PSY - Final Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Fixed Interval Schedules
                                                               i.      Reinforces a response only after a specified time             has elapsed.
Working Memory (WM)
the loss of memory
Misinformation effect
a)      incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event
i)        defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
electrical activity in brain
Mirror Neurons
a.       Frontal lobe neurons (adjacent to brain’s motor cortex) that fire when performing certain actions (such as grasping, holding or tearing) or when observing another doing so. The brain’s mirroring of another’s action may enable imitation, language learning, empathy and theories of the mind.
observational learning
learning by watching others
sudden realization of a solution
activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
Ecstacy (MDMA): A synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen; produces euphoria and social intimacy (from 30 minutes to 3-4 hours), but with short-term health risks (dehydration, overheating, blood pressure increase, and death) and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition (depression; sleep disruption, immune system, memory and other cognitive functions); acts by triggering the release of dopamine (stimulant) but major effect is to release serotonin and block its reabsorption, thus prolonging serotonin’s feel-good flood.
Tolerance: The diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug’s effect.
- basic, instinctual energy that has a strong sexual component component.
Older workers have more experience than younger workers,
they are absent from work less than younger workers,
and they are more what?
Next-in-line effect
a)      worst memory for person who precedes you in introductions
a)      Measure of memory in which the person has only to identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test
Predictive validity
A.      The success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior (also called criterion-related validity). a.       IQ tests have less predictive validity at higher levels of education-as range is restricted, predictive power diminishes
Biological predispositions
Constrain capacity for operant conditioning                                      (pigeons can’t learn to flap wings for food, but will to avoid shock).
Circadian Rhythm
the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (e.g., temperature, wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle; Light influences circadian rhythm by activating light-sensitive retinal proteins, triggering signals to a brain region that controls the circadian clock (a center in the hypothalamus called the suprachiasmatic nucleus) to alter the production of biologically active substances, such as sleep-inducing melatonin (less melatonin released in AM and more released in PM).  Artificial light delays sleep (pushes to 25-hour rhythm); morning and evening types; older people more likely to be AM and teens/young adults to be PM.
- Libidinal energy could become _____ at a certain stage if a person experienced disagreeable experiences

Deficiency Needs
- 1. physiological
2. safety
Since the late 1960’s the proportion of U.S. older adults doing volunteer work has ________.

Compared to younger workers, the typical older workers are more what?
Is emotion-focused coping used more by older or younger adults?
older adults
What percentage of U.S. men and women 65 years of age and older have never married?
Triarchic theory of intelligence (Sternberg)
Analytical (academic problem-solving) intelligence—assessed by  intelligence tests, which present well-defined problems having a singleright answer
Creative intelligence—demonstrated in reacting adaptively to novel situations and generating novel ideas.   Practical intelligence—often required for everyday tasks, which are     frequently ill-defined, with multiple solutions.
Multiple intelligences (Gardner's Theory)
A.      8 intelligences -words, numbers, music, visual-spatial, physical, self, others and nature smarts.
two word stage
age 2; telegraphic speech; evidence of grammar.
The Widely used American revision (By terman at Stanford University) of Binet's origional intelligence test
Three Levels of Consciousness
- 1.conscious
Alfred Adler
- founded the school of individual psychology; believed that the inability to overcome a childhood sense of incompleteness results in an inferiority complex.
Locus of control
- tells where that responsibility is assigned.
A longitudinal study of older adults demonstrated that negative emotions such  as boredom, loneliness, and unhappiness decreased after what age?
age 60
What 3 choices about working are available to older adults?
A. early retirement
                                   B. retiring from one career to start another
   C. working part-time
What is the virtue gained during Erikson’s final stage?
applications for operant conditioning at work
a.       Reward specific behaviors not vaguely defined merit. (Ex. Profit-sharing – when company productivity increases, workers receive a positive reinforcement, such as bonus in paycheck).
Physical dependance
physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawls
Chomsky and language development
: Inborn Universal Grammar: Operant conditioning cannot explain                                     language acquisition – amount and complexity; many of the errors young children              make result from overgeneralizing logical grammatical rules (e.g., adding -ed to                                     make the past tense); all languages have the same grammatical building blocks                           (e.g., nouns); sign language also has grammar. Language Acquisition Device                                     (LAD): inborn grammatical rules activated by exposure to language; heritability of                         language supports Chomsky; new language learning get harder with age (after 7).
Rorschach Inkblot Technique
-contains 10 cards with ink blots on them.
Carl Jung
- proposed the idea of a collective unconscious inherited from humanity's ancestors (archetypes) and a personal unconscious. 
Older adult workers have been found to be better educated than those that retire, as well as being what?
in good health
 Residents in intermediate-care nursing homes who had higher self-esteem, less depression, and a greater sense of satisfaction with their lives were more likely than others to adjust well and be less likely to do what?
to die within four years
Since the late 1960s, has the proportion of older adults doing volunteer work increased or decreased?
increased greatly

