Psyc Final 5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Theories are...
initiative vs. guilt
study of endocrine system
Sensorimotor period, preoperational period, concrete operationla and formal operational are all stages of Jean Piaget's theories on ________________ development
ways of measuring ovet behaviors
a person's observable characteristics such as hair color 

On cones

One ganglion neuron receives input from few cones
association cortex
processing, sends signals to/from primary sensory/motor areas and subcortical structures
involved in thought. decision making, memroy, language, etc 
The brain's interpretation of raw sensory inputs. Processing of sensations to generate a meaningful interpretation of what the sensations represent.
ability to predict behaviors given knowledge of prior conditions
Spontaneous Recovery
Reappearance of an extinguished response after exposure to the original CS following a rest period
Type of parent in resistant attachment
Receptive field

Sensory receptors of nociceptive pathways (nociceptive neurons)

- Area covered by branching of nociceptive neurons
Environmental stimuli are sensed by neurons of PNS

Neurons of PNS send sensory information to neurons of the CNS

Neurons of the CNS process the information and send the feedback about the behavioral output to the PNS

Behavior is performed
adrenal glands
triggers fight or flight respone
Brain plasticity
brain's ability for other, undamaged parts to take over function of damaged area. --especially in young children
Broca's Area
Critical for language and speech production.
Cocaine may _____ symptoms of schizophrenia by _____ dopamine levels.
increase; increasing
How does the e biological perspective explain the development of abnormal behavior?
Conditioned Stimulus
taste of bread on the tongue
Substance Dependence
Consistent repeated routine over time; eventually leads to development of a tolerance and the presence of withdrawal symptoms when the drug is removed
Peripheral Route
Operates when we are either unmotivated to process the message or are unable to do so
Tonotopic Representation

Feature of the auditory cortex

- Neurons responding to same frequency of air pressure are organized in same region

- (similar to organization of visual cortex)

- Corresponds with representation of the basilar membrane
Positron Emisson Tomography (PET)
Heading: "Techniques for Imaging"


Radioactive tracer (ie, radioactive oxygen, glucose, NT precursor) used

Measure blood flow (rCBF) or distribution of a specific NT in brain
a proposed explanation whose status is still conjectural, in contrast to well-established propositions that are regarded as reporting matters of actual fact.
Rotter’s expectancy theory (including locus of control) and Bandura’s reciprocal determinism
Psychoanalytic theory: Freud's theory of personality, which holds that personality .... Locus of control: In Rotter's theory, one's general expectancies about whether one's ... Reciprocal determinism: Bandura's model in which cognitions, behaviors, ... including competencies, expectancies, and subjective values. .
Two Factor Theory
Theory proposing that emotions are produced by an undefined state of arousal along with an explanation of that arousal.
Timmy, the youngest child of a high school athletic director, was able to roll over at 3 months, crawl at 6 months, and walk at 12 months. This ordered sequence of motor development was largely due to:
A single survey question is known as an...
developed first intelligence test in 1905
Binet and Simon
Inoculation hypothesis-
The idea that exposure to weak versions of a persuasive argument increases later resistance to that argument
Antipsychotic drugs seem to produce their effects by ______ in the brain.
Blocking dopamine effects
Cones : M

One type of cone

534 nm

Perceived as GREEN
we automatically perceive whole, organized patterns and objects without needing to register their individual components separately
Triesman's Feature Integration Theory
conceptually related DV
different measures of the same construct (different questionnaires or items used to assess depression); same measure complete by different observers of the same target DV (self-rating and other rating of depression)
sunk cost effect
the willingness to do something we wouldn’t otherwise choose to do because of money or effort already spent.
The fact that human aggression varies widely from culture to culture most strongly suggests that it is not:
an instinctive behavior.
associative play
primary focus is on other person may not have organization, just associating with one another - they only want to socialize with each other not play: girls more than guys
what are archetypes?
innate concepts and memories -> ex: god, the hero, the good mother
memories that reside in the collective unconscious (Jung)
lateral inhibition
reduction of activity in one neuron by activity in neighboring neurons; function: sharpens contrast
1. Nociceptive Neuron

