge
A dome of water that sweeps across the coast where a hurricane lands
What makes for the BIGGEST waves?
Wide oceans and lots of wind!
What is a "plateau"?
A landform that has high elevation and a more or less level surface.
What is a focault pendulum?
a pendulum attached to a high ceiling, which allows it to freely swivel, so it is not attached to the Earth. 24 blocks are placed around it in a perfect circle, and as the pendulum rotates along with the earth, it knocks down the blocks.
What is proof of uplift?
marine fossils are found at the top of mount Everest, so rock was pushed 33,000 ft above sea level
The mass number is the number of protons plus the number of neutrons.
5.The mass number is the number of protons plus the number of neutrons.
* Example: You know that hydrogen has an atomic number of one. You also know that the mass number of hydrogen is one. This tells you that hydrogen has one proton and no neutrons.
density
mass/volume
Transform Boundary
Diatryma
meat eating bird
S-waves
travels slower, occilation movement
dacite
A light-colored, fine-grained extrusive igneous rock with the same general composition as andesite. The extrusive equivalent of grandiorite.
Permafrost
-Any permanently frozen ground, usually found in arctic and subarctic regions where summers are too cool to melt more than a shallow surface layer.
-Permafrost underlies nearly 25% of Earth's land area.
Laccolith
Blister shaped injection between layers
sheeting
A mechanical weathering process characterized by the splitting-off of slablike sheets of rock.
causes of unconformity
intrusion or weathering
Seismogram
The record made by a seismograph
Pegmatite
A vein of extremely large-grained materials
hypothesis
a possible explanation to a question
Foucault's pendulum
provided evidence that Earth rotates
tide
alternating rise and fall of water
sublimation
change from a solid to vapor
Asthenosphere
the lower layer of the crust
Continental drift was derived by
Alfred Wegner
eclipse
complete or partial blocking of light when one celestial body moves into the shadow of another celestial body
Seismic Waves
wave generated by an earthquake: p-wave=primary wave, straight, strong, fast; s-wave=secondary wave,curved, half-speed of p-wave; surface waves=does most damage, all around
Seamount
A submerged mountain on the ocean floor that is at least 1,000 m high and that had volcanic origin
5 cm
The distance plates move each year
The lithosphere
Plate Techtonic plates are pieces of...
Temperature
a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter.
hot spots
unusually hot regions of Earth's mantle where high-temperature plums of magma rise to the surface
What latitude receives the most intense insolation on Sept. 21st?
the equator
conformable layers
rock layers that were depositied without interuption
fractional crystallization
when different minerals form at different temperatures
models
represents an idea, event, or object to help people better understand it.
faults
breaks in Earth's crust where rocks have slipped past each other
Moraines are the only glacial deposits composed of till
False
saturation
a condition in which the rates of evaporation and condensation are equal
fault
a crack in the earth's crust resulting from the displacement of one side with respect to the other
leaching
the removal of substances from soil or rock due to the passing of water
The earth is divided into how many time zones
24
insolation
the amount of the sun's energy that reaches earth at a given time and place
mantle
the layer of the earth between the crust and the core
asteroid
piece of rock similar to the material that later formed into the planets
Earthquake activity
The tilt of the ground, temperatures at the opening, types of gases given off and __________________ are all ways scientists monitor volcanoes.
active volcano
volcano that is currently erupting or recently erupted
desert pavement formation
Sometimess deflation can create an rock area of pavement
gradient (slope)
change in elevation over a distance rise/run (steepness)
Plateaus
Large, flat areas of rock high above sea level.
how many time zones is the earth divide in
24
This planet has a high atmospheric CO2 content and strong greenhouse effect
Venus
Ridge Push
hot new rocks cool, become more dense and slide downhill
volcanic island arc
-a chain of volcanic islands generally located a few hundred km from a trench where there is active subduction of one oceanic plate beneath another
-oceanic-oceanic convergence
zone of saturation
The lower zone where water accumilates between small rock particles.
Air pressure
the measure of the force with which air molecule push on a surface
continental polar
describing a cold, dry air mass that forms over land in polar regions.