·      What is Structuralism? Who developed it?

o   Structuralism: An approach to psychology based on the idea that conscious experience can be broken down into its basic underlying components or elements.
o   Edward Titchener
Environmental influences on intelligence
Fraternal twins more similar than sibs; Surprisingly, environmental influences (parents) decrease with age; deprivation clearly undermines intellectual development; limits to how much enrichment programs can increase intellect. Interacts with genes.
According to research cited in the text, couples who are still together in late adulthood are more likely than middle-aged couples to find what?
to find their marriage satisfying 

The loss of a loved one to Alzheimer’s disease, the loss of a child to drug addition, and the loss of a homeland are all examples of what kind of loss, according to Pauline Boss?
Ambiguous loss

·      What is Functionalism? Who developed it?

o   Functionalism: An approach to psychology concerned with the adaptive purpose, or function, of mind and behavior.
o   William James
Dan and Diane are retirees who spend much of their time visiting family and friends, watching television, and going to inexpensive restaurants with friends.
What kind of retirement lifestyle is this?
a family-focused retirement lifestyle

David has had trouble getting into his apartment building because the steps are too steep. He makes several complaints to the owner of the building until finally the owner installs a ramp, making entry easier.

What style of coping is this?
problem-focused style of coping
Banduras Bobo doll experiment
A child is place in a room, working on a drawing; at the other end of the room an adult is working with tinker-toys, but then gets up and for 10 minutes pounds, kicks and throws a large inflated Bobo doll around the room while yelling aggressive comments. After observing the adult outbreak, the experimenter takes a child into a room filled with many appealing toys, but after a few moments the experimenter interrupts the child’s play and explains that these “good toys are being saved for the other children.” (This creates frustration in the child) The experimenter then takes the frustrated child to another room with a few toys and a Bobo doll. The child who observes the adult outbreak tends to be more likely the lash out at the doll than children who did not observe the child’s outbreak (control group).   Bandura’s experiment shows how antisocial behavior can be learned by observational learning. Prosocial behavior can also be learned through observational behavior and modeling. (Ex. Mahatma Gandhi & MLK Jr. used modeling of nonviolent action a powerful force for social change.) However, models are most effective when words and actions are consistent. “Do as I say, not as I do.” Hypocrite – when exposed to a hypocrite, children tend to imitate the modeler by doing what they did and saying what they said; they model both behaviors.  
All of the following are problems faced by individuals who will be retiring early in the twenty-first century: there are too few younger workers contributing to Social Security; there is uncertainty about how well private pension funds will perform;
women often will receive smaller pensions than men

·      Who were the British empiricists? Why important?

o   John Locke, David Hume, and George Berkely
§  Believed that ALL knowledge comes from experience. People are born Tabula Rasa. 
Unit 6
SO 1
A. Why is interesting & surprising that behavioral procedure can reduce seizures
B. Why is that relaxation procedure such a systematic desensitization may be effective in reducing epileptic seizures
A. Because seizures themselves are not a behavioral problem
B. Epileptict seizures are brought upon stress
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