ONE (1 of 3) primary sites of action for Enkephalins

- Modulates release of excitatory neurotransmitter into synapse with T cell

Where are these receptors?
in noisy environments we attend to info that is relevant to the self
cocktail party effect
prefrontal cortex
an area in the anterior portion of the frontal lobes, critical for planning movements and for certain aspects of memory
prediction study
goal is to predict the value of 1 variable given level or another with the predictor variable often occuring before criterion variable
Chapter 11 - Objective 1

List the clinical features of the personality disorders and the problems associated with diagnosis
(P. 373, 409)

• distorted behavioural patters
• maladaptive perception, thoughts, and relations
• pervasive
• inflexible
• stable
• long duration
• 13% of pp'n meet criteria, at some point
• 3/4 of those dx also have an Axis-I disorder
• Even with structured interviews, reliability of diagnosing _____ disorders typically is less than ideal
• most researchers agree that dimensional approach for assessing _____ disorders would be preferable
• it is difficult to determin the causes of _____ disorders b/c most people with one _____ disorder have a comorbidity and most studies are retrospective.
Psychology- scientific study of behavior and mind
Behavior- actions, such as moving \tand gesturing as well as activities of cells within brain that can \tbe observed/ measured. This includes thoughts and feelingsMind- the contents and processes \tof brain
How might moderate depression, following a loss, be adaptive? (most of us experience a low mood/moderate depression @ some periods in our lives)
depressed mood slows us down >>> makes us thinking realistically rather than optimistically >>> leads us to turn away from goals that we can no longer hope to achieve & signals to others that we are no threat to them & need their help } soul-searching
What is the fourth principle of behavioral genetics?
This principle states that environmental events influence how and when genes are activated or deactivated.
What were the conclusions of Bruce Rind's research on the association between early sexual experiences and mental health in young adulthood?
• Correlations between childhood sexual abuse and alter problems were of surprisingly SMALL magnitude > not harmful
• After controlling for family problems > virtually ZERO (fam problems BIG PROB)
• incest and forced sex both associated with more problems than sex between nominally consenting nonrelated individuals
• Age at which CSA was experienced was unrelated to adult outcome
What are problems in single-parent households?
1. Many parents report frustration, guilt, ambivalence about children because they may serve as reminders of failed relationships and hinder new relationships
2. Financially, single mothers hardest hit
3. Emotionally, single fathers hardest hit (high rates of depression, problems with sleep, work, peers)
the loss in memory abilities that occurs as a result of damage to structures in the limbic system >>> unable to form new long-term memories- show greater loss of which type of explicit memory? why?
temporal-lobe amnesia >>> can still form & use all sorts of implicit memories
ex. H.M., Clive Wearing

- episodic memory bc EM relies more on the hippocampus
What is recall and recognition? Which one is more difficult?
Recall-being able to retrieve and reprodice info.Recognition-ability to identify info.Recall is more difficult
No tissue damage, but pain perception still occurs

How is pain of psychological origin concept-driven?
Having read the chapter, which of the following is best borne out by research on attraction?
Birds of a feather flock together.
How did Scott & Fuller show that the difference in fearfulness between cocker spaniels & basenji hounds is controlled by a single gene locus, w/ the "fear" allele dominant over the "non-fear" allele? >>> mistake to conclude that fear in dogs is caused by
crossbred cockers & basenji >>> offspring were like basenjis (showed fear) regardless of who raised them } effect stemmed from the hybrid dogs' genes
What are the 7 types of anxiety disorders and their prevalence?
1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder: 5% of adults, 2% of adults 65+ (17-21% show symptoms)
2. Panic Disorder: 1.5-3%, 15% have had panic attack
3. Agoraphobia: 5%; more common in older adults
4. Specific phobia: Most common in older adults
5. Social phobia: 3% of adults (13% symptoms)
6. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: 2%; 0.8% of 65+
What is the insula? What is its major function?
Def. Located in the cerebrum. Plays a major part in perception of senses, empathy and addictive behavior.
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