Earth Science Final Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
underwater valleys
Stream related processes.
strength of an earthquake
oceanic crust
consists mostly of basalt
in convergent plate boundaries, epicenter zones are...
The study of the climate.
that which is preferred; choice:
P waves (3)
-fastest wave
-compressional wave (slinkie)
-travels through liquids and solids
the instrument that records earthquake events is a
vibrations of rocks shifting; starts in focus
1960 Earthquake, m9.5 (strongest ever recorded), Quake and Tsunami killed est. 1800
The consistent, long-term behavior of weather over time, including its variability; in contrast to weather, which is the condition of the atmosphere at any given place and time.
Earth's outer shell of crystalline surface rock, ranging from 5 to 60 km (3 to 38 mi) in thickness from oceanic crust to mountain ranges. Average density of continental crust is 2.7 g/cm3, whereas oceanic crust is 3.0 g/cm3.
The downward movement and deposition of finer particles and minerals from the upper horizon of the soil; a depositional process. Deposition usually is the B horizon, where accumulations of clays, aluminium, carbonates, iron, and some humus occur.
portion of the earth's surface consisting of disintegrated rock and humus
"plate" in plate tectonics (crust is part of lithosphere)
-earthquakes contained to lithosphere
- cold and elastic
ash fall
eruption clouds that are carried downwind; when mixes with rain, like falling cement; danger leads to collapsing houses
When a metamorphic rock exhibits a layered or banded appearance it is said to exhibit a ____________ texture
surface wave
"roll-sway"; cause the most damage; slow
Rayleigh Waves are strong enough to knock over these (EC)
Three states of Matter
Solid, Liquid, Gas (Plasma-EC)
Plateau Basalt
An accumulation of horizontal flows formed when lava spreads out from elongated fissures onto the surface in extensive sheets; associated with effusive eruptions; also known as flood basalts.
Empirical Classification
A climate classification based on weather statistics or other data; used to determine general climate categories.
Free-falling movement of debris from a cliff or steep slope, generally falling straight of bounding downslope.
capability of a porous rock or sediment to permit the flow of fluids through its pore spaces
index fossil
Fossils of organisms who lived for only a short period and were widely-distributed
Juan de Fuca
small plate that subducts North America under WA, OR, and CA
the island of hawaii experiences volcanism because it is located:
above a hotspot
The Mid-Oceanic Ridges rises highest at
the spreading center
hole in crust where magma erupts [out of a volcano]
Happens to atmospheric pressure with altitude
Air Pressure Decreases
A soil order in the Soil Taxonomy. Specifically lacks vertical development of horizons; usually young or undeveloped. Found in active slopes, alluvial-filled floodplains, poorly drained tundra.
A soil order in the Soil Taxonomy. Tropical soils that are old, deeply developed, and lacking in horizons wherever well drained; heavily weathered, low in cation-exchange capacity, and low in fertility.
Ice Wedge
Formed when water enters a thermal contraction crack in permafrost and freezes. Repeated seasonal freezing and melting of the water progressively expands the wedge.
Desert Pavement
On arid landscapes, a surface formed when wind deflation and sheet flow remove smaller particles, leaving residual pebbles and gravels to concentrate at the surface; resembles a cobblestone street.
Biogeochemical Cycle
One of several circuits of flowing elements and materials (carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, water) that combine Earth's biotic (living) and abiotic (nonliving) systems; the cycling of materials is continuous and renewed through the biosphere and the life processes.
Surface Creep
A form of eolian transport that involves particles too large for saltation; a process whereby individual grains are impacted by moving grains and slide and roll.
Basaltic lava that is more fluid than aa. Pahoehoe forms a thin crust that forms folds and appears ropy, like coiled twisted rope.
a standard or example for imitation or comparison.
the san andreas fault exemplifies this type of plate boundary
transform fault boundary
The oceans are about ________ deep in the central parts of ocean basins.
5 kilometers
a deep valley down the center of the mid-ocean ridge
Relative Humidity
Ratio of the air's actual water vapor content compared with the amount of water vapor required for saturation at that temperature (and pressure).
Undercut Bank
In streams, a steep bank formed along the outer portion of a meandering stream; produced by lateral erosive action of a stream; sometimes called a cutbank.
