Earth Science Geology Unit Vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Summer Solstice
June 21-22
epicenter
focus projected to surface
continental crust
consists mostly of granite
radiu of earth is
4000 miles
Tornado
Associated with Super Cell Thunderstorms, Low Pressure Systems and a mix of a cold front and a warm front.
Hydration
A chemical weathering process involving water that is added to a mineral, which initiates swelling and stress withing the rock, mechanically forcing grains apart as the constituents expand.
mid-atlantic ridge
intersects iceland, splitting atlantic ocean
Linear upfolded structures with the oldest strata in the center are termed
anticlines
P wave
first wave (primary wave); "push-pull"; cause back-forth vibrations
Body Waves (Types)
P-Waves (Primary Waves-Compressional Waves)-FastestS-Waves (Secondary Waves-Shear Waves)
Sediment
Fine-grained mineral matter that is transported and deposited by air, water or ice.
Bajada
A continuous apron of coalesced alluvial fans, formed along the base of mountains in arid climates; presents a gently rolling surface from fan to fan.
Detritvores
Detritus feeders and decomposers that consume, digest, and destroy organic wastes and debris. Worms, mites, termites, centipedes, snails, crabs, even vultures.
Mudflow
Fluid downslope flows of material containing more water than earthflows.
Extrusion
an igneous rock formed by hardened magam on the surface.
lava
magma on the outside of Earth's crust
The Himalaya Mountains are thought to have resulted from a continental collisionT or F
True
granite
igneous rock; coarse texture; used for durable building stone
Tornado Watch
Issued when conditions are favorable (Super Cell Thunderstorms)
Climate
Over a long period of time; generalized, composite of weather
Parent Material
The unconsolidated material, from both organic and mineral sources, that is the basis of soil development.
Mineral
An element or combination of elements that forms an inorganic natural compound; described by a specific formula and crystal structure.
Shield Volcano
A symmetrical mountain landform built from effusive eruptions (low viscosity magma); gently sloped, gradually rising from the surrounding landscape to a summit crater; typical of the Hawaiian Islands.
Mass Movement
All unit movements of materials propelled by gravity; can range from dry to wet, slow to fast, small to large, and free-falling to gradual or intermittent.
Circum-Pacific Belt
A tectonically and volcanically active region encircling the Pacific Ocean; also known as the Ring of Fire.
Cinder Cone
A volcanic landform of pyroclastics and scoria, usually small and cone-shaped and generally not more than 450 m (1500 ft) in height, with a truncated top.
pressure
the force pushing on a surface or area
Hawaii
volcanic island in the middle of the Pacific Ocean
Rocks are aggregates of one of more minerals.T or F
True
High-gradient streams are likely to form
v shaped valleys
convection currents
form when a substance heats, expands, and rises while cooler portions sink
Precipitation
Rain, Sleet, Snow, Hail that falls to the ground.
Tornado Warning
Issued when a tornado actually touches the ground (Detected by Doppler Radar or someone calls it in)
Continental Glacier
A continuous mass of unconfined ice, covering at least 50,000 square kilometers (19,500 miles); most extensive at present as ice sheets covering Greenland and Antarctica.
Polypedon
The identifiable soil in an area, with distinctive characteristics differentiating it from surrounding polypedons that form the basic mapping unit.
Iceberg
Floating ice created by ice calving (a large piece breaking off) and floating adrift; a hazard to shipping because about nine-tenths of the ice is submerged and can be irregular in form.
Base Level
A hypothetical level below which a stream cannot erode its valley, and thus the lowest operative level for denudation processes; in an absolute sense, it is represented by sea level, extending under the landscape.
Aridisols
A soil order in the Soil Taxonomy; largest soil order. Typical of dry climates; low in organic matter and dominated by calcification and salinization.
Landslide
A sudden rapid downslope movement of a cohesive mass or regolith and/or bedrock in a variety of mass-movement forms under the influence of gravity; a from of mass-movement.
Folding
The bending and deformation of beds of rock strata subjected to compressional forces.
mount saint helens is associated with a
convergent boundary (oceanic-continental)
When solid rock deforms and returns to its original shape it has undergone
elastic deformation.
cinder cone volcano
volcano: not tall; steep sided; cone around side of top; violent eruptions with lots of ash
Thrust Fault
Hanging wall moves up relative to the foot wall (high angle fault, greater than or equal to 45 degrees) (Compression)
Loam
A soil that is a mixture of sand, silt, and clay in almost equal proportions, with no one texture dominant; an ideal agricultural soil.
Geologic Time Scale
A depiction of eras, periods, and epochs that span Earth's history; shows both the sequence of rock stat and their absolute dates, as determined by methods such as radioactive isotopic dating.
Slipface
On a sand dune, formed as dune height increases above 30 cm (12in) on the leeward side at an angle at which loose material is stable - its angle of repose (30 to 34 degrees)
Relative age
The comparative age of a rock to other rocks.
a joint
is a break where no movement has yet occured
Gases that comprise Earth's Atmosphere
Nitrogen (N) 78%Oxygen (O) 21%wCO2 Absorbs heat energy from Earth
Oxbow Lake
A lake that was formerly part of the channel of a meandering stream; isolated when a stream eroded its outer bank forming a cutoff through the neck of the looping meander. In Australia, known as a billabong.
considering its distance from the source of the september 19th earthquake, Mexico city was damaged more than might be expected because
the unconsolidated sediments on which the city was built intensified the vibrations
Time of year the sun's rays are vertical at Tropic of Cancer, Capricorn and Equator
Cancer: Summer SolsticeCapricorn: Winter SolsticeEquator: Spring & Fall Equinox
What spurred the 1960's "Age of Oceanic Exploration"
1. Jacques Cousteau
2. WWII Navy data declassified
Magma tends to rise toward the earth's surface principally because
rocks become less dense when they melt
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