Protist vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
ciliophora
protozoans
apicomplexans
Plasmodium
rhodophyta
algae-plantlike protists
macronucleus
control center
oomycetes
economic hinderer
green algae
chlorophytes
Pfiesteria
causes psp
Aliveolates
(Ciliophora, Dinoglagellata, Apicomplexa) small, membrane-bound vesicles called alveoli.
water molds
fungluslike protists
dinoflagellates
composed of phytoplankton
cercozoans
have thread-like psueodopodia
chlorophytes
live in snow
Dinoflagellates are abundant components of both marine and freshwater ________.
phytoplankton.
cilia
fast or rapid movement
mouth pore
takes in food
Euglenozoa
crystalline rod inside flagella
mitochondrian
metabolism cellular respiration chloroplast- photosynthesis. 
Kinetoplastids
Protists that include free-living consumers of bacteria in freshwater, marine, and moist terrestrial ecosystems
Foraminifera
Shells of organic matter. Heterotrophs.
Chlorarachinophyta
Photosynthetic autotrophs. Green, also engulf food.
Protists
Unicellular, colonial, or simple multicellular organisms that have a eukaryotic cell organization.
pellicle
protects and gives characteristic shape
entamoebas
parasitic of vertebrates and invertebrates
Euglenoids and Kinetoplastids
-Flagellated, heterotrophs, photosynthetic, mixotrophs
ex: Euglena- varied nutrition, phagocytosis
ex: Trypanosoma- Parasitic, kinetoplast-->DNA
 
Are animal-like protists mostly unicellular or multicellular?
Unicellular
Protists are the most nutritionally _______ of all eukaryotes
diverse
conjugation
genetic variation results from this. It's a sexual process in which two individuals exchange haploid micronuclei.
endosymbiosis
the process in which certain unicellular organisms engulf other cells, which become endosymbionts and ultimately organelles in the host cell.
Foraminiferans
A type of cercozoa. Many foraminiferans contain unicellular algal endosymbionts that provide fod by photosynthesis.
Sporozoites
Small, infective agents transmitted to the next host from parasitic organisms.
axial stream
internal flowing of cell contents
chrystophytes
term for the mainly photosynthetic, free-living cells such as diatoms, golden algae, and yellow-green algae
Alveolata- apicomplexans (sporozoans)
Parasite with infective "spore"
Plasmodium causes malaria
Cryptosporidium
Toxoplasmosis
What are protists
broad diverse organisms, classification changes (because based on hypothesis). Mostly unicellular groups of eukaryotes. 
Prtotists have cells that have what?
Nuclei
Sporozoa
Parasites that can't move on their own. The form spores for reproduction
accessory pigments
coloured compounds which absorb and transfer light energy to chlorophyll
Contractile vacuoles
Special organelles that control water regulation in freshwater ciliates.
Coenocytic
Consisting of a multinucleate mass of cytoplasm. Some protists are coenocytic.
Sporic Meiosis

Occurs in Algae Plants and watermolds
malaria
disease caused by parasitic species of the genus Plasmodiaum
red algae & green algae
acquired cyanobacterial endosymbiote
Diplontic
In gametic meiosis , instead of immediately dividing meiotically  to produce haploid cells, the zygote divides mitotically  to produce a multicellular diploid individual or a group of more unicellular diploid cells. Cells from the diploid individuals then undergo meiosis to produce haploid cells or gametes. Haploid cells may divide to form more haploid cells, as in many yeasts, but the haploid phase is not the predominant life cycle phase. In most diplonts, mitosis occurs only in the diploid phase, i.e. gametes usually form quickly and fuse to produce diploid zygotes.
In the whole cycle, gametes are usually the only haploid cells, and mitosis usually occurs only in the diploid phase.
The diploid multicellular individual is a diplont , hence a gametic meiosis is also called a diplontic life cycle
What are the chemicals that produce colors called?
Pigments
What do we call unicellular protists with glasslike cell walls?
Diatoms
Plasmodium
the cause of Malaria and has the mosquito as a vector.
Amoebas move and feed by means of ____________.
pseudopodia.
diploid
having two sets of chromosomes in a cell
Cellular slime molds
During its feeding stage, each cellular slime mold is an individual amoeboid cell that ingests bacteria and other particles fo food as it goes. It reproduces by mitosis. When there is not enough food or moisture, they send out a chemical signal and combine with other cellular slime molds to create a pseudoplasmodium, or slug. They then create a stalked fruiting body containing spores.
Chromalveolata, Stramenopiles: oomycetes
Have two different types of flagellums
Watermolds
Filamentous
Saprophytic-decomposers
Parsitic to plants ex. Phytophthora infestans (parasatizes many crops) main reason for the irish potato famine caused late blight
Phytophthora Ramorm cause sudden death to oak trees
Rodophyta- Red algae
-Red seaweed
-They are a food source
-Agar: gel caps, nutrient in plates
 -Used in wraps for sushi
When two organisms live in a close relationship and both benefit what is it called?
Mutualism
Apicomplexans can change surface proteins which does what?
makes them difficult to treat.
amoebas can cause diseases such as ______ ________ (________ __________ can live in the human intestines, where it may cause this disease).
amoebic dysentery---entoamoeba histolytica
red algae
color allows light to be absorbed deep under water
What is it called when two organisms live in a close relationship and one of the organisms harms its host?
A parasite
Reproduction and life cycles are also highly varied among protists, with both _____ and _______ species
sexual and asexual species
Under what conditions do euglenoids act like heterotrophs?
When sunlight is not available
In Kinetoplastids, there are frequent changes on the surface protein. This does what?
prevents the host from developing immunity. 1/3 of the genome is dedicated to producing these surface proteins.
Protist have a greater what than bacteria? Why?
Diversity, because bacteria only have three shapes.
What evidence do we have for endosymbiotic hypothesis?
The nucleus has a double membrane, which is an advantage. Also, the mitochondria and chloroplast have a double membrane, single and circular DNA, its own tRNA and ribosomes, and it replicates using binary fission. 
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