1960's support for Pangea (4)
1. topography of sea floor
2. Earthquake epicenters and volcanic eruptions coincide with seafloor topography
3. Age of sea floor
4. Paleomagnetism
S, or shear, waves
are slower than P-waves, move only through solids, travel at 3 to 4 km/second in the crust
San Francisco Earthquake
Due to San Andreas Fault System, Fire further damaged San Francisco
Mean sea level (MSL)
The average of tidal levels recorded hourly at a given site over a long period, which must be at least a full lunar tide.
when a rock is able to return to its shape after it has deformed it is said to have experienced
elastic deformation
Wegner's 4 Items of support for plate-tectonics
1. Fit of the Continents
2. Paleoclimatology
3. Fossil Continuity
4. Geological Continuity
To measure the distance from a recording station to an earthquake epicenter, geologists
compare the time interval between the arrival of P and S waves with a time-travel curve.
the continent fit together best in the Pangaea configuration when:
the outer edges of the continental shelves are matched
igneous rock
Normal Fault
Tension stress
Elevation above sea level.
cumulus stage
all updrafts
no precipitation
study of current atmoshperic conditions
fragmental particles arranged in layers
a naturally occuring, inorganic crystalline material with a unique chemical structure
magma that reaches the surface
how many tectonic plates are there?
Recycling aluminum uses what percent less of energy?
low latitude regions
higher surface temperatures, thermocline
altitude of polaris
equal to your latitude
recent atmospheric CO2 pattern
increasing CO2 levels
what is an educated guess
the hypothesis
gully erosion
when a rill becomes wider
Process in which sediments are compacted and cemented together
the layer closest to Earth, where almost all weather occurs; the thinnest layer
the layer of hot solid material between Earth's crust and core
sixth step of the scientific method
communicate results
ground moraine
on the bottom of a glacier
Phase change
Which transforms one mineral into another with the same composition but a different crystal structure
fan-shaped deposit of sediments at the mouth of a stream
sun's outer atmosphere that can only be seen during a solar eclipse
energy that is radiated or transmitted in the form of rays or waves or particles
radioactive decay
release of nuclear particles and energy from unstable atomic nuclei
Substance that contains only one type of atom - for example, oxygen, aluminum, and iron
The first modern astronomer to propose a Sun-centered solar system was...
the study of all physical objects beyond earth
The process of gathering evidence, testing, and giving answers
Scientific Inquiry
The sinking of a denser oceanic plate edge as a result of convergence with a plate of lesser density. (Often causing earthquakes and/or creating volcano chains.
the amplitude of a wavelength is its _________
The movement of loose material on a curved slope
material that blasted out of the moons surface and fell back to the surface
the earths spinning on its axis which causes day and night
water cycle
repeated movement of water between the earth surface and the atmosphere
pillow lava
when lava comes out underwater it cools into pillow shapes
Mass Movement
Type of erosion in which gravity causes loose materials to move down slope; Can occur slowly or quickly
celestial equator
is an imaginary circle created by extending Earth's equator into space
a form of energy that is transferred by a difference in temperature
outer core
is above its melting point, therefore this layer is a liquid
a slab of volcanic rock formed when magma squeezes between layers of rock
the gaseous portion of the planet; the planet`s envolpe of air; one tradtional subdivisions of eart`s physical envirorment.
The movement of rocks that have been broken down by weathering is _________
how hot does water have to reach to boil when its under pressure
condensation nuculei
tiny bits of particales that serves as surfaces for water vaopr
We call a pile of rocks, boulders, and dirt a
relative dating
method for determining if an event or rock is younger or older than others (not used to find the actual age) simply comparing one to another
Pelagic Zone
open zone where animals swim & float freely
Atoll -
an island formed of coral that is circular in shape with a central lagoon
thrust fault
a geological fault in which the upper side appears to have been pushed upward by compression
order of electomagnetic radiation
Radio, Micro, Infrared, Visible, UV, X-Ray,Gamma
a rich soil consisting of a mixture of sand and clay and decaying organic materials
52. What kind of rock does mountain building form? EJP
Metamorphic rock.
a change of one or more compounds into another compound is called
chemical reaction
what is the body of molten rock that feeds a volcanoe
magma chamber
steam turbines, hot water pipes
How do we use geothermal energy?
Photosynthesis vs Respiration
process that forms water and sugar vs reverse of photosynthesis releasing CO2, water, and heat
why are diamonds so hard?
because the structural unit is very stable and rigid
energy of the Earth system
which drives these cycles and other processes comes from two sources: the sun and the Earth's interior.