Streak
color of a mineral when it is in powdered form
sedimentary rock
A type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together.
unsaturated zone
The level in the groundwater table in which the pores of the soil or rock are not completely filled with water.
when light elements were created
shortly after the big bang
A chemical equation is made up of the formulas for the reactants and products seperated by an
arrow
Geological Time Scale
a record of Earth's history from its origin to the present
sea floor spreading
the theory that states that the sea floor moves apart and then at mid ocean ridges and causes continents to move, is evidence for continental drif
rotation
a planet or moon to spinning in a full circle
Nebula
The Sun is formed out of this- a large amount of gas and dust spread in an immense volume
Zone 2= The Abyssal Plain
Deep (4km), among the flattest places on the earth, covered by layers of fine sediment, may be dotted by sea mounts
Partial Solar eclipse
when the moon is at perigee, a partial solar eclipse is visible at areas of earth .
Why will our sun never go supernova?
Only large to extra-large stars supernova. Our sun is only considered a medium star
What happens when oceanic meet oceanic?
one of the plates loosens and subducts and a line of volcanoes form, creates an island arc
It has an orderly internal structure (its atoms are arranged in a definite pattern - this is why minerals "grow" as crystals)
A mineral by definition has ALL of the following characteristics:
4. It has an orderly internal structure (its atoms are arranged in a definite pattern - this is why minerals "grow" as crystals)
III
3
Vine
seafloor spreading
Autumnal Equinox
septmember 23
Cliff House Sandstone
Chaco Cultural
What is Earth's eccentricity
0.017
nonconformity
interfaces formed when sedimentary rocks are deposited on top of an eroded surface of igneous and/or metamorphic rocks
Seismicity
Earthquake activity. Sudden formation of a new fault, sudden slip on an existing fault, sudden change in the arrangement of atoms in the minerals of rock, movement of magma, the explosion of a volcano, a great landslide, a meteorite impact, an underground nuclear bomb test
Ventrifacts
Rock shaped by wind-blown sediments
age of universe
14.7 billion years
Pyroclastic flow
Swift moving, potentially deadly clouds of gas, ash, and other volcanic material produced by a violent eruption.
lava
magma that reaches the earth's surface
spectrum
the range of wavelengths of electromagnetic waves
microwave
a short electromagnetic wave (longer than infrared but shorter than radio waves)
solar flares
eruption of electrically charged particles from the surface of the sun
Core
the central part of the Earth
Disconformity
Strata on either side are parallel
sedimentary rocks
formed when sediments become compacted and turn to stone.
waxing
describes phases that occur after a new moon, as more of the Moon's lighted side becomes visible
three types of earthquakes
thrust, roll, and shake
Continental Drift
Wegner's idea which proposed that Earth's continents had once been joined as a single landmass that broke apart and sent the continents adrift
weather
The condition of Earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place.
seismic wave size
moment-magnitude values can be estimated from the...
fusion reaction in stars
hydrogen fused into helium
andesitic
igneous rocks having a mineral makeup between that of granite and basalt, after he common volcanic rock andesite
silicates
contain silicon, oxygen, and one more element
Hot Plate
Source of heat in a lab
...
moraine
a land form made of glacial till
On Mohs hardness scale, which number is softest
1
Inertia
the tendency of a moving object to keep moving in a straight line.
Stratified Drift
Sediment deposited by a glacier in water, layers
Magnitude
The measure pf a star's brightness is called its (Blank).
200 to 400 kph
how fast are jet streams
wave length
the horizontal distance from one wave crest th the next wave crest
Plate Tectonics
The theory that the lithosphere is broken into pieces that float on the asthenosphere.
Gymnosperms
Pollinated through the air and took 18 months, and included pine trees.
lithosphere
the uppermost part of the mantle and the crust together as rigid form
Climatologist
A scientist who gathers data to study and compare past and present climates and to predict future climate change
Water Planet
Another name for Earth; the only planet that can be called this
law of superposition
in sequence of undisturbed sedimentary rocks the other rocks will be at the bottom and the youngest at the top
predicting
Making a forecast of what will happen in the future based on past experience or evidence.
meteorite
stony or metallic object that is the remains of a meteoroid that has reached the earth's surface
Have scientists ever made it to the mantle?
No
Seismic Gap
spot on a fault here movement hasn't occurred in a long time
law of gravitation
the effects of gravity according to Newton
polar highs
at 60 and 90 degrees latitude, dynamic high pressure masses
zone of accumulation
part of a glacier characterized by snow accumulation and ice formation; its outer limit is the snowline
Very hot and very fast
Two important characteristics of pyroclastic flow
magnetic field
Force found around the poles of a magnet
global change
A change in climate that has worldwide effects on the biosphere, atmosphere, and other components of the Earth system.