How does the density of warm water compare to the density of salt water?
warm water is less dense
Reason why some seismographs stations detect P waves more than S waves
P waves go through both solids and liquids while S waves only go through liquids.
why does the same side of the moon always face earth
because the moon roatates at the same speed that it revolves
secondary wave
are trasverse
Water held underground
Which layer is thinnest?
Travels through solids only
describes metamorphic rocks with visiable layers of minerals
-Individual mountains of volcanic material.
-They form where magma pushes its way through or between tectonic plates.
-If a seamount builds up above sea level, it becomes a volcanic island.
If a seamount stops getting larger and begins to erode, and have a flat top, it becomes a guyot.
continental crust
continents and major islands
direct rays at tropic of cancer
Course grained Igneous rocks that cools slowly beneath Earth's surface
positively charged particle in the nucleus of an atom
the modified mercalli scale measures an earthquakes..
______ focus earthquakes get mainly absorbed in rock
his telescope consisted of ___ lens.
a large, unbroken area of land
Large crust like intrusions of molten material that has solidified underground that are usually dome shaped and gigantic.
natural hazard
non-human related object, process, or situation that could cause loss of life, personal injury, and/or loss of property
surface current
horizontal movement of ocean water near or at the surface, caused by wind
spheroidal weathering
causes edges of rocks to round
Unlike most planets, Venus has ______ rotation, which means that it spins in a clockwise direction. (prograde or retrograde)
a nuclear reaction in which an automatic nucleus splits into smaller lighter nuclei releasing energy
the portion of earth that is water
alter the shape of (something) by stress
layer of Earth's atmosphere that is located above the tropopause and is made up primarily of concentrated ozone
 a large mass of ice that moves.
closest to the Sun; covered with craters
Pyroclastic flow
A highly heated mixture, largely of ash and pumice fragments, traveling down the flanks of a volcano or along the surface of the ground
seafloor spreading
the process by which hot,molten rock moves up from the interior of earth to emerge along mid-oceanic rifts, flowing out in both directions to create to rocks
band of sand that projects into the water from a bend in the coastline
primary productivity
amount of carbon fixed by organisms through synthesis of organic matter
... are substances, each made up of atoms with the same number of protons, that cannot be separated into simpler substances.
Deposition by Rivers
Creates landforms such as alluvial fans and deltas. It can also add soil to a river's flood plain
Which of the following is an example of an extrusive igneous rock?
chemical property
any property of a substance that produces a change in the composition of matter
Index Fossils
distinctive fossil used to compare the relative ages of fossils
Scientific Law
is a thing in nature. Another definition is that it describes what will happen in a given situation but doesnt explain why it happens
name given to the continents when they were all connected
Ozone is critical to life on earth because it absorbs harmful
_______ radiation from the sun.
A. ultraviolet C. gamma
B. thermal-infrared D. x-ray
Sedimentary Rocks
Make up 8% of crust
Cover 75% of surface
Source Regions
Area of earth's surface over which air masses assume their distinguishing characteristics
Water Vapor
water in the form of an invisible gas
magnetic field
the energy created by the spinning of inner and outer cores.
How do Sedimentary rocks form?
1)Sedimentary rocks form from sediments (like sandstone). (Detrital/Clastic)
2)Sedimentary rocks can also form when liquid evaporates. (Chemical)
3) can also form from remains of living things. (Organic)
surface waves
wave that travels slower than both p and s waves
shadow zone
An area on the Earth's surface where no direct seimic waves from a particular earthquake can be detected.
a slide of large masses of snow and ice and mud down a mountain
Mountain belts
A group of two mountain systems (the circum-Pacific belt to the West and the Eurasian-Melanesian belt to the East).
Local winds are :
small-scale winds produced by a locally generated pressure gradient.
170 million
how old the rocks are in the Marianas trench
In the Northern Hemisphere, winds associated with a high-pressure system blow
clockwise outward from the center
mechanical weathering
when a rock is broken into smaller and smaller pieces; each piece retains the characteristics of the original material
Inner Core
This is a dense ball of solid metal. The pressure is so great that here the metal cannot even spread enough to become a liquid.
A long tube in the middle of a flower, surrouned by petals
how long do the "Super Earths" take to rotate?
approximately 50 days
23.B. Where on the periodic table are the noble gases located? EJP
On the far right.
Asteroids are thought to be leftover
from the formation of the solar system
crust, mantle, outer core, inner core
Label the layers of the Earth on the Diagram.
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