Red Shift
a shift in the spectra of distant galaxies toward longer wavelengths; when galaxies appear to move away from us
One of the tallest trees in the world
California Redwoods
Landslides
a slide of a large mass of dirt and rock down a mountain or cliff
pie chart
percentage of a whole. At a set point and time do not show change in time
intertidal zone
The area where land and sea meet and overlap; the zone between high and low tides.
s waves
a type of seismic wave that moves the ground up and down or side to side
titan (one of Saturn's moons)
surface has solid materials (ices) and liquids, including liquid methane
clouded with a thick atmosphere of nitrogen and methane
Balance in the water cycle means:
the average annual precipitation over earth equals the amount of water that evaporates
how many stars and cosmos are there?
over 70 sextillion (70 thousand million million million)
to determine specific gravity you
divide the density of an object by the density of water
Where would you be most likely to find an artesian aquifer?
Where there are dipping rock units with an overlying aquitard
isobars
...
Longest waves
Radio
sandstone aquifer
naturally purify water
p waves
secondary seismic waves
landscape regions
combination of landscape characteristics such as elevation, bedrock, stream drainage, soil and slope
solar energy
Energy from the sun.
astronomy
study of objects in space
Biogenic
Sediment originating from a living organism
deposition
transported material slows down and materials are dropped in another location
Africa
largest shields can be found there
revolution
the earths movement around the sun
quartz
silica rich and harder than glass
All other factors being equal, temperatures are _________ during clear nights.
coldest
vesicular
igneous rock texture that has air bubbles, large minerals, and forms with aa
fold
layers of sedimentary rock that have been bent or wrapped by crustal forces
Kettle
A bowl-like depression in a glacial drift deposit
zones in the ocean where upwelling occurs have high levels of biological productivity because of the high levels of dissolved oxygen and high levels of nutrients
true
Light
A type of electromagnetic wave that allows us to see.
Are offspring uniform same or diverse in asexual reproduction?
uniform
stratosphere
the layer of the earth's atmosphere that is located above the tropopause
main sequence star
star's main life cycle stage
Oceanic crust
earths crust located under the ocean
mechanical weathering
breaking apart of rocks without changing their mineral composition
basalt
the ocean crust is made of this
Compound
Contains elements in a fixed ration; chemically combined
Most oceanic gas hydrates form when A. bacteria break down organic matter in seafloor sediments. B. plant matter breaks down to form peat. C. petroleum deposits seep into ocean floor sediment. D. chemicals in ocean water precipitate out of solution.
A
abyssal plain
very level area of the deep-ocean floor, usually lying at the foot of the continental rise
physical weathering
the breaking down of a material without altering its chemical composition
discharge
the volume of water a river transports over a given amount of time
cinder cones
steep slope angle, small in size, frequently in groups
earths interior
the region extending from the rocky part of earth surface to earth center
relative age
the age of something compared with other things
Which layer has the most elements in it?
crust
Condensation
This is where warm and cold air collide and form ice crystals that condense and form droplets of water.
continental shelf
begins at teh shoreline and slopes gently toward the open ocean
biosphere
All of the Earth's organisms and the environments in which they live
Fossil
Remains or traces of past life found in sedimentary rocks.
bed load
Particles of sand, gravel, or soil carried by the natural flow of a stream on or immediately above its bed
reforestation
the planting of a large number of trees.
iceberg
A mass of ice floating in the ocean
conduction
transfer of heat from atom to atom or molecule to molecule
two protons and two nuetrons
what composes an alpha particle?
Define specific gravity
Specific gravity is a property closely related to density. The density of gold is 19.3 g/cm cubed. The specific gravity of gold is expressed as 19.3 (without a unit) which indicates that it weight 19.3 times more than an equal volume of water. Recall that water is 1 g/cm cubed.
constructive force
a natural force that builds up or creates something new
Where can you look to find the latitude/longitude of a city in NY state?
Reference tables
a normal fault
hanging wall block above an inclined fault plane moves downward relative to the other block
Renewable Resource
A resource that is replaced in nature faster than or close to the rate of its use
population distribution
how population is spread out in an area
native mineral
a mineral that contains only one kind of atom and is therefore a pure element
forests and swamps
the place where most life was situated in the early Paleozoic
Lunar Regolith
a thin, gray layer on the surface of the moon, consisting of loosely compacted, fragmented material believed to have formed by repeated impacts of meteorites.
Plate boundaries
place where you can see the results of plate movement
ash column
A large plume of ash that forms above a volcanoe during an erruption
what causes a explosive volcano
high water content, high gas content, granitic magma, high silica content
Theory of Plate Tectonics
theory that the plates that move due to convection currents
What is the Milky Way?
The galaxy that the solar system is located in.
2 Ways To Learn About Earths Interior
Direct evidence from rock samples, and indirect evidence from seismic waves.
The color of a star tells you how ____ it is.
Hot (also what it is made of)
F
Fluorine
distributive property
a(b+c)=ab+ac
protons
Positively charged particles
Flask
Heat/transfer liquid chemicals good for gas collection
hygrometer
used to measure relative humidity
sulfur dioxide
what burning coal releases
compaction
the consolidation of sediments resulting from the weight of overlying deposits
beach
a geological landform along the shoreline of a body of water
competition
struggle between organism for limited resources in the habitat
micro waves
speed up atoms, detect weather
GPS
a system determines precise postition through satellites
A fiord is a
drowned glacial trough
consumer
an organism that obtians energy by feeding on other organisms
swampy
the environment that coal beds are most likely to form in
Element
Cannot be broken down into simpler substances and has the characteristics of the element
Assimilation
Magma sits in a chamber before completely solidifying. Can incorporate chemicals dissolved from wall rocks.
Spring tide
time with greatest distance between high and low tides (moon, sun, and earth form a straight line)
Rifting
The process of a landmass splitting apart
greenhouse effect
Natural heating that occurs when certain gases in Earth's atmosphere, such as methane, CO2, and water vapor, trap heat.
Foreshock
Small quakes that come before mojor quakes-they can come days or even years before the major quake
how are igneouse rocks classified
composition and texture
Divide
A ridge or continuous line of highland
What is a continuous spectrum
all colors are reflected
Molecule
Small particles of a substance that is composed of atoms
magnetic feild
the energy feild created by the spinning of the cores
polar
air mass that formed in a polar region(cooler)
recessional moraine
end moraine: formed as glacier is receeding up valley
mantle plume
a source of some intraplate basalic magma, these structures originate at great depth and , upon reaching the crust, spread laterally, creating a localized volcanic zone called a hot spot
-lahar
a fast moving mudflow formed when ash mixes with snow and ice
condensation nuclei
small particles in the atmosphere or around it
seismic sea wave
Tsunami caused by displacement of earth along a fault. (Earthquakes and seismic sea waves are caused by the same phenomenon.)
landslide
a down-slope movement of rock and soil over a failure surface and under the influence of gravity
What can the holes made by glaciers become?
Lakes
Woburn tanners
the town known for its tanneries that took their waste and threw it out. But the built a giant well 1/2 miles down river of it. Everyone started getting cancer
Tuzigoot is site of
very large Native American Pueblo, more than 110 rooms total
volcano
an opening in the crust of the Earth that allows hot, molten rock or lava, ash, and gases to escape from below the surface.
perihelion
the point in a planet's orbit that is closest to the sun
Latitude lines
Lines that run north and south but measure distances east and west are called
frequency
the number of waves that pass a still point in an amount of time
relative humidity
amount of water vapor in a given volume of air dompared to the total amount that the volume of air could hold at a give temp
intrusion are younger than the ___
rocks they are in
sea breeze
movement of air from sea to land during the day when cooler air from above the water moves over the land, focing the heated, less dense air above the land to rise.
form a hypothesis
making an educated guess on what will happen based on the info you already have
What is physical geology?
studying the materials that make up the earth; explanations of processes that shape the Earth
What is the atmosphere?
the layer of air covering the Earth
Lapse Rate and Average Lapse Rate
decrease rate of air temperature*Diagram Dry Rate (10 degrees Celsius for every kilometer) until saturation then moist rate (6 degrees Celsius)
High Risk City
city in a high risk of a natural disaster
Mouth of a river
Place where a river empties into the ocean. (A river oftens deposits sediment at its mouth.)
The moment magnitude is calculated using all of the following factors EXCEPT for the______
magnitude of past earthquakes in the area
Duration of insolation is the
length of day; most in summer, less in winter
El Nino is a phenomenon that occurs every 3 to 7 years when
ocean water along th coast of Peru becomes warmer than usual. This changes air circulation in the atmosphere and weather pattern around the world.
systema
combine
continent
large land mass.
water
the strongest erosional force
white objects
reflect all colors
Ionosphere
layer of electrically charged particles in the thermosphere that absorbs AM radio waves during the day and reflects them back at night
aa lava
blocky, cooler, slow lava.
Nuclear
constituting or like a nucleus
mineral
naturally occuring inorganic solid with a specific chemical composition and a definite crystalline structure
mass
amount of matter in an object
A
High concentrations of organic matter and humus & is more developed than other horizons (Soil Horizon)
high
Aquifers have what type of permeability
seismographs
instruments that measure seismic waves used to find out the density (thickness) of the inside of the earth
faulting
cooler temperatures and lower pressure near the earth's surface often causes rocks to react to stress by breaking
phosphorite
A chemical or biochemical sedimentary rock composed of calcium phosphate precipitated from phosphate-rich seawater and formed diagenetically by the interaction between muddy or carbonate sediments and the phosphate-rich water.
source
a place where something comes from
Nuee ardente
Incandescent volcanic depris buoyed up by hot gases that moves downslope in an avalanche fashion
mountain that forms when magma reaches the surface
volcano
A mineral deposit large enough and pure enough to be mined for a profit
Ore
furniture moves, chunks of plaster may fall
5-5.9
Flow?
large amounts of water that move downslope
Graben
long, narrow valley formed by faulting and downward slippage of a
crustal block
oxides
compounds that contain oxygen and an element other than silicon
The number that describes how many molecules of a substance are involved in a chemical reation is a
coefficent
sub-polar low
a low pressure area formed sixty degrees N when the prevailing westerlies rise above the polar easterlies
aphelion
The place in the Earth's orbit where Earth is farthest away from the sun.
TRANSFORM PLATE
2 tectonic plates moving back and forth against each other, 2 tectonic plates moving back and forth against each other
metamorphic rock
rock formed when existing rocks are changed by heat & pressure
One can often see the shapes of animals and people in fluffy, white _____ clouds. (cumulous or stratus)
cumulus
exfoliation
top layers of rocks crack and break, then the rock underneath expands
life of stars
small stars burn slower and longer
earth's energy budget is - balanced or unbalanced?
balanced
high pressure metamorphism
Metamorphism that occurs at high pressure (8 to 12 kbar) and ultra-high pressure (greater than 28 kbar).
Where do continental glaciers form?
polar regions, Greenland, antartica
abrasion
the grinding and scraping of a rock surface by the friction and impact of rock particles carried by water wind or ice
middle clouds
between 2000 and 6000m; altocumulus or altostratus clouds-liquid and/or ice crystals; often layered; altocumuls create mild precipitation
a large system of dust, gas, stars, and other celestial bodies that has a particular shape
galaxy
Isotopes
an atom that has the same number of protons ( or the same atomic number) as other atoms of the same element do but that has a different number of neutrons ( and thus a different atomic mass)
Become larger
As the rate of cooling increases, the size of the crystals that form (Blank).
surface waves
last seismic waves to arrive but are the most destructive
The biggest threats to groundwater supply are: 1 2
1. overuse
2. contamination
Scientific Notation
A type of shorthland used by scientist in which a number is expressed as a multipler and a power of 10
Galileo
the first man to use a telescope for astronomy
nonrenewable resourde
metals and fossil fuels such as oil and coal
Base level
the lowest( in elevation) that a river will flow. this is where the mouth is usaly and will normally be in an ocean or sea
Fluorescence
You put a mineral under a UV light and see if the mineral glows.
when there is more silica in magma
the thicker the lava
What is true about tornadoes?
They are spawned off middle-latitude cyclones.
What is true about tornadoes?
Tornado season is in early spring and most tornadoes occur in the mid-west. These intense short-lived intense storms usually form off cyclones.
very small compared to the size of the ice mass responsible for their formation
small scale erosion
What kind of weather and atmosphere does our moon have?
No atmosphere and no weather
what causes plates to move
when gravity pulls down on this part of the plate, the rest of the plate is pulled along with it
How is ocean water different form fresh water?
ocean water freezes at a lower temperature & is more dense & more buoyancy.
What are the processes that occurred in Earth's history?
1. Earth is a ball of dust, rock and ice in space.
2. A dense, iron core forms at Earth's center.
3. Hydrogen and helium are captured by gravity to form an atmosphere.
4. Volcanic eruptions release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
5. Oceans form on Earth's surface.
6. Early organisms release oxygen into the air.
bathy
depth
Retreat
Loss exceeds accumulation
Watershed
an area drained
Seismology
The study of Earthquakes
rift
long continuous deep valley
breakwater
rock/concrete-- parallel to beach. wave action is reduced inland from the break water (breaks water)
adaptation
behavior and physical charateristics of species that allow them to successfully in their in environment
size of first stars
huge stars
region characterized by sinks, sinkhole ponds, and lost rivers
karst
the _____________is 180 degrees
international date line
updrafts and downdrafts
small scale vertical movements
Parts per thousand
salinity is measured in?
thermosphere
The outermost layer of Earth's atmosphere. the hottest layer in the atmosphere
SANITARY LANDFILL
This helps reduce groundwater pollution.
what type of rock is granite
igneous
Tephra
solid material ejected into the air during a volcanic eruption
Supernova
when the super giant collapses, the force causes the outer part of the star to explode.
blue shift
motion induced shift in light wavelength due to objects moving closer to the observer
False
During the recent ice age glaciers grew on continents such as Australia, Africa, and South America and not on Asia and North America.
Bowen's reaction series
the simplified pattern that illustrates the order in which minerals crystalize from cooling magma according to thier chemical composition and melting point
front
the boundary between two adjoining air masses having contrasting characteristics
Intermediate Mass Star
The sun is an example
chemical weathering
processes by which the internal structure of a mineral is altered by the removal and/or addition of elements
The "super earth" rotates around what star
Gilese851
infiltration
process where water sinks into the ground.
water passes through substance
Diversion Plates
crustal plates moving in opposite direction
study of Earth's origin, history, and structure
Geology
Sleet
raindrops that fall through a layer of freezing air near the surface
Artesian wells
Where groundwater is under pressure, a well or spring that pierces the aquitard will flow out about the level of that aquifer.
-to form: 1. occur in an inclined aquifer confined by aquitards above and below
2. have a recharge source adding water and increasing groundwater pressure
On Mt Rushmore?
T. Roosevelt, Lincoln, Jefferson, and Washington
Plate Boundary
Location where two or more plates meet
subduction boundary
a convergent boundary where an oceanic plate is plunging beneath another, overriding plate
wedge
any shape that is triangular in cross section
Lithosphere -
the oceanic and continental part of the crust together with the upper, brittle part of the mantle; it varies in thickness from 1-2 km at the ocean ridges to 140-160 km below the oceanic crust
hydrothermal metamorphism
chemical alterations that occur as the hot ion rich water circulates through fractures in a rock
cumulonimbus clouds
cloud that creates thunder heads aka rain clouds
Index Fossils
distinctive fossil used to compare the relative ages of fossils
groundwater
water stored in teh cracks and spaces of underground rock
Coriolis effect
The effect of Earth's rotation on the direction of winds and currents.
Which one of these mountain choices would be regarded as a stratovolcano?
Mt. St. Helens
Intermediate Grade Metamorphism
in between low and high grade metamorphism
vein
a narrow channel or slab of a mineral that is different from the surrounding rock
Rain Gauge
An instrument that may be used to measure rainfall
Mountain Range
a group of mountains that are closely related in shape, structure, and age
Jupiter and Saturn
the 2 planets with the strongest bulging affect
asteriod belt
a wide region between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter
Water is densest at
4 degrees celcius as a liquid
these cryastals are on the bottom of a cave
stalagmites
organized and logical approaches to help guide scientific problem solving
What is the scientific method
sea-floor spreading
the idea that hot rock is coming out of mid-ocean ridges and spreading out and cooling.
Mercator Projection
a map projection of the earth onto a cylinder
Absolute instability- air
Rising air is warmer & less dense than surrounding air. Occurs when the environmental lapse rate is greater than the dry adiabatic rate. Clouds are often towering.
If you take away or add an electron to an atom, you would form
an ion
Greenhouse Effect: Where does CO2 come from?
From Fossil Fuel Burning. (obviously breathing too)
3. During a discussion about teaching techniques, one of your colleagues contends that adults are just larger versions of children and would, if the truth were known, like to be taught in the same way.
After all, teachers know best what in most important for learners to learn; and adults,
What effects does air quality have on our planet?
it affects the quality of life for all organisms on Earth